This paper analyses the demands for abolishing passports after WWI. The international regime of obligatory passports, as it exists today, is a legacy of the Great War. After the Armistice, two Passport Conferences organized by the League of Nations considered its abolition. Before the second conference, a resolution of the Sixth Assembly of the League of Nations stated that "public opinion is certainly waiting for at least one step towards the most generalized abolition of the passport system ". Was this (...) just a diplomatic figure of speech, or is there really such an "expectation" to be found, for instance, in the press? If there was such an expectation in the press, what was the political orientation of the newspapers in favor of abolishing passports: was it left-wing? This article analyzes a corpus of over 600 articles published in the French press between the World Wars to show, firstly, that interest in the "abolition of passports" was not circumstantial. It's not because the League of Nations is discussing it that the press is discussing it - the opposite is true. The issue of the "abolition of passports" gave rise to a greater number of articles than the League’s "passport conferences". secondly, and more surprisingly, the newspapers that published the most articles on the abolition of passports were center-right and mostly regional. (shrink)
Ở quy mô toàn cầu, giao thông vận tải là hoạt động tạo ra lượng khí thải nhà kính lớn thứ nhì trong tất cả các lĩnh vực, chiếm 16,52% tổng lượng khí thải nhà kính toàn cầu vào năm 2019, chỉ sau các hoạt động sản xuất điện và nhiệt, chiếm khoảng 31%.
Trong bài viết này chúng tôi trình bày thông tin đại cương về vai trò của nickel trong công nghiệp chế tạo giữa bối cảnh yêu cầu bảo vệ môi sinh trong đại nghị sự mục tiêu phát triển bền vững (SDG) của Liên Hợp Quốc ngày một cấp bách, đối diện với nguy cơ không thể hoàn thành. Các thông tin tóm lược ở đây được dẫn chiếu tới một số nhỏ các tài liệu tham khảo chính và không (...) thể đảm bảo tính trọn vẹn trong khuôn khổ một bài báo nhỏ. Những vấn đề đặt ra có tính tổng quát cho quan hệ môi sinh với việc khai khoáng, tách và tinh chế nickel nói chung trên thế giới. Vì thế, có thể thông tin trong bài không hoàn toàn trùng khớp với tình hình cụ thể của một địa phương trên trái đất, do đặc điểm địa lý, địa chất và kinh tế-công nghệ khác biệt. Bài viết tập trung xoay quanh nguyên lý quan hệ kinh tế-môi trường và ý nghĩa thực tiễn của cụm từ “bền vững” trong bối cảnh cụ thể của công nghiệp nickel. (shrink)
Quá trình chuyển đổi từ phương tiện chạy bằng nhiên liệu hóa thạch (xăng, dầu) sang phương tiện chạy bằng điện (EV) đại diện cho một thời kỳ mới, rất quan trọng trong lịch sử vận tải. Vào lúc này, khi thế giới vật lộn với những thách thức về biến đổi khí hậu, ô nhiễm không khí và trữ lượng nhiên liệu hóa thạch ngày càng cạn kiệt, việc chuyển đổi sang xe điện được coi là một bước quan (...) trọng hướng tới một tương lai bền vững hơn. (shrink)
This paper reports a study of the main key components of influence on the stability of transportation enterprises in the market. A model for evaluating the effectiveness of innovation activity in the transport industry, which takes into account indicators of expenditures on innovations, has been built. It makes it possible to determine the effectiveness of introduced innovations, which indicates the appropriate level of innovation potential and the ways that the enterprise must take to increase it. The main directions of innovative (...) development of transportation enterprises were investigated. The assessment of the economic stability of transportation enterprises in the market has established that the current state of development of enterprises is characterized by a weak level of their innovative activity. A systematic approach to the introduction of innovative technologies by a transportation enterprise in the market has been devised. This approach makes it possible to determine the required level of enterprise stability and to form a relationship between the level of innovative technologies and their stages of implementation under conditions of environmental variability. This makes it possible to increase competitive advantages, improve the efficiency of production and economic activity of enterprises. The practical implementation of the proposed model for evaluating the effectiveness of innovation activity in the transport industry has been carried out, which made it possible to allocate the most important indicators of innovation activity for the enterprise. These include specific efficiency of innovation; unit costs of innovation; innovative potential of the enterprise (defined as the proportion of own innovative developments). According to the study results, it is determined that the specific efficiency of innovations (SEI) exerts the greatest influence, which, with an increase by 1 %, provides an increase in financial stability by 1.48 %. (shrink)
“Mở đường” cho giao thông Tây Nguyên: Trong cuốn sách “Kinh tế Việt Nam-thăng trầm và đột phá” xuất bản gần 20 năm trước, các tác giả đã đưa ra mệnh đề rất quan trọng: “Muốn làm giàu thì phải làm đường”. (Nhân Dân; Thứ hai, ngày 05/12/2022).
In the context of climate change, this study uncovers the role of green airlines’ social responsibility in conjunction with the consumers’ switching behavior while considering the effects of latent variables, including green psychology, airline corporate image, green experimental behavior, green service fairness, green alternative attractiveness and switching intention, were examined in the study.
The article focuses on the study of specific characteristics of seaports development under conditions of digitalization. The article aims to study features of the development of the international seaport under digitalization to implement the best achievements in Ukraine. The main research method was a systemic-structural approach used to examine seaport digitalization as a part of a logistics chain, including horizontal and vertical links between its elements. To achieve an effective digital transformation, we also used the above method. It helped to (...) study how the factors determined during the study of international practices and possible innovations influence the object under study. The practices, which are of interest for Ukraine and other developing countries, were identified based on the international experience in seaports development under digitalization. The main strategic directions for the digital transformations of the above infrastructural objects were suggested. They involve increasing seaport competitiveness and their effectiveness in the framework of the international transport system. The directions are of interest for public authorities of the governmental and regional levels (while establishing the digitalization policy in the area of sea transport) and the port administrations (while making justified strategic decisions for their development). (shrink)
With the rapid development of information technology, the electricity consumption of Internet Data Centers (IDCs) increases drastically, resulting in considerable carbon emissions that need to be reduced urgently. In addition to the introduction of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), the joint use of the spatial migration capacity of IDC workload and the temporal flexibility of the demand of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs) provides an important means to change the carbon footprint of the IDC. In this paper, a sustainability improvement strategy (...) for the IDC carbon emission reduction was developed by coordinating the spatial-temporal dispatch flexibilities of the IDC workload and the EVCS demand. Based on the Minkowski sum algorithm, a generalized flexible load model of the EVCSs, considering traffic flow and Road Impedance (RI) was formulated. The case studies show that the proposed method can effectively increase the renewable energy consumption, reduce the overall carbon emissions of multi-IDCs, reduce the energy cost of the DCO, and utilize the EV dispatching potential. Discussions are also provided on the relationship between workload processing time delay and the renewable energy consumption rate. (shrink)
In this paper, we argue that solutions to normative challenges associated with autonomous driving, such as real-world trolley cases or distributions of risk in mundane driving situations, face the problem of reasonable pluralism: Reasonable pluralism refers to the fact that there exists a plurality of reasonable yet incompatible comprehensive moral doctrines within liberal democracies. The corresponding problem is that a politically acceptable solution cannot refer to only one of these comprehensive doctrines. Yet a politically adequate solution to the normative challenges (...) of autonomous driving need not come at the expense of an ethical solution, if it is based on moral beliefs that are (1) shared in an overlapping consensus and (2) systematized through public reason. Therefore, we argue that a Rawlsian justificatory framework is able to adequately address the normative challenges of autonomous driving and elaborate on how such a framework might be employed for this purpose. (shrink)
In the paper, the current state and trends of the use of AR technologies in the transport industry and in future specialists' vocational training processes have been reviewed and analyzed. The essence and content of the AR technologies relevant to the transport industry have been clarified. The main directions of the AR introduction for the various spheres of the transport industry including design and tuning, mechanical and automotive engineering, marketing and advertising, maintenance and operation, diagnostics and repair of cars have (...) been determined. The AR mobile apps market and the features of the mobile apps with AR have been outlined. The pedagogical terms of effective organizing the students' cognitive activity for transport industry via AR technologies have been determined and researched, namely: to provide each student with the position of an active actor of study and cognitive activity, to switch the study information in a mode of the project activity, the educational content professionalization and to teach students to use the modern ICT purposefully, to manage students' cognitive process by means of ICT. The methodology of using mobile apps with AR in students' vocational preparation process for the transport industry has been presented. It covers the system of educational tasks, updated content of lectures, practical and laboratory classes for specialized disciplines. (shrink)
The aim of the study is to develop theoretic and methodological recommendations and practical activities for the positive social, managerial, organizational and economic development of historical and cultural tourist destinations. In theoretical terms: the role of historical and cultural tourist destination in the development of the region has been established; the historical and cultural tourist destinations have been identified; the author’s classification of historical and cultural tourist destinations has been developed basing tourist visiting activeness; the author’s methodological approach to the (...) diagnosis and creating tools for development of historical and cultural tourist destinations, comprehensively taking into account resource and factor components, has been presented. In practical terms: variations of the activities aimed at the positive development of historical and cultural tourist destinations have been proposed; the description of measures aimed at the creation of a historical and cultural complex on the example of the designed historical and cultural complex “Stara Samar” has been given. The results of the study are applicable for a wide range of historical and cultural tourist attractions: territories, landscapes and elements of landscapes, historical settlements, parks, film studios, historical and cultural heritage sites, history and culture monuments, burial sites, places of worship, sites of social cultural infrastructure. The author’s recommendations provide obtaining commercial results and ensuring a social and cultural effect for businessmen, managers, local communities in the management of existing or in the creation of new historical and cultural tourist destinations. (shrink)
В статье определено содержание и особенности развития конфликтов на различных управленческих уровнях (личностном, микро-, мезо-, макро- и глобальном). Освещено, что возникновение международных конфликтов имеет различные причины, охватывает различные сферы и субъектов, а также многосторонние последствия (формирование проблем, вызовов, угроз, тенденций и рисков), идентификация которых может быть осуществлена по шести группам факторов: природные, биологические, технические, экономические, социальные, управленческие. Рассмотрена взаимосвязь международных конфликтов и развития туризма в странах. Предложена классификация групп стран по степени влияния международных конфликтов на туристическую активность в государстве: первая (...) группа – страны с большим влиянием международных конфликтов на туризм; вторая группа – страны со средним влиянием международных конфликтов на туризм; третья группа – страны с малым влиянием международных конфликтов на туризм; четвертая группа – страны, которые не принимают участия в международных конфликтах. (shrink)
Current local and national demographic trends have deepened the existing and formed new global demographic processes that have received a new historical reasoning that requires deep scientific research taking into account the influence of the multifactorial global dimension of the modern society development. The purpose of the article is to study the development of global demographic processes and to define the causes of their occurrence, manifestations, implications and prospects for implementation in the first half of the 21st century. The authors (...) have identified and characterized four global demographic processes, namely population growth, migration, increase of tourism, and change in population structure. It is projected that in the 30’s of the 21st century, the number and growth rates of the world population will reach the objective growth and these dynamics over the next two decades will begin to change in the direction of reducing the growth rates, which will lead to gradual stabilization, and eventually reduce the size of the world population. By the middle of the 21st century, one can observe the preservation of the growth rates of international and domestic migration, the growth of international migration flows from the South to the North and from the East to the West, the strengthening of new economically developed centers of gravity (Canada, Australia and New Zealand), the increase in migration of rural population to cities, as well as urbanization and activation of the metropolises development. The share of international tourists in comparison with the world population will be constantly increasing, and the annual growth rate of the number of international tourists will significantly depend on the world economy and may vary at the several percent level. Permanent change will occur in the age, religious-cultural and socio-economic structure of the population. (shrink)
The purpose of the paper is to determine the state of automotive corporations financial stability and to generalize the consequences of its violation for their activity and the global economy as a whole. Methods. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is the scientific works in the field of corporate finance management and strategic development that studied analyzing and evaluating the financial stability of corporate companies, maintaining their financial stability in the medium and long term, official statistics data of (...) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, financial statements of corporations Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan), Mercedes-Benz (Germany) and Tesla Motors (USA), own research results. The methodological basis of the study is a set of general scientific and special methods used to achieve the research goal: theoretical generalization, analysis and synthesis – in studying the content of scientific works on the research of financial stability of corporate companies and maintaining their financial stability; observation – to obtain primary information about the state of the world automotive market; the method of coefficient analysis and typing the situations – to assess the financial stability of automotive corporations; analytical – in determining the economic consequences of financial stability violation of automotive corporations; causation – to obtain final conclusions. Results. This article deals with the development of automotive industry in the world. The financial stability of leading automotive corporations is evaluated. The economic consequences of financial stability violation of automotive corporations are summarized. Financial strategies to improve the financial stability of automotive corporations are proposed. Practical value. The results of the study may be useful to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the financial management of Toyota Motor Corporation, Mercedes-Benz and Tesla Motors. Value / originality – the state of financial stability of automotive corporations is determined and the consequences of its violation for their activity and the world economy as a whole are generalized. Further research should be directed towards the development of project measures to improve the financial stability of automotive corporations in the world. (shrink)
A notorious controversy among historians refers to the issue of ‘technological determinism’ and the categories related to theoretical aspects of modernization. The ambivalence between instrumental, contextual and social approaches is obvious in these disputes. A justified answer to these problems may be that the mediators of technology are not simply channeling technology, but neither are the users passive consumers. Societies resist and eventually incorporate the new into the old, and their citizens selectively modify and use technologies to create new cultures (...) and new forms of modernisation. There is an interactive social construction which modifies technologies and new forms of artificial life. (shrink)
The building of the transcontinental railroad in the US Central West in the late 1860s greatly improved access to this region and led to the expansion of scientific field work. The relationships between science and the railroad spanned a diverse spectrum, ranging from its practical advantages to more complex interactions such as the transformation of nature along railway corridors and the reciprocal exchange of favours between scientists and railway companies. The dominance of science along the railroad in the second half (...) of the nineteenth century continued into the early twentieth century, with a gradual shift to automobile travel beginning in the 1910s. By stimulating and shaping field research both on and off the railway corridor, the laying of iron tracks across the continent helped guide US science, just as it influenced so many other aspects of US life. (shrink)
This work examines the development and performance of federal independent regulatory bodies in Canada in the period up to 1979, with particular attention to the operation of legislative schemes that include executive review and appeal powers. The author assesses the impact of the exercise of these powers on the administrative law process, and proposes new models for the generation, interpretation, implementation, review, and enforcement of regulatory policy. The study includes a series of representative case studies based on documentation and extensive (...) interviews with individuals drawn from government, agencies, and other parties, including counsel for public interest groups. This enables author, writing from her experience as a participant-observer embedded in the public interest legal sector, to draw on the experiences and perspectives of a broad range of participants in the regulatory process, including but not limited to those dealing with the regulated energy, transportation, communications, and foreign investment sectors. Legal principles identified as emergent in leading judicial decisions in administrative law are used to assess the powers and practices used in executive reviews and appeals. The author finds those powers and practices to be flawed and proposes changes. The proposed models are designed to accord with emerging legal principles and avoid flaws of the types identified in the review and appeal provisions. This work, written under contract with the Administrative Law Project of the Law Reform Commission of Canada, formed one part of a comprehensive study of administrative law at the federal level in Canada. (shrink)
It’s a Sunday morning and a sports analyst is doing a pre-game show highlighting how hard the stadium is to play in. The home-field fans continue to get more outrageous as they prepare for the start of the event. Meanwhile, the visiting team’s fans continue to disrupt the mood of the crowd in efforts to even the momentum. After some words are exchanged a fight breaks out. Home-field advantage has become more than just an idea. Today, it can often be (...) considered a strategic asset in the outcome of many sporting events. With the continued growth of importance on the notion of home-field advantage we have also seen an increase in sports-related violence and vandalism. We turn on our TV to see our favorite sports analysts talk about how callow and senseless these acts are, while hours earlier the same individuals are headlining the significance home-field advantage can have on a team, game, or series. TV, radio, and media networks often provoke the idea of upholding a country, city, or team’s reputation of maintaining such tough home-field “advantages”. This idea of keeping an intimidating home-field advantage can clearly cause an effect on the mindset of that same team’s fan base. As we have seen in the past this ripple effect can become negative. Instead of looking at the individuals committing these reckless and often violent acts I propose that we take a closer look at the influences the media imposes on the masses. We understand that these actions are committed by individuals, but we need to be aware of how and why the individuals choose to behave these ways. The media needs to be less contradicting with the arguments they are provoking us with. If you are going to feed the beast, don’t punish it for eating. (shrink)