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  1. Self-Trust and Critical Thinking Online: A Relational Account.Lavinia Marin & Samantha M. Copeland - manuscript
    An increasingly popular solution to the anti-scientific climate rising on social media platforms has been the appeal to more critical thinking from the user's side. In this paper, we zoom in on the ideal of critical thinking and unpack it in order to see, specifically, whether it can provide enough epistemic agency so that users endowed with it can break free from enclosed communities on social media (so called epistemic bubbles). We criticise some assumptions embedded in the ideal of critical (...)
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  2. Trusting the Scientific Community: The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Trust in Science.Matthew Slater -
    Trust in the scientific enterprise — in science as an institution — is arguably important to individuals’ and societies’ well-being. Although some measures of public trust in science exist, the recipients of that trust are often ambiguous between trusting individual scientists and the scientific community at large. We argue that more precision would be beneficial — specifically, targeting public trust of the scientific community at large — and describe the development and validation of such an instrument: the Scientific Community Trust (...)
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  3. Fairness and Trust in Game Theory.Daniel Hausman - manuscript
    an unpublished paper written in 1998-1999.
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  4. Trust and Planning.Matthew Smith - manuscript
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  5. Psychological Mechanism of Corruption: A Comprehensive Review. [REVIEW]Juneman Abraham, Julia Suleeman & Bagus Takwin - forthcoming - Asian Journal of Scientific Research.
    Corruption prevention can be more effective if it does not rely merely on legal enforcement. This theoretical review aimed to propose a hypothetical psychological model capable of explaining the behavior of corruption. Moral disengagement is a variable that is considered ontologically closest in “distance” to the variable of corruption behavior. Counterfeit self, implicit self-theory, ethical mindset and moral emotion are taken into account as the pivotal factors of the corruption behavior and its mechanism of moral disengagement. Counterfeit self along with (...)
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  6. Nietzsche on Trust and Mistrust.Mark Alfano - forthcoming - In Mark Alfano, David Collins & Iris Jovanovic (eds.), Perspectives on Trust in the History of Philosophy. Lexington.
    Nietzsche talks about trust [vertraue*] and mistrust [misstrau*] in all of his published and authorized works, from The Birth of Tragedy to Ecce Homo. He refers to trust in 90 passages and mistrust in 101 – approximately ten times as often as he refers to resentment/ressentiment. Yet the scholarly literature on Nietzsche and trust includes just a handful of publications. Worse still, I have been unable to find a single publication devoted to Nietzsche and mistrust. This chapter aims to fill (...)
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  7. Elections, Civic Trust, and Digital Literacy: The Promise of Blockchain as a Basis for Common Knowledge.Mark Alfano - forthcoming - Northern European Journal of Philosophy.
    Few recent developments in information technology have been as hyped as blockchain, the first implementation of which was the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Such hype furnishes ample reason to be skeptical about the promise of blockchain implementations, but I contend that there’s something to the hype. In particular, I think that certain blockchain implementations, in the right material, social, and political conditions, constitute excellent bases for common knowledge. As a case study, I focus on trust in election outcomes, where the ledger records (...)
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  8. Perspectives on Trust in the History of Philosophy.Mark Alfano, David Collins & Iris Jovanovic (eds.) - forthcoming - Lexington.
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  9. Trust and Distrust in Institutions and Governance.Mark Alfano & Nicole Huijts - forthcoming - In Judith Simon (ed.), Handbook of Trust and Philosophy. Routledge.
    First, we explain the conception of trustworthiness that we employ. We model trustworthiness as a relation among a trustor, a trustee, and a field of trust defined and delimited by its scope. In addition, both potential trustors and potential trustees are modeled as being more or less reliable in signaling either their willingness to trust or their willingness to prove trustworthy in various fields in relation to various other agents. Second, following Alfano (forthcoming) we argue that the social scale of (...)
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  10. Humility in Networks.Mark Alfano & Emily Sullivan - forthcoming - In Alessandra Tanesini, Michael Lynch & Mark Alfano (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Humility. Routledge.
    What do humility, intellectual humility, and open-mindedness mean in the context of inter-group conflict? We spend most of our time with ingroup members, such as family, friends, and colleagues. Yet our biggest disagreements —— about practical, moral, and epistemic matters —— are likely to be with those who do not belong to our ingroup. An attitude of humility towards the former might be difficult to integrate with a corresponding attitude of humility towards the latter, leading to smug tribalism that masquerades (...)
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  11. On the Uses and Abuses of Celebrity Epistemic Power.Alfred Archer, Mark Alfano & Matthew Dennis - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
    The testimonies of celebrities affect the lives of their many followers who pay attention to what they say. This gives celebrities a high degree of epistemic power, which has come under close scrutiny during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the duties that arise from this power. We argue that celebrities have a negative duty of testimonial justice not to undermine trust in authoritative sources by spreading misinformation or directing attention to untrustworthy sources. Moreover, celebrities have a general imperfect duty (...)
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  12. Experts, Public Policy and the Question of Trust.Maria Baghramian & Michel Croce - forthcoming - In Michael Hannon & Jeroen De Ridder (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology. London, UK: Routledge.
    This chapter discusses the topics of trust and expertise from the perspective of political epistemology. In particular, it addresses four main questions: (§1) How should we characterise experts and their expertise? (§2) How can non-experts recognize a reliable expert? (§3) What does it take for non-experts to trust experts? (§4) What problems impede trust in experts?
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  13. Skepticism and the Value of Distrust.Maria Baghramian & Silvia Panizza - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Faced with current urgent calls for more trust in experts, especially in high impact and politically sensitive domains, such as climate science and COVID-19, the complex and problematic nature of public trust in experts and the need for a more critical approach to the topic are easy to overlook. Scepticism – at least in its Humean mitigated form that encourages independent, questioning attitudes – can prove valuable to democratic governance, but stands in opposition to the cognitive dependency entailed by epistemic (...)
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  14. Why Trust a Simulation? Models, Parameters, and Robustness in Simulation-Infected Experiments.Florian J. Boge - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Computer simulations are nowadays often directly involved in the generation of experimental results. Given this dependency of experiments on computer simulations, that of simulations on models, and that of the models on free parameters, how do researchers establish trust in their experimental results? Using high-energy physics (HEP) as a case study, I will identify three different types of robustness that I call conceptual, methodological, and parametric robustness, and show how they can sanction this trust. However, as I will also show, (...)
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  15. The Significance of Epistemic Blame.Cameron Boult - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    One challenge in developing an account of the nature of epistemic blame is to explain what differentiates epistemic blame from mere negative epistemic evaluation. The challenge is to explain the difference, without invoking practices or behaviors that seem out of place in the epistemic domain. In this paper, I examine whether the most sophisticated recent account of the nature of epistemic blame—due to Jessica Brown—is up for the challenge. I argue that the account ultimately falls short, but does so in (...)
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  16. Accounting for Oneself in Teaching: Trust, Parrhesia, and Bad Faith.Alison M. Brady - forthcoming - Studies in Philosophy and Education:1-14.
    This paper seeks to reconceptualise the basis for trusting teachers in current educational discourses. It proposes moving away from trust based on ‘absolute accuracy’ to trust as encapsulated in the practice of parrhesia. On the surface, parrhesia appears to be the opposite of Sartre’s concept of ‘bad faith’. Paradoxically, however, our attempts to be sincere in our accounts are inevitably tainted by this. This paradox is especially evident in autobiographical writing, an activity that is both parrhesiastic in nature and susceptible (...)
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  17. The Trust Factor: Essays on the Current Crisis and Hope for the Future.Thom Brooks - forthcoming - London: Methuen.
    Trust is essential for our democracy. We trust our political leaders and institutions to put the public interest before their personal or partisan advantage. We trust each other to work and live together. No system is perfect and there is rarely one right answer to the big challenges faced, but we expect leaders to be honest, competent and compassionate – and punish any breaches harshly in the polls or the ballot box. But not any longer. Now is a time of (...)
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  18. Free Speech and the Legal Prohibition of Fake News.Étienne Brown - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    Western European liberal democracies have recently enacted laws that prohibit the diffusion of fake news on social media. Yet, many consider that such laws are incompatible with freedom of expression. In this paper, I argue that democratic governments have strong pro tanto reasons to prohibit fake news, and that doing so is compatible with free speech. First, I show that fake news disrupts a mutually beneficial form of epistemic dependence in which members of the public are engaged with journalists. Second, (...)
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  19. In Torlak We (Would) Trust: Domestic Vaccine Production in Contemporary Serbia.Marija Brujić - forthcoming - Medical Humanities:medhum-2021-012212.
    Throughout the era of socialist Yugoslavia, the Institute of Virology, Vaccines and Sera ‘Torlak’ in Belgrade was a well known producer and exporter of vaccines. After the dissolution of the country, it gradually lost its significance in both global and domestic vaccine markets. However, in Serbian public discourse, Torlak’s vaccines are still remembered as of the highest quality. Many people would willingly vaccinate themselves or their children with Torlak’s vaccines. But how do overly positive Yugoslav vaccination experiences influence vaccination narratives (...)
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  20. Therapeutic Trust.J. Adam Carter - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-24.
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  21. Trust, Distrust, and Testimonial Injustice.J. Adam Carter & Daniella Meehan - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-11.
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  22. Do We Have a Trust Problem? Exploring Undergraduate Student Views on the Tentativeness and Trustworthiness of Science.William W. Cobern, Betty A. J. Adams, Brandy A.-S. Pleasants, Andrew Bentley & Robert Kagumba - forthcoming - Science & Education.
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  23. It Takes a Village to Trust Science: Towards a (Thoroughly) Social Approach to Public Trust in Science.Gabriele Contessa - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-26.
    In this paper, I distinguish three general approaches to public trust in science, which I call the individual approach, the semi-social approach, and the social approach, and critically examine their proposed solutions to what I call the problem of harmful distrust. I argue that, despite their differences, the individual and the semi-social approaches see the solution to the problem of harmful distrust as consisting primarily in trying to persuade individual citizens to trust science and that both approaches face two general (...)
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  24. Moral Disagreement, Self-Trust, and Complacency.Garrett Cullity - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    For many of the moral beliefs we hold, we know that other people hold moral beliefs that contradict them. If you think that moral beliefs can be correct or incorrect, what difference should your awareness of others’ disagreement make to your conviction that you, and not those who think otherwise, have the correct belief? Are there circumstances in which an awareness of others’ disagreement should lead you to suspend a moral belief? If so, what are they, and why? This paper (...)
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  25. Understanding the Change and Development of Trust and the Implications for New Leaders.Kurt T. Dirks, Patrick J. Sweeney, Nikolaos Dimotakis & Todd Woodruff - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    Leaders, particularly new leaders, seek to establish high levels of trust, as it has been associated with higher levels of effectiveness and group outcomes. This study is designed to understand how trust changes and develops for leaders in a new role and the implications of that change. Although calls for research on trust over time have been made for the past 2 decades, our knowledge of this phenomenon is still quite limited. The findings indicate that leader and unit performance is (...)
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  26. Trust-Building Interventions to Home-Dwelling Persons with Dementia Who Resist Care.Åshild Gjellestad, Trine Oksholm, Herdis Alvsvåg & Frøydis Bruvik - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973302110417.
    Background: Providing care for a home-dwelling person with dementia who resists care is an ethical and practical complex and challenging task. Faced with a growing number of persons with dementia, the healthcare professional’s understanding of how to best care for and prevent unnecessary use of coercion with persons with dementia is of key importance. Research aim: The aim of this study was to explore the use of trust-building interventions in home-dwelling persons with dementia resisting care, as described by health professionals (...)
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  27. Forthcoming in Ethical Theory and Moral Practice when Monitoring Facilitates Trust.Emma C. Gordon - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    It is often taken for granted that monitoring stands in some kind of tension with trusting — especially three-place trust, but sometimes also two-place trust. Using a case study involving relationship breakdown, repair, and formation, I will argue there are some ways in which monitoring can be conducive to two-place trust, and to instances of three-place trust that are likely to be repeated over time—especially when previously established two-place trust has broken down. The result, I hope, is not any kind (...)
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  28. When Monitoring Facilitates Trust.Emma C. Gordon - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    It is often taken for granted that monitoring stands in some kind of tension with trusting — especially three-place trust, but sometimes also two-place trust. Using a case study involving relationship breakdown, repair, and formation, I will argue there are some ways in which monitoring can be conducive to two-place trust, and to instances of three-place trust that are likely to be repeated over time—especially when previously established two-place trust has broken down. The result, I hope, is not any kind (...)
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  29. Correction to: When Monitoring Facilitates Trust.Emma C. Gordon - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-1.
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  30. Climate Change and Cultural Cognition.Daniel Greco - forthcoming - In Philosophy and Climate Change.
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  31. Experts: What Are They and How Can Laypeople Identify Them?Thomas Grundmann - forthcoming - In Jennifer Lackey & Aidan McGlynn (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, I survey and assess various answers to two basic questions concerning experts: (1) What is an expert?; (2) How can laypeople identify the relevant experts? These questions are not mutually independent, since the epistemology and the metaphysics of experts should go hand in hand. On the basis of our platitudes about experts, I will argue that the prevailing accounts of experts such as truth-linked, knowledge-linked, understanding-linked or service-oriented accounts are inadequate. In contrast, I will defend an evidence-linked (...)
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  32. Ecological Zoos and the Limits of the Public Trust Doctrine.Derek Halm - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-18.
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  33. Accountability as a Warrant for Trust: An Experiment on Sanctions and Justifications in a Trust Game.Kaisa Herne, Olli Lappalainen, Maija Setälä & Juha Ylisalo - forthcoming - Theory and Decision.
    Accountability is present in many types of social relations; for example, the accountability of elected representatives to voters is the key characteristic of representative democracy. We distinguish between two institutional mechanisms of accountability, i.e., opportunity to punish and requirement of a justification, and examine the separate and combined effects of these mechanisms on individual behavior. For this purpose, we designed a decision-making experiment where subjects engage in a three-player trust game with two senders and one responder. We ask whether holding (...)
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  34. Trust and Contracting: Evidence from Church Sex Scandals.Gilles Hilary & Sterling Huang - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-22.
    Firms located in communities in which people are, on average, more trusting enjoy some benefits in terms of the power of CEO contracts. We present two pieces of empirical evidence to support this claim: higher average trust in a county is associated with “flatter” executive contracts and when an exogenous shock occurs, both trust and contracting move in similar directions. We obtain the first result in a panel specification and the second in a “difference-in-difference” specification that uses the revelation of (...)
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  35. Understanding the Problem of “Hype”: Exaggeration, Values, and Trust in Science.Kristen Intemann - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-16.
    Several science studies scholars report instances of scientific “hype,” or sensationalized exaggeration, in journal articles, institutional press releases, and science journalism in a variety of fields. Yet, how “hype” is being conceived varies. I will argue that hype is best understood as a particular kind of exaggeration, one that explicitly or implicitly exaggerates various positive aspects of science in ways that undermine the goals of science communication in a particular context. This account also makes clear the ways that value judgments (...)
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  36. Faith.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Faith is a trusting commitment to someone or something. Faith helps us meet our goals, keeps our relationships secure, and enables us to retain our commitments over time. Faith is thus a central part of a flourishing life. -/- This article is about the philosophy of faith. There are many philosophical questions about faith, such as: What is faith, and what are its main components or features? What are the different kinds of faith? What’s the relationship between faith and other (...)
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  37. The Primacy of Hope in Human Flourishing.Anne Jeffrey & Krista Mehari - forthcoming - The Monist.
    We advance an argument that the virtue of hope holds pride of place in development of psychological traits that promote one’s flourishing. We define hope, the virtue, as the disposition to envision future good possibilities for oneself and one’s community and to move towards those possibilities. Our argument is partly theoretical and partly empirical. On the theoretical side, we show that hope is not simply one virtue among many, but rather, hope is a necessary condition for the development of other (...)
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  38. Trust and Belief.Arnon Keren - forthcoming - In Judith Simon (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Trust and Philosophy. New York, USA: pp. 109-120.
    One fundamental divide among philosophers studying the nature of trust concerns the relation between trust and belief. According to doxastic accounts of trust, trust entails a belief about the trustee: either the belief that she is trustworthy with respect to what she is trusted to do, or that she will do what she is trusted to do. Non-doxastic accounts deny that trusting entails holding such a belief. The chapter describes and evaluates the main considerations which have been cited for and (...)
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  39. Poverty has a Powerful Impact on Educational Attainment, or, Don't Trust Ed. Trust.S. Krashen - forthcoming - Substance.
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  40. The Problem with Trust: On the Discursive Commodification of Trust in AI.Steffen Krüger & Christopher Wilson - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    This commentary draws critical attention to the ongoing commodification of trust in policy and scholarly discourses of artificial intelligence and society. Based on an assessment of publications discussing the implementation of AI in governmental and private services, our findings indicate that this discursive trend towards commodification is driven by the need for a trusting population of service users to harvest data at scale and leads to the discursive construction of trust as an essential good on a par with data as (...)
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  41. Not Only Why but Also How to Trust Science: Reshaping Science Education Based on Science Studies for a Better Post-Pandemic World.Nathan Willig Lima & Matheus Monteiro Nascimento - forthcoming - Science & Education.
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  42. The Role of Ethical Trustworthiness in Shaping Trust and Affective Commitment in Schools.A. Lleo, P. Ruiz-Palomino, M. Guillen & E. Marrades-Pastor - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior:1-23.
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  43. Exploring the roles of trust and social group preference on the legitimacy of algorithmic decision-making vs. human decision-making for allocating COVID-19 vaccinations.Marco Lünich & Kimon Kieslich - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-19.
    In combating the ongoing global health threat of the COVID-19 pandemic, decision-makers have to take actions based on a multitude of relevant health data with severe potential consequences for the affected patients. Because of their presumed advantages in handling and analyzing vast amounts of data, computer systems of algorithmic decision-making are implemented and substitute humans in decision-making processes. In this study, we focus on a specific application of ADM in contrast to human decision-making, namely the allocation of COVID-19 vaccines to (...)
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  44. The Role of Decision Authority and Stated Social Intent as Predictors of Trust in Autonomous Robots.Joseph B. Lyons, Sarah A. Jessup & Thy Q. Vo - forthcoming - Wiley: Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  45. Why Think for Yourself?Jonathan Matheson - forthcoming - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology:1-19.
    Life is a group project. It takes a village. The same is true of our intellectual lives. Since we are finite cognitive creatures with limited time and resources, any healthy intellectual life requires that we rely quite heavily on others. For nearly any question you want to investigate, there is someone who is in a better epistemic position than you are to determine the answer. For most people, their expertise does not extend far beyond their own personal lives, and even (...)
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  46. Skeptical Arguments and Deep Disagreement.Guido Melchior - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-25.
    This paper provides a reinterpretation of some of the most influential skeptical arguments, Agrippa’s trilemma, meta-regress arguments, and Cartesian external world skepticism. These skeptical arguments are reasonably regarded as unsound arguments about the extent of our knowledge. However, reinterpretations of these arguments tell us something significant about the preconditions and limits of persuasive argumentation. These results contribute to the ongoing debates about the nature and resolvability of deep disagreement. The variety of skeptical arguments shows that we must distinguish different types (...)
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  47. Wissenschaft in ‚Unordnung‘? - Gefiltertes Wissen und die Glaubwürdigkeit der Wissenschaft.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Nicola Mößner & Klaus Erlach (eds.), Kalibrierung der Wissenschaft – Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis. Bielefeld, Germany: transcript.
    Untersucht wird die These, dass die zunehmende Digitalisierung wissenschaftlicher Arbeitsprozesse einen nicht zu vernachlässigenden Einfluss auf das Problem des Vertrauensverlustes in wissenschaftliche Expertise ausüben kann. Zwar bieten die digitalen Medien einerseits die Möglichkeit, transparent über wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse zu berichten und dabei auch vielfältige Positionen zu beleuchten. Andererseits zeigt sich, dass die gegenwärtigen Instrumente der Wissenschaftskommunikation gerade diese Erwartungen nicht erfüllen. Letzteres wird mittels eines Fallbeispiels der Umgestaltung wissenschaftlicher Publikationsprozesse durch Datenbanken wie z.B. Scopus detailliert analysiert.
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  48. Werte, Wahrheit, Wissenschaft.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In R. Rothenbusch & Oliver Wiertz (eds.), Umstrittene Wahrheit. Die Frage nach der Wahrheit in Philosophie und Religionen. Munich, Germany:
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  49. Kalibrierung der Wissenschaft – Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis.Nicola Mößner & Klaus Erlach (eds.) - forthcoming - Bielefeld, Germany: transcript.
    Datafizierung, Publizierung, Metrisierung – unter diesen Stichpunkten untersuchen die AutorInnen des vorliegenden Bandes die Auswirkungen der zunehmenden Digitalisierung auf die Erzeugung, Auswahl, Bereitstellung und Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis. Wie wird Wissen aus den Weiten des digitalen Raums herausgefiltert? Wie wird es generiert? Was wird als Wissen verfügbar gemacht – und was nicht? Wie und von wem wird das digital erfasste Wissen evaluiert? Diese den Wissenschaftsbetrieb herausfordernden Fragen diskutieren ExpertInnen aus Philosophie, Informations- und Bibliothekswissenschaft sowie Informatik. Ihre Beiträge reflektieren in kritischer und (...)
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  50. Exploring the Role of Trust in Scientists to Explain Health-Related Behaviors in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic.Ebru Zeynep Muğaloğlu, Zeynep Kaymaz, Muhammet Emin Mısır & Canan Laçin-Şimşek - forthcoming - Science & Education.
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1 — 50 / 992