About this topic
Summary Harry Potter is a wizard. But there aren't any wizards. Of course, Harry Potter is a fictional wizard. How are we to account for such fictional truths? Two apparent constraints are that fictions can be impossible, so that it can be fictionally true that something impossible happened, and they can be incomplete, so that neither P nor not-P are true according to the fiction. Some fictional truths seem to be told to us by the narrator, but others are left implicit. How are the implicit truths generated? And do we want to count everything told to us by a narrator as true in the fiction; can't there be unreliable narrators? Finally, is it correct to speak of truth here at all? This depends on substantive assumptions in the philosophy of language.
Key works Lewis 1978 defends a possible worlds semantics of truth in fiction. It is not clear whether Lewis's account provides and adequate treatment of impossible fictions (see Priest 1997 ). Moreover, his account seems to overgenerate fictional truths. In response to these and other problems, Currie 1990 develops an account in terms of a fictional narrator. It is not straightfoward to apply Currie's account to non-literary fictions. Further, Currie provides no explicit account of how the fictional truths are generated. Walton 1990 thinks that we can provide rules of thumb, but is sceptical that we can provide a systematic account of truth in fiction.
Introductions Woodward 2011 provides a short overview. Sainsbury 2009 is a book-length introduction to a variety of issues in the philosophy of fiction.
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  1. Fictional Reality.Kyle Blumberg & Ben Holguín - manuscript
    This paper defends a theory of fictional truth. According to this theory, there is a fact of the matter concerning the number of hairs on Sherlock Holmes' head, and likewise for any other meaningful question one could ask about what's true in a work of fiction. We argue that a theory of this form is needed to account for the patterns in our judgments about attitude reports that embed fictional claims. We contrast our view with one of the dominant approaches (...)
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  2. Literary Girls, by K*thleen St*ck: chapter 5, realism.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In this paper, I present a pastiche of Kathleen Stock responding to Raymond Tallis’s defence of realism. It is followed by a note in which I briefly explain why I have approached this task by means of pastiche.
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  3. Fanfiction, Canon, and Possible Worlds.Sara L. Uckelman - manuscript
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  4. On the Irreducibility of Attitudinal Imagining.Alon Chasid - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy:1-33.
    This paper argues against the view, proposed in Langland-Hassan (2020), that attitudinal imaginings are reducible to basic folk-psychological attitudes such as judgments, beliefs, desires, decisions, or combinations thereof. The proposed reduction fails because attitudinal imaginings, though similar to basic attitudes in certain respects, function differently than basic attitudes. I demonstrate this by exploring two types of cases: spontaneous imaginings, and imaginings that arise in response to fiction, showing that in these cases, imaginings cannot be identified with basic attitudes. I conclude (...)
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  5. Canon and Cultural Negotiation.Darren Hudson Hick & Craig Derksen - forthcoming - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
    By questions of “canon,” we mean questions of what is fictionally true of some character, story, or world. What is canon is treated as authoritative or official, usually by creators and fans alike. But disputes about canon have arisen as storytellers and publishers have sought to capitalize on the popularity of their characters, churning out more and more stories to meet public demand, and at the same time engaging with growing fan bases. As audiences have become more involved, and as (...)
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  6. Fiction and Political Theory.Roger D. Spegele - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  7. Recovering Fictional Content and Emotional Engagements with Fiction.Emine Hande Tuna - forthcoming - Analysis.
  8. "Is It From Your Life? Did This Really Happen?": Amit Chaudhuri’s Acknowledgement of the Autobiographical.Paul Deb - 2024 - In Life Writing, Representation and Identity: Global Perspectives. London: Routledge.
    Of the various forms of life writing with which the present collection is concerned, I want in this chapter to devote my attention to the genre of the memoir (and so the autobiographical), and its relation to the seemingly sharply contrasting literary genre of the novel (insofar as the former is understood as a mode of writing concerned with the recounting of the facts or reality of a particular human life, and the latter is understood as concerned only with the (...)
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  9. Ambifictional Counterfactuals.Andrew D. Bassford - 2023 - Philosophies 8 (6):108.
    In this paper, I argue that David Lewis’s possible world semantics for counterfactual discourse and for fictional discourse are apparently inconsistent and in need of revision. The problem emerges for Lewis’s account once one considers how to evaluate ambifictional counterfactuals. Since this is likely not a concept familiar to most, and since it does not appear that the problem has been previously recognized in the critical literature, I will begin by rehearsing Lewis’s possible worlds semantics for counterfactuals and fiction. Then (...)
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  10. The semantics of fiction.Manuel García-Carpintero - 2023 - Mind and Language 38 (2):604-618.
    The paper reviews proposals by Abell, Predelli, and others on the semantics of fiction, focusing on the discourse through which fictions are created. Predelli develops the radical fictionalism of former writers like Kripke and van Inwagen, on which that discourse is contentless and does not express propositions. This paper offers reasons to doubt these claims. It then explores realist proposals like Abell’s in which singular terms in fictions refer to fictional characters, understood as socially created representational artifacts, and irrealist alternatives (...)
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  11. The Status of Video Games as Self-Involving Interactive Fictions: Fuzzy Intervals and Hard Identifications.Kristina Šekrst - 2023 - Sic: Journal of Literature, Culture and Literary Translation 3.
    The goal of this paper is to see how mental and language representations are unique from a video-game perspective, using two main criteria. First, I will posit that the level of being both an interactive work of fiction and a self-involving interactive fiction belongs to a fuzzy interval and that some works – and, therefore, some video games – are more immersive than others. Second, I will observe how propositions tie the player’s representations of the real world and the game (...)
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  12. Coping with imaginative resistance.Daniel Altshuler & Emar Maier - 2022 - Journal of Semantics 39 (2):523-549.
    We propose to characterize imaginative resistance as the failure or unwillingness of the reader to take a fictional description of a deviant reality at face value. The goal of the paper is to explore how readers deal with such a breakdown of the default Face Value interpretation strategy. We posit two distinct interpretative ‘coping’ strategies which help the reader engage with the resistance-inducing fiction by attributing the offending content to one of the fictional characters. We present novel empirical evidence that (...)
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  13. “Did This Really Happen?”: Amit Chaudhuri’s Acknowledgement of the Autobiographical.Paul Deb - 2022 - Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics, 44 (4):194-203.
    In a recent online lecture, the acclaimed novelist Amit Chaudhuri responded to an accusation that has greeted his fiction since the start of his literary career: that since, as he openly admits, his novels contain people and events that are drawn from his own life, they are better thought of as thinly disguised memoirs—as not really novels at all. In this paper, I discuss this charge by drawing on an account by the philosopher Stephen Mulhall of the work of another (...)
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  14. «Koryo» (cuento).Jesús Miguel Delgado Del Aguila - 2022 - Leteo: Revista de Investigación y Producción En Humanidades 3 (5):102-103.
    Este es un cuento de creación literaria.
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  15. Predelli on Fictional Discourse.Manuel García-Carpintero - 2022 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 80 (1):83-94.
    John Searle argues that fictions are constituted by mere pretense—by the simulation of representational activities like assertions, without any further representational aim. They are not the result of sui generis, dedicated speech acts of a specific kind, on a par with assertion. The view had earlier many defenders, and still has some. Stefano Predelli enlists considerations derived from Searle in support of his radical fictionalism. This is the view that a sentence of fictional discourse including a prima facie empty fictional (...)
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  16. ‘Truth in Fiction’ Reprised.Manuel García-Carpintero - 2022 - British Journal of Aesthetics 62 (2):307-324.
    The paper surveys recent appraisals of David Lewis’s seminal paper on truth in fiction. It examines variations on standard criticisms of Lewis’s account, aiming to show that, if developed as Lewis suggests in his 1983 Postscript A, his proposals on the topic are—as Hanley puts it—‘as good as it gets’. Thus elaborated, Lewis’s account can resist the objections, and it offers a better picture of fictional discourse than recent resurrections of other classic works of the 1970s by Kripke, van Inwagen (...)
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  17. The Trade between Fiction and Reality: Smuggling across Imagination and the World.Wolfgang Huemer, Daniele Molinari & Valentina Petrolini - 2022 - Discipline Filosofiche 32 (2):191-213.
    The current debate on literary cognitivism in the philosophy of fiction typically assumes that we can rigorously distinguish between fictional and factual, and focuses on the question of whether and how works of fiction can impart propositional knowledge to the reader. In this paper we suggest that this way of framing the debate may be problematic. We argue that works of fiction almost inevitably include a reference to the real world and that – contrary to what is usually assumed – (...)
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  18. Don't Feed the Liars! On Fraudulent Memoirs, and Why They're Bad.Joshua Landy - 2022 - Philosophy and Literature 46 (1):137-161.
    Some infamous memoirs have turned out to be chock-full of fibs. Should we care? Why not say—as many have—that all autobiography is fiction, that accurate memory is impossible, that we start lying as soon as we start narrating, and that it doesn’t matter anyway, since made-up stories are just as good as true ones? Because, well, every part of that is misleading. First, we don’t misremember absolutely everything; second, we have other sources to draw on; third, story form affects only (...)
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  19. Fictions that Purport to Tell the Truth.Neri Marsili - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (2):509-531.
    Can fictions make genuine assertions about the actual world? Proponents of the ‘Assertion View’ answer the question affirmatively: they hold that authors can assert, by means of explicit statements that are part of the work of fiction, that something is actually the case in the real world. The ‘Nonassertion’ View firmly denies this possibility. In this paper, I defend a nuanced version of the Nonassertion View. I argue that even if fictions cannot assert, they can indirectly communicate that what is (...)
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  20. Fictional Modality and the Intensionality of Fictional Contexts.Sara L. Uckelman - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Logic 19 (4):124-132.
    In, Kosterec attempts to provide ``model-theoretic proofs'' of certain theses involving the normal modal operators $\Diamond$ and $\square$ and the truth-in-fiction operator $F$ which he then goes on to show have counterexamples in Kripke models. He concludes from this that the embedding of modal logic under the truth-in-fiction operator is unsound. We show instead that it is the ``model-theoretic proofs'' that are themselves unsound, involving illicit substitution, a subtle error that nevertheless allows us to draw an important conclusion about intensional (...)
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  21. Truth in Fiction: Rethinking its Logic, by John Woods, Springer, 2018. [REVIEW]Andrew Aberdein - 2021 - Philosophia 49 (2):873-881.
    A review of John Woods, Truth in Fiction: Rethinking its Logic. Cham: Springer, 2018.
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  22. Ontological Pluralism about Non-Being.Sarah Bernstein - 2021 - In Sara Bernstein & Tyron Goldschmidt (eds.), Non-being: New Essays on the Metaphysics of Nonexistence. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-16.
    I develop ontological pluralism about non-being, the view that there are multiple ways, kinds, or modes of non-being. I suggest that the view is both more plausible and defensible than it first seems, and that it has many useful applications across a wide variety of metaphysical and explanatory problems. After drawing out the relationship between pluralism about being and pluralism about non-being, I discuss quantificational strategies for the pluralist about non-being. I examine historical precedent for the view. Finally, I suggest (...)
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  23. Truth in Fiction, Underdetermination, and the Experience of Actuality.Mark Bowker - 2021 - British Journal of Aesthetics 61 (4):437-454.
    It seems true to say that Sherlock Holmes is a detective, despite there being no Sherlock Holmes. When asked to explain this fact, philosophers of language often opt for some version of Lewis’s view that sentences like ‘Sherlock Holmes is a detective’ may be taken as abbreviations for sentences prefixed with ‘In the Sherlock Holmes stories …’. I present two problems for this view. First, I provide reason to deny that these sentences are abbreviations. In short, these sentences have aesthetic (...)
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  24. Belief-Like Imagining and Correctness.Alon Chasid - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (2):147-160.
    This paper explores the sense in which correctness applies to belief-like imaginings. It begins by establishing that when we imagine, we ‘direct’ our imaginings at a certain imaginary world, taking the propositions we imagine to be assessed for truth in that world. It then examines the relation between belief-like imagining and positing truths in an imaginary world. Rejecting the claim that correctness, in the literal sense, is applicable to imaginings, it shows that the imaginer takes on, vis-à-vis the imaginary world, (...)
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  25. Not by Imaginings Alone: On How Imaginary Worlds Are Established.Alon Chasid - 2021 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 7 (2):195-212.
    This article explores the relation between belief-like imaginings and the establishment of imaginary worlds (often called fictional worlds). After outlining the various assumptions my argument is premised on, I argue that belief-like imaginings, in themselves, do not render their content true in the imaginary world to which they pertain. I show that this claim applies not only to imaginative projects in which we are instructed or intend to imagine certain propositions, but also to spontaneous imaginative projects. After arguing that, like (...)
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  26. Learning from Fiction to Change our Personal Narratives.Andrew J. Corsa - 2021 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 21 (61):93-109.
    Can fictional literature help us lead better lives? This essay argues that some works of literature can help us both change our personal narratives and develop new narratives that will guide our actions, enabling us to better achieve our goals. Works of literature can lead us to consider the hypothesis that we might beneficially change our future-oriented, personal narratives. As a case study, this essay considers Ben Lerner’s novel, 10:04, which focuses on humans’ ability to develop new narratives, and which (...)
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  27. Fictionality in Imagined Worlds.Stacie Friend - 2021 - In Sonia Sedivy (ed.), Art, Representation, and Make-Believe: Essays on the Philosophy of Kendall L. Walton. New York: Routledge. pp. 25-40.
    What does it mean for a proposition to be "true in a fiction"? According to the account offered by Kendall Walton in Mimesis as Make-Believe (1990), what is fictionally true, or simply fictional, is what a work of fiction invites or prescribes that we imagine. To say that it is fictional that Okonkwo kills Ikemefuna in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, for example, is to say that we are supposed to imagine that event. Yet Walton gives no account of the (...)
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  28. A New Class of Fictional Truths.Hannah H. Kim - 2021 - The Philosophical Quarterly 72 (1):90-107.
    It is widely agreed that more is true in a work of fiction than explicitly said. In addition to directly stipulated fictional content (explicit truth), inference and background assumptions give us implicit truths. However, this taxonomy of fictional truths overlooks an important class of fictional truth: those generated by literary formal features. Fictional works generate fictional content by both semantic and formal means, and content arising from formal features such as italics or font size are neither explicit nor implicit: not (...)
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  29. Extracting fictional truth from unreliable sources.Emar Maier & Merel Semeijn - 2021 - In Emar Maier & Andreas Stokke (eds.), The Language of Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    A fictional text is commonly viewed as constituting an invitation to play a certain game of make-believe, with the individual sentences written by the author providing the propositions we are to imagine and/or accept as true within the fiction. However, we can’t always take the text at face value. What narratologists call ‘unreliable narrators’ may present a confused or misleading picture of the fictional world. Meanwhile there has been a debate in philosophy about so-called ‘imaginative resistance’ in which we are (...)
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  30. The Language of Fiction.Emar Maier & Andreas Stokke (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together new research on fiction from the fields of philosophy and linguistics. Fiction has long been a topic of interest in philosophy, but recent years have also seen a surge in work on fictional discourse at the intersection between linguistics and philosophy of language. In particular, there has been a growing interest in examining long-standing issues concerning fiction from a perspective that is informed both by philosophy and linguistic theory. -/- Following a detailed introduction by the editors, (...)
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  31. Blurred lines: How fictional is pornography?Aidan McGlynn - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (4):e12721.
    Many pornographic works seem to count as works of fiction. This apparent fact has been thought to have important implications for ongoing controversies about whether some pornography carries problematic messages and so influences the attitudes (and perhaps even the behaviour) of its audience. In this paper, I explore the claim that pornographic works are fictional and the significance that this claim has for these issues, with a particular focus on pornographic films. Two related morals will emerge. First, we need to (...)
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  32. Impossible Fictions Part I: Lessons for Fiction.Daniel Nolan - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (2):1-12.
    Impossible fictions are valuable evidence both for a theory of fiction and for theories of meaning, mind and epistemology. This article focuses on what we can learn about fiction from reflecting on impossible fictions. First, different kinds of impossible fiction are considered, and the question of how much fiction is impossible is addressed. What impossible fiction contributes to our understanding of "truth in fiction" and the logic of fiction will be examined. Finally, our understanding of unreliable narrators and unreliable narration (...)
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  33. Impossible Fiction Part II: Lessons for Mind, Language and Epistemology.Daniel Nolan - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (2):1-12.
    Abstract Impossible fictions have lessons to teach us about linguistic representation, about mental content and concepts, and about uses of conceivability in epistemology. An adequate theory of impossible fictions may require theories of meaning that can distinguish between different impossibilities; a theory of conceptual truth that allows us to make useful sense of a variety of conceptual falsehoods; and a theory of our understanding of necessity and possibility that permits impossibilities to be conceived. After discussing these questions, strategies for resisting (...)
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  34. Is There Such A Thing As Quixotic Virtue?Vicky Roupa - 2021 - In Garry L. Hagberg (ed.), Fictional Worlds and the Moral Imagination. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Quixote is a caricature of a knight errant; steeped into his fictional heroes, he undertakes to revive a tradition long dead, and in the process leaves behind some unforgettable images of knightly virtue turned sour. This caricature, however, is not simply a ploy meant to arouse laughter, but also an occasion to revisit the emphasis on knowledge and good sense with which virtue has been aligned in the Socratic/Platonic tradition. The challenge Quixote represents concerns the relation between reasoning and the (...)
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  35. Truth in Fiction & Natural Stories: About an argument.Guillaume Schuppert - 2021 - Debates in Aesthetics 1 (17):31-49.
    The nature of fiction is commonly understood in terms of make-believe. Within this framework, there has been a debate between fictive intentionalism and fictive anti-intentionalism. In this paper, my purpose is to make a case for the latter. To do so, I reassess the debate over Kendall Walton’s (1990) ‘Cracks in a Rock’ thought experiment. I put forward a careful reconstruction of its most popular reply, namely Gregory Currie’s (1990) pseudofiction counterargument, and argue that it is either incomplete or unsound. (...)
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  36. Fiction and Common Ground.Merel Semeijn - 2021 - Dissertation,
    The main aim of this dissertation is to model the different ways in which we use language when we engage with fiction. This main aim subdivides itself into a number of puzzles. We all know that dragons do not exist. Yet, when I read the Harry Potter novels, I do accept the existence of dragons. How do we keep such fictional truths separate from ‘ordinary’ non-fictional truths? What is the difference between Tolkien writing down all sorts of falsities, and a (...)
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  37. Glitches as fictional (mis)communication.Nele Van de Mosselear & Nathan Wildman - 2021 - In Timothy Barker & Maria Korolkova (eds.), Miscommunication: Error, mistakes, media. Bloomsbury. pp. 300-315.
    Here, we focus on the underexplored fictional relevance of videogame glitches. For this purpose, we will make use philosophical theories on fiction, as well as standard suggestions about how best to deal with unintended errors within fiction. Focusing on glitches like that of Red Dead Redemption’s "manimals", we argue that glitches, more than any kinds of mistakes in traditional, non-interactive fictions, can actually have a significant influence on the fictional worlds of the work in which they appear. In particular, we (...)
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  38. Fictional reports.Pål Fjeldvig Antonsen - 2020 - Synthese:1-14.
    This paper outlines a bicontextual account of fictional reports. A fictional report is a report on something that happens in a fiction, and a bicontextual account is an account that relativizes truth to two contexts. The proposal is motivated by two considerations. First, it explains the intuitive truth conditions of fictional reports without postulating hidden fiction operators. Second, it handles the problem of indexicals in fictional reports better than the standard accounts.
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  39. Close Reading, Epistemology, and Affect: Nabokov after Rorty.Doug Battersby - 2020 - Philosophy and Literature 44 (2):323-349.
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  40. Taxonomía e incorporación de la violencia en la novela policial peruana contemporánea.Jesús Miguel Delgado Del Aguila - 2020 - Cuadernos de Literatura Del Caribe E Hispanoamérica 32 (32):122-137.
    Este artículo periodiza y desarrolla los paradigmas concomitantes de la novela policial, para extrapolarlos en un contexto peruano incipiente con textos que cumplen con los requisitos indispensables denominarse de ese modo. La violencia resulta un elemento inexorable para la eficacia receptiva y su tratamiento creativo, además del conocimiento de tópicos afines, como Derecho, Política, Sociología, Fuerzas Policiales, etc. Para ello, se corroborará con la definición de este género (como lo fundamenta principalmente Tzvetan Todorov) y la taxonomía hegemónica de sus subgéneros: (...)
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  41. A Family Meal as Fiction.Josep E. Corbi - 2020 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 27:82-105.
    at seek to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for a work to count as fiction. She argues that this goal cannot really be achieved; instead, she appeals to the notion of genre to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction. This notion is significantly more flex- ible, since it invites us to identify standard—but not necessary—and counter-standard features of works of fiction in light of our classificatory practices. More specifically, Friend argues that the genre of fiction has the genre of nonfiction—and (...)
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  42. Co‐Identification and Fictional Names.Manuel García-Carpintero - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (1):3-34.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  43. Apt Imaginings: Feelings for Fictions and Other Creatures of the Mind.Jonathan Gilmore - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    How do our engagements with fictions and other products of the imagination compare to our experiences of the real world? Are the feelings we have about a novel's characters modelled on our thoughts about actual people? If it is wrong to feel pleasure over certain situations in real life, can it nonetheless be right to take pleasure in analogous scenarios represented in a fantasy or film? Should the desires we have for what goes on in a make-believe story cohere with (...)
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  44. Revising Fiction, Fact, and Faith: A Philosophical Account.Nathaniel Gavaler Goldberg & Chris Gavaler - 2020 - New York: Routledge. Edited by Chris Gavaler.
    This book addresses how our revisionary practices account for relations between texts and how they are read. It offers an overarching philosophy of revision concerning works of fiction, fact, and faith, revealing unexpected insights about the philosophy of language, the metaphysics of fact and fiction, and the history and philosophy of science and religion. It will be of interest to a wide range of scholars and advanced students working in philosophy of language, metaphysics, philosophy of literature, literary theory and criticism, (...)
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  45. Fictional Discourse: A Radical Fictionalist Semantics By Stefano Predelli. [REVIEW]Thomas Hodgson - 2020 - Analysis 80 (4):834-836.
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  46. Sherlock Is Law Abiding.Dominic McIver Lopes - 2020 - Journal of Applied Logics 7 (2):171-176.
    An approach to the semantics of fiction that uses the tools of truth relativism provides an alternative to Meinongian and pretence-based approaches. The approach is consistent with the deep motivations of John Wood's Truth in Fiction.
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  47. Ordinary Unhappiness: The Therapeutic Fiction of David Foster Wallace. By JonBaskin. Pp. ix, 179, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 2019, $22.00/£17.99. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):584-584.
  48. Imaginative Resistance and Modal Knowledge.Daniel Nolan - 2020 - Res Philosophica 97 (4):661-685.
    Readers of fictions sometimes resist taking certain kinds of claims to be true according to those fictions, even when they appear explicitly or follow from applying ordinary principles of interpretation. This "imaginative resistance" is often taken to be significant for a range of philosophical projects outside aesthetics, including giving us evidence about what is possible and what is impossible, as well as the limits of conceivability, or readers' normative commitments. I will argue that this phenomenon cannot do the theoretical work (...)
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  49. Weird Fiction: A Catalyst for Wonder.Jan B. W. Pedersen - 2020 - Wonder, Education and Human Flourishing: Theoretical, Emperical and Practical Perspectives.
    One of the vexed questions in the philosophy of wonder and indeed education is how to ensure that the next generation harbours a sense of wonder. Wonder is important, we think, because it encour- ages inquiry and keeps us as Albert Einstein would argue from ‘being as good as dead’ or ‘snuffed-out candles’ (Einstein 1949, 5). But how is an educator to install, bring to life, or otherwise encourage a sense of wonder in his or her stu- dents? Biologist Rachel (...)
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  50. How Literature Delivers Knowledge and Understanding, Illustrated by Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Wharton’s Summer.Rik Peels - 2020 - British Journal of Aesthetics 60 (2):199-222.
    Some philosophers, like Alex Rosenberg, claim that natural science delivers epistemic values such as knowledge and understanding, whereas, say, literature and, according to some, literary studies, merely have aesthetic value. Many of those working in the field of literary studies oppose this idea. But it is not clear exactly how works of literary art embody knowledge and understanding and how literary studies can bring these to the light. After all, literary works of art are pieces of fiction, which suggests that (...)
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