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  1. An Ethical Analysis of Vaccinating Children Against COVID-19: Benefits, Risks, and Issues of Global Health Equity [Version 2; Peer Review: 1 Approved, 1 Approved with Reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  2. Priority Vaccination for Mental Illness, Developmental or Intellectual Disability.Nina Shevzov-Zebrun & Arthur L. Caplan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2021-107247.
    Coronavirus vaccines have made their debut. Now, allocation practices have stepped into the spotlight. Following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, states and healthcare institutions initially prioritised healthcare personnel and elderly residents of congregant facilities; other groups at elevated risk for severe complications are now becoming eligible through locally administered programmes. The question remains, however: who else should be prioritised for immunisation? Here, we call attention to individuals institutionalised with severe mental illnesses and/or developmental or intellectual disabilities—a group highly (...)
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  3. ‘A Remedy for This Dread Disease’: Achille Sclavo, Anthrax and Serum Therapy in Early Twentieth-Century Britain.James F. Stark - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Science:1-20.
    In the years around 1900 one of the most significant practical consequences of new styles of bacteriological thought and practice was the development of preventive vaccines and therapeutic sera. Historical scholarship has highlighted how approaches rooted in the laboratory methods of Robert Koch, Louis Pasteur and their collaborators were transformed in local contexts and applied in diverse ways to enable more effective disease identification, prevention and treatment. Amongst these, the anti-anthrax serum developed by the Italian physician Achille Sclavo has received (...)
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  4. Clinical Ethics: Consent for Vaccination in Children.Dominic Wilkinson & Antonia McBride - forthcoming - Archives of Disease in Childhood.
    The prospect of vaccinating children and young people (CYP) against COVID raises questions that apply more widely to vaccination in children. When can CYP consent, on their own, for vaccination? What should happen if children and their parents disagree about the desirability of a vaccine? When, if ever, should vaccination proceed despite a child’s dissent or apparent refusal? A range of ethical dilemmas may arise. (Box 1) In this article, we will address general ethical issues relating to consent for vaccination, (...)
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  5. The Role of General Attitudes and Perceptions Towards Vaccination on the Newly-Developed Vaccine: Results From a Survey on COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in China.Rize Jing, Hai Fang, Hufeng Wang & Jiahao Wang - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    BackgroundVaccination has been considered one of the most effective public health interventions. In the context of the global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019, it remains unclear what role general vaccination attitudes and perceptions have on the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine.ObjectiveThis study aims to explore the impact of general attitudes and perceptions toward vaccination on the acceptance of a newly developed vaccine, taking COVID-19 vaccines as an example.MethodA cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,013 Chinese adult participants. Generalized order logistic regression and (...)
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  6. Listening to Vaccine Refusers.Kaisa Kärki - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):3-9.
    In bioethics vaccine refusal is often discussed as an instance of free riding on the herd immunity of an infectious disease. However, the social science of vaccine refusal suggests that the reasoning behind refusal to vaccinate more often stems from previous negative experiences in healthcare practice as well as deeply felt distrust of healthcare institutions. Moreover, vaccine refusal often acts like an exit mechanism. Whilst free riding is often met with sanctions, exit, according to Albert Hirschman’s theory of exit and (...)
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  7. COVID-19 Vaccination Behavior Among Frontline Healthcare Workers in Pakistan: The Theory of Planned Behavior, Perceived Susceptibility, and Anticipated Regret.Muhammad Khayyam, Shuai Chuanmin, Muhammad Asad Salim, Arjumand Nizami, Jawad Ali, Hussain Ali, Nawab Khan, Muhammad Ihtisham & Raheel Anjum - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Healthcare workers in Pakistan are still fighting at the frontline to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 and have been identified as the earliest beneficiaries for COVID-19 vaccination by the health authorities of the country. Besides, the high vaccination rates of frontline healthcare workers are essential to overcome the ongoing pandemic and reduce the vaccines hesitancy among the general population. The current research employed the theory of planned behavior to investigate the COVID-19 vaccination behavior among FHWs in (...)
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  8. Understanding Islamic Law in the Context of Vaccination: Reducing the Doubt Cast on COVID-19 Vaccines.Kosim Kosim - 2022 - HTS Theological Studies 78 (4).
    One solution to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 is getting vaccinated. The promotion of vaccines through religion helps to control the pandemic. One of the causes of doubts about vaccination in society is religious understanding. Vaccination has an important correlation with Islamic law or Islamic jurisprudence. This research aims to analyse the effect of understanding Islamic law on doubts about vaccination. This research used quantitative pre-experimental designs. The research sample consisted of 160 people who were not vaccinated. The (...)
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  9. Ethics of Vaccine Refusal.Michael Kowalik - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics (48):240-243.
    Proponents of vaccine mandates typically claim that everyone who can be vaccinated has a moral or ethical obligation to do so for the sake of those who cannot be vaccinated, or in the interest of public health. I evaluate several previously undertheorised premises implicit to the ‘obligation to vaccinate’ type of arguments and show that the general conclusion is false: there is neither a moral obligation to vaccinate nor a sound ethical basis to mandate vaccination under any circumstances, even for (...)
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  10. Against COVID‐19 Vaccination of Healthy Children.Steven R. Kraaijeveld, Rachel Gur-Arie & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (6):687-698.
  11. The Joint Effects of Social Norm Appeals and Fear Appeals in COVID-19 Vaccine Campaign Posters on Self-Perceived Communication Quality and Vaccination Intention.Jiawei Liu, Xiaobing Yang, Yanqin Lu & Xia Zheng - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    To understand how different types of cues in vaccine education messages affect attitude toward campaign messages and vaccination intention, this study examined the impact of the presence of social norm appeals and the presence of fear appeals in coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine campaign posters on perceived communication quality and vaccination intention. A 2 × 2 × 3 within-subject factorial design experiment was conducted in China. Findings demonstrated that the presence of fear appeals in COVID-19 vaccine campaign posters elicited lower levels (...)
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  12. Case for Persuasion in Parental Informed Consent to Promote Rational Vaccine Choices.Jennifer O'Neill - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):106-111.
    There have been calls for mandatory vaccination legislation to be introduced into the UK in order to tackle the national and international rise of vaccine-preventable disease. While some countries have had some success associated with mandatory vaccination programmes, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health insist this is not a suitable option for the UK, a country which has seen historical opposition to vaccine mandates. There is a lack of comprehensive data to demonstrate a direct link between mandatory vaccination (...)
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  13. COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal and Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.Govind Persad & Emily A. Largent - 2022 - JAMA Health Forum 3 (4):e220356.
    When hospitals face surges of patients with COVID-19, fair allocation of scarce medical resources remains a challenge. Scarcity has at times encompassed not only hospital and intensive care unit beds—often reflecting staffing shortages—but also therapies and intensive treatments. Safe, highly effective COVID-19 vaccines have been free and widely available since mid-2021, yet many Americans remain unvaccinated by choice. Should their decision to forgo vaccination be considered when allocating scarce resources? Some have suggested it should, while others disagree. We offer a (...)
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  14. COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters for All Adults: An Optimal U.S. Approach?Ameet Sarpatwari, Ankur Pandya, Emily P. Hyle & Govind Persad - 2022 - Annals of Internal Medicine 175 (2):280–282.
    By 20 October 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had amended its Emergency Use Authorizations for immunocompetent adults who previously received the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines. For the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, the FDA permitted a single booster dose for adults aged 65 years or older and adults aged 18 to 64 years at high-risk for severe COVID-19 or at high risk for occupational or institutional COVID-19 exposure. For the single-dose Johnson & Johnson (...)
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  15. Love Thy Neighbour? Allocating Vaccines in a World of Competing Obligations.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):20-20.
    Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equitable global distribution. We argue that limited national partiality in allocating vaccines will be a component of justice rather than an obstacle to it. For there (...)
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  16. Phantom Premise and a Shape-Shifting Ism: Reply to Hassoun.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11).
    In ‘Against vaccine nationalism’, Nicole Hassoun misrepresents our argument, distorts our position and ignores crucial distinctions we present in our article, ‘Love thy neighbor? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations’. She has created a strawman that does not resemble our position. In this reply, we address two features of ‘Against vaccine nationalism’. First, we address a phantom premise. Hassoun misattributes to us a thesis, according to which citizen-directed duties are stronger than noncitizen-directed duties. This thesis is a figment (...)
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  17. COVID-19 Pandemic Worry and Vaccination Intention: The Mediating Role of the Health Belief Model Components.Claudia I. Iacob, Daniela Ionescu, Eugen Avram & Daniel Cojocaru - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Given the negative consequences of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on public health, his study aimed at investigating: the differences between adults with and without chronic illness in buying behavior, vaccination intention, pandemic worry, and the health belief model components; the HBM components as mediators of the relationship between pandemic worry and vaccination intention. The sample consisted of 864 adults, of which 20.5% reported having a chronic illness. Associations between pandemic worry, vaccination intention, and HBM were ascertained using correlation and mediation (...)
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  18. Vaccine Ethics: An Ethical Framework for Global Distribution of COVID-19 Vaccines.Nancy S. Jecker, Aaron G. Wightman & Douglas S. Diekema - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):308-317.
    This paper addresses the just distribution of vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and sets forth an ethical framework that prioritises frontline and essential workers, people at high risk of severe disease or death, and people at high risk of infection. Section I makes the case that vaccine distribution should occur at a global level in order to accelerate development and fair, efficient vaccine allocation. Section II puts forth ethical values to guide vaccine distribution including helping people with the greatest need, (...)
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  19. Eating Meat and Not Vaccinating: In Defense of the Analogy.Ben Jones - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):135-142.
    The devastating impact of the COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is prompting renewed scrutiny of practices that heighten the risk of infectious disease. One such practice is refusing available vaccines known to be effective at preventing dangerous communicable diseases. For reasons of preventing individual harm, avoiding complicity in collective harm, and fairness, there is a growing consensus among ethicists that individuals have a duty to get vaccinated. I argue that these same grounds establish an analogous duty to avoid buying and (...)
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  20. COVID-19, Contagion, and Vaccine Optimism.Kelly McGuire - 2021 - Journal of Medical Humanities 42 (1):51-62.
    Steven Soderbergh’s Contagion positions the vaccine as the end point of the arc of ​pandemic, marking both the containment of an elusive virus and ​the resumption of a life not fundamentally different from ​before the disease outbreak. ​The film reinforces the ​assumption that a pandemic will awaken ​all of us to the urgency of vaccination​, persuading us to put aside our reservations and anxieties ​and the idea that compliance is the inevitable outcome of quarantine. This article explores how pro-vaccination cultural (...)
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  21. Using Selected Data-Mining Methods in the Analysis of Data Concerning the Attitudes of Students Towards the Issue of Vaccination.Anna Justyna Milewska, Karolina Milewska & Marcin Milewski - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (3):549-559.
    Preventive vaccination is one of the greatest successes of modern medicine. The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, during which vaccination is the main method of prevention against death and severe disease, gave rise to a resurgence of anti-vaccine movements. The aim of this study was to analyse the attitudes of students towards vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical analysis was performed with the use of the following data-mining methods: correspondence analysis and basket analysis. The obtained results show that students of medicine are (...)
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  22. Fair Allocation at COVID-19 Mass Vaccination Sites.William F. Parker, Govind Persad & Monica E. Peek - 2021 - JAMA Health Forum 2 (4):e210464.
    We propose 4 equity-advancing operational improvements to eligibility and sign-up processes at mass vaccination sites: (1) preregistration using existing information, (2) eligibility rules that recognize the greater burden of COVID-19 in underserved neighborhoods, (3) appointment assignment that prioritizes those with disadvantage, and (4) socioculturally informed outreach to lottery selectees.
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  23. Allocating Medicine Fairly in an Unfair Pandemic.Govind Persad - 2021 - University of Illinois Law Review 2021 (3):1085-1134.
    America’s COVID-19 pandemic has both devastated and disparately harmed minority communities. How can the allocation of scarce treatments for COVID-19 and similar public health threats fairly and legally respond to these racial disparities? Some have proposed that members of racial groups who have been especially hard-hit by the pandemic should receive priority for scarce treatments. Others have worried that this prioritization misidentifies racial disparities as reflecting biological differences rather than structural racism, or that it will generate mistrust among groups who (...)
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  24. Ethical Considerations of Offering Benefits to COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients.Govind Persad & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2021 - JAMA 326 (3):221-222.
    We argue that the ethical case for instituting vaccine benefit programs is justified by 2 widely recognized values: (1) reducing overall harm from COVID-19 and (2) protecting disadvantaged individuals. We then explain why they do not coerce, exploit, wrongfully distort decision-making, corrupt vaccination's moral significance, wrong those who have already been vaccinated, or destroy willingness to become vaccinated. However, their cost impacts and their effects on public perception of vaccines should be evaluated.
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  25. Off-Label Prescription of COVID-19 Vaccines in Children: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Issues.Govind Persad, Holly Fernandez Lynch & Patricia J. Zettler - 2021 - Pediatrics 2021:e2021054578.
    We argue that the universal recommendations against “off-label” pediatric use of approved COVID-19 issued by the FDA, CDC, and AAP are overbroad. Especially for higher-risk children, vaccination can be ethically justified even before FDA authorization or approval – and similar reasoning is relevant for even younger patients. Legal risks can also be managed, although the FDA, CDC, and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) should move quickly to provide clarity.
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  26. The Case for Tracking Misinformation the Way We Track Disease.Joe Smyser, Jennifer Sittig & Erika Bonnevie - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    While public health organizations can detect disease spread, few can monitor and respond to real-time misinformation. Misinformation risks the public’s health, the credibility of institutions, and the safety of experts and front-line workers. Big Data, and specifically publicly available media data, can play a significant role in understanding and responding to misinformation. The Public Good Projects uses supervised machine learning to aggregate and code millions of conversations relating to vaccines and the COVID-19 pandemic broadly, in real-time. Public health researchers supervise (...)
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  27. Non-Epistemic Values in Shaping the Parameters for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Candidate Vaccines: The Case of an Ebola Vaccine Trial.Joby Varghese - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-15.
    This paper examines the case of Ebola, ça Suffit trial which was conducted in Guinea during Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in 2015. I demonstrate that various non-epistemic considerations may legitimately influence the criteria for evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of a candidate vaccine. Such non-epistemic considerations, which are social, ethical, and pragmatic, can be better placed and addressed in scientific research by appealing to non-epistemic values. I consider two significant features any newly developed vaccine should possess; the duration of immunity (...)
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  28. Can One Both Contribute to and Benefit From Herd Immunity?Lucie White - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (2).
    In a recent article, Ethan Bradley and Mark Navin (2021) argue that vaccine refusal is not akin to free riding. Here, I defend one connection between vaccine refusal and free riding and suggest that, when viewed in conjunction with their other arguments, this might constitute a reason to mandate Covid-19 vaccination.
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  29. Improving Evolution Advocacy: Translating Vaccine Interventions to the Evolution Wars.Thomas Aechtner - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):27-51.
    When considering the persuasive characteristics and prospective influences of Darwin‐skeptic mass media, uncertainties remain about how to reciprocally promote evolutionary theory to skeptical audiences. This study aims to improve evolution advocacy by translating some of the most successful methods of science endorsement to Evolution Wars contexts. In particular, strategies used to address vaccine hesitancies and enhance immunization uptake policies are reinterpreted for those seeking to improve pro‐evolution communications to religious publics. What results are three recommendation categories described as General Guiding (...)
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  30. Framing Messages for Vaccination Supporters.Sacha Altay & Hugo Mercier - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 26 (4):567-578.
    Efficiently communicating information on vaccination is crucial to maintaining a high level of immunization coverage, but it implies finding the right content for the right audience. Provaccination individuals, who represent the majority of the population, and who have been neglected in the literature, could play an important role relaying provaccination messages through informal discussions, if only these messages are (a) found plausible, (b) remembered, and (c) shared. We conducted 7 experiments on 2,761 provaccination online participants (United States and United Kingdom), (...)
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  31. Risk of Disease and Willingness to Vaccinate in the United State: A Population-Based Survey.Bert Baumgaertner, Benjamin J. Ridenhour, Florian Justwan, Juliet E. Carlisle & Craig R. Miller - 2020 - Plos Medicine 10 (17).
    Vaccination complacency occurs when perceived risks of vaccine-preventable diseases are sufficiently low so that vaccination is no longer perceived as a necessary precaution. Disease outbreaks can once again increase perceptions of risk, thereby decrease vaccine complacency, and in turn decrease vaccine hesitancy. It is not well understood, however, how change in perceived risk translates into change in vaccine hesitancy. -/- We advance the concept of vaccine propensity, which relates a change in willingness to vaccinate with a change in perceived risk (...)
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  32. The United States Should Consider Compulsory SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination.Margaret Bove - 2020 - Voices in Bioethics 6.
    As we face this unprecedented epidemic, researchers are racing to develop a cure and find ways to prevent more infections in the future. Yet, with so much uncertainty about the future of this virus, the current absence of an effective therapy,[i] and limited research on natural immunity to the disease through direct exposure,[ii] it seems the only certainty is that a vaccine could be a solution. Several laboratories across a multitude of countries have begun to develop a vaccine[iii] for SARS-CoV-2 (...)
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  33. An Ethical Framework for Global Vaccine Allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  34. Pox Parties for Grannies? Chickenpox, Exogenous Boosting, and Harmful Injustices.Heidi Malm & Mark Christopher Navin - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9):45-57.
    Some societies tolerate or encourage high levels of chickenpox infection among children to reduce rates of shingles among older adults. This tradeoff is unethical. The varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both chickenpox and shingles. After people recover from chickenpox, VZV remains in their nerve cells. If their immune systems become unable to suppress the virus, they develop shingles. According to the Exogenous Boosting Hypothesis (EBH), a person’s ability to keep VZV suppressed can be ‘boosted’ through exposure to active chickenpox infections. (...)
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  35. Reasons to Accept Vaccine Refusers in Primary Care.Mark Christopher Navin, Jason Adam Wasserman & Douglas Opel - 2020 - Pediatrics 6 (146):e20201801.
    Vaccine refusal forces us to confront tensions between many values, including scientific expertise, parental rights, children’s best interests, social responsibility, public trust, and community health. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable and emerging infectious diseases have amplified these issues. The prospect of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine signals even more friction on the horizon. In this contentious sociopolitical landscape, it is therefore more important than ever for clinicians to identify ethically justified responses to vaccine refusal.
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  36. Fairly Prioritizing Groups for Access to COVID-19 Vaccines.Govind Persad, Monica E. Peek & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2020 - JAMA 1 (16).
    Initial vaccine allocations for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will be limited. It is crucial to assess the ethical values associated with different methods of allocation, as well as important scientific and practical questions. This Viewpoint identifies three ethical values, benefiting people and limiting harm; prioritizing disadvantaged populations; and equal concern for all. It then explains why these values support prioritizing three groups: health care workers; other essential workers and people in high-transmission settings; and people with medical vulnerabilities associated with (...)
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  37. What Society Can and Cannot Learn From Coherence: Theoretical and Practical Considerations.Niki Pfeifer & Andrea Capotorti - 2020 - In H. Yama & V. Salvano-Pardieu (eds.), Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society. Hershey, PA, USA: pp. 176-198.
    Society is facing uncertainty on a multitude of domains and levels: usually, reasoning and decisions about political, economic, or health issues must be made under uncertainty. Among various approaches to probability, this chapter presents the coherence approach to probability as a method for uncertainty management. The authors explain the role of uncertainty in the context of important societal issues like legal reasoning and vaccination hesitancy. Finally, the chapter presents selected psychological factors which impact probabilistic representation and reasoning and discusses what (...)
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  38. Human Challenge Trials for a COVID-19 Vaccine.Victor Chidi Wolemonwu - 2020 - Voices in Bioethics 6.
    Photo by CDC on Unsplash INTRODUCTION Safe and effective vaccines are yet to be developed and distributed for the treatment of the virus that causes COVID-19. “Vaccine trials are notoriously lengthy, with optimistic estimates of 12 to 18 months to vaccine rollout.”[1] Safe and effective vaccine development within the shortest possible time requires adopting a medical research strategy like human challenge trials. A few weeks ago, experts in the fields of bioethics, philosophy, medicine, computer sciences - some of whom are (...)
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  39. Childhood Vaccination Mandates: Scope, Sanctions, Severity, Selectivity, and Salience.Katie Attwell & Mark Christopher Navin - 2019 - Milbank Quarterly 97 (4):978–1014.
    Context In response to outbreaks of vaccine‐preventable disease and increasing rates of vaccine refusal, some political communities have recently implemented coercive childhood immunization programs, or they have made existing childhood immunization programs more coercive. Many other political communities possess coercive vaccination policies, and others are considering developing them. Scholars and policymakers generally refer to coercive immunization policies as “vaccine mandates.” However, mandatory vaccination is not a unitary concept. Rather, coercive childhood immunization policies are complex, context‐specific instruments. Their legally and morally (...)
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  40. Uncertainty: How It Makes Science Advance.Kostas Kampourakis & Kevin McCain - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Scientific knowledge is the most solid and robust kind of knowledge that humans have because of its inherent self-correcting character. Nevertheless, anti-evolutionists, climate denialists, and anti-vaxxers, among others, question some of the best-established scientific findings, making claims unsupported by empirical evidence. A common aspect of these claims is reference to the uncertainties of science concerning evolution, climate change, vaccination, and so on. This is inaccurate: whereas the broad picture is clear, there will always exist uncertainties about the details of the (...)
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  41. Trust in Health Care and Vaccine Hesitancy.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 68:105-122.
    Health care systems can positively influence our personal decision-making and health-related behavior only if we trust them. I propose a conceptual analysis of the trust relation between the public and a healthcare system, drawing from healthcare studies and philosophical proposals. In my account, the trust relation is based on an epistemic component, epistemic authority, and on a value component, the benevolence of the healthcare system. I argue that it is also modified by the vulnerability of the public on healthcare matters, (...)
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  42. Vaccine Refusal and Trust: The Trouble With Coercion and Education and Suggestions for a Cure.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):555-559.
    There can be little doubt about the ethical imperative to ensure adequate vaccination uptake against certain infectious diseases. In the face of vaccine refusal, health authorities and providers instinctively appeal to coercive approaches or increased education as methods to ensure adequate vaccine uptake. Recently, some have argued that public fear around Ebola should be used as an opportunity for such approaches, should an Ebola vaccine become available. In this article, the author describes the difficulties associated with coercion and education when (...)
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  43. Personal Beliefs Exemption From Mandatory Immunization of Children for School Entry.Alexander M. Capron - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s2):12-21.
    Public health law courses typically focus a good deal of attention on two related topics: the duty of government agencies to control the spread of communicable diseases and their use of the police power to do so. While governments sometimes take forceful actions in responding to disease outbreaks, they can also act to prevent their occurrence. Indeed, one of the great triumphs of public health in the 20th century was the development of vaccines and their widespread use, which seemed on (...)
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  44. From Beginning to End: The Importance of Evidence-Based Policymaking in Vaccination Mandates.Daniel G. Orenstein & Y. Tony Yang - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S1):99-102.
    Used appropriately, reliance on science distinguishes public health from policymaking driven more by theory and opinion and enhances trust in public health interventions. Evidence-based vaccine policymaking aims to control communicable disease by urging decision makers to base policies on the best available evidence rather than politics or personal views. The results of this approach, such as smallpox eradication, have been dramatic. Historically, mandatory childhood vaccination has been perhaps the most successful evidence-based tool in combating many epidemics. Philosophically, vaccination mandates correspond (...)
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  45. Vaccine: The Debate in Modern America. [REVIEW]Robert Johnston - 2013 - Isis 104 (3):650-651.
  46. Free to Choose but Liable for the Consequences: Should Non-Vaccinators Be Penalized for the Harm They Do?Arthur L. Caplan, David Hoke, Nicholas J. Diamond & Viktoriya Karshenboyem - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):606-611.
    Can parents who choose not to vaccinate their children be held legally liable for any harm that results? The state of laboratory and epidemiological understanding of a disease such as measles makes it likely that a persuasive causal link can be established between a decision to not vaccinate, a failure to take appropriate precautions to isolate a non-vaccinated child who may have been exposed to measles from highly vulnerable persons, and a death. This paper argues that, even if a parent (...)
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  47. Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health.Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    In these twelve papers notable ethicists use the resources of ethical theory to illuminate important theoretical and practical topics, including the nature of public health, notions of community, population bioethics, the legitimate role of law, the use of cost-effectiveness as a methodology, vaccinations, and the nature of infectious disease.
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  48. The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis. [REVIEW]Nadav Davidovitch - 2007 - Isis 98:873-874.
  49. State of Immunity: The Politics of Vaccination in Twentieth‐Century America. [REVIEW]Nadja Durbach - 2007 - Isis 98:422-423.
  50. Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine; Big Shot: Passion, Politics, and the Struggle for an AIDS Vaccine.Andrea Balis - 2005 - Isis 96:671-672.
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