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  1. Phantom Premise and a Shape-Shifting Ism: Reply to Hassoun.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In ‘Against vaccine nationalism’, Nicole Hassoun misrepresents our argument, distorts our position and ignores crucial distinctions we present in our article, ‘Love thy neighbor? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations’. She has created a strawman that does not resemble our position. In this reply, we address two features of ‘Against vaccine nationalism’. First, we address a phantom premise. Hassoun misattributes to us a thesis, according to which citizen-directed duties are stronger than noncitizen-directed duties. This thesis is a figment (...)
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  2. Love Thy Neighbour? Allocating Vaccines in a World of Competing Obligations.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur L. Caplan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106887.
    Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equitable global distribution. We argue that limited national partiality in allocating vaccines will be a component of justice rather than an obstacle to it. For there (...)
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  3. Ethics of Vaccine Refusal.Michael Kowalik - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Proponents of vaccine mandates typically claim that everyone who can be vaccinated has a moral or ethical obligation to do so for the sake of those who cannot be vaccinated, or in the interest of public health. I evaluate several previously undertheorised premises implicit to the ‘obligation to vaccinate’ type of arguments and show that the general conclusion is false: there is neither a moral obligation to vaccinate nor a sound ethical basis to mandate vaccination under any circumstances, even for (...)
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  4. Case for Persuasion in Parental Informed Consent to Promote Rational Vaccine Choices.Jennifer O'Neill - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106068.
    There have been calls for mandatory vaccination legislation to be introduced into the UK in order to tackle the national and international rise of vaccine-preventable disease. While some countries have had some success associated with mandatory vaccination programmes, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health insist this is not a suitable option for the UK, a country which has seen historical opposition to vaccine mandates. There is a lack of comprehensive data to demonstrate a direct link between mandatory vaccination (...)
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  5. Priority Vaccination for Mental Illness, Developmental or Intellectual Disability.Nina Shevzov-Zebrun & Arthur L. Caplan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2021-107247.
    Coronavirus vaccines have made their debut. Now, allocation practices have stepped into the spotlight. Following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, states and healthcare institutions initially prioritised healthcare personnel and elderly residents of congregant facilities; other groups at elevated risk for severe complications are now becoming eligible through locally administered programmes. The question remains, however: who else should be prioritised for immunisation? Here, we call attention to individuals institutionalised with severe mental illnesses and/or developmental or intellectual disabilities—a group highly (...)
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  6. Vaccine Ethics: An Ethical Framework for Global Distribution of COVID-19 Vaccines.Nancy S. Jecker, Aaron G. Wightman & Douglas S. Diekema - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):308-317.
    This paper addresses the just distribution of vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and sets forth an ethical framework that prioritises frontline and essential workers, people at high risk of severe disease or death, and people at high risk of infection. Section I makes the case that vaccine distribution should occur at a global level in order to accelerate development and fair, efficient vaccine allocation. Section II puts forth ethical values to guide vaccine distribution including helping people with the greatest need, (...)
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  7. Eating Meat and Not Vaccinating: In Defense of the Analogy.Ben Jones - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):135-142.
    The devastating impact of the COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is prompting renewed scrutiny of practices that heighten the risk of infectious disease. One such practice is refusing available vaccines known to be effective at preventing dangerous communicable diseases. For reasons of preventing individual harm, avoiding complicity in collective harm, and fairness, there is a growing consensus among ethicists that individuals have a duty to get vaccinated. I argue that these same grounds establish an analogous duty to avoid buying and (...)
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  8. COVID-19, Contagion, and Vaccine Optimism.Kelly McGuire - 2021 - Journal of Medical Humanities 42 (1):51-62.
    Steven Soderbergh’s Contagion positions the vaccine as the end point of the arc of ​pandemic, marking both the containment of an elusive virus and ​the resumption of a life not fundamentally different from ​before the disease outbreak. ​The film reinforces the ​assumption that a pandemic will awaken ​all of us to the urgency of vaccination​, persuading us to put aside our reservations and anxieties ​and the idea that compliance is the inevitable outcome of quarantine. This article explores how pro-vaccination cultural (...)
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  9. Non-Epistemic Values in Shaping the Parameters for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Candidate Vaccines: The Case of an Ebola Vaccine Trial.Joby Varghese - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-15.
    This paper examines the case of Ebola, ça Suffit trial which was conducted in Guinea during Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in 2015. I demonstrate that various non-epistemic considerations may legitimately influence the criteria for evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of a candidate vaccine. Such non-epistemic considerations, which are social, ethical, and pragmatic, can be better placed and addressed in scientific research by appealing to non-epistemic values. I consider two significant features any newly developed vaccine should possess; the duration of immunity (...)
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  10. Improving Evolution Advocacy: Translating Vaccine Interventions to the Evolution Wars.Thomas Aechtner - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):27-51.
    When considering the persuasive characteristics and prospective influences of Darwin‐skeptic mass media, uncertainties remain about how to reciprocally promote evolutionary theory to skeptical audiences. This study aims to improve evolution advocacy by translating some of the most successful methods of science endorsement to Evolution Wars contexts. In particular, strategies used to address vaccine hesitancies and enhance immunization uptake policies are reinterpreted for those seeking to improve pro‐evolution communications to religious publics. What results are three recommendation categories described as General Guiding (...)
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  11. Framing Messages for Vaccination Supporters.Sacha Altay & Hugo Mercier - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 26 (4):567-578.
    Efficiently communicating information on vaccination is crucial to maintaining a high level of immunization coverage, but it implies finding the right content for the right audience. Provaccination individuals, who represent the majority of the population, and who have been neglected in the literature, could play an important role relaying provaccination messages through informal discussions, if only these messages are (a) found plausible, (b) remembered, and (c) shared. We conducted 7 experiments on 2,761 provaccination online participants (United States and United Kingdom), (...)
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  12. The United States Should Consider Compulsory SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination.Margaret Bove - 2020 - Voices in Bioethics 6.
    As we face this unprecedented epidemic, researchers are racing to develop a cure and find ways to prevent more infections in the future. Yet, with so much uncertainty about the future of this virus, the current absence of an effective therapy,[i] and limited research on natural immunity to the disease through direct exposure,[ii] it seems the only certainty is that a vaccine could be a solution. Several laboratories across a multitude of countries have begun to develop a vaccine[iii] for SARS-CoV-2 (...)
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  13. An Ethical Framework for Global Vaccine Allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  14. Pox Parties for Grannies? Chickenpox, Exogenous Boosting, and Harmful Injustices.Heidi Malm & Mark Christopher Navin - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9):45-57.
    Some societies tolerate or encourage high levels of chickenpox infection among children to reduce rates of shingles among older adults. This tradeoff is unethical. The varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both chickenpox and shingles. After people recover from chickenpox, VZV remains in their nerve cells. If their immune systems become unable to suppress the virus, they develop shingles. According to the Exogenous Boosting Hypothesis (EBH), a person’s ability to keep VZV suppressed can be ‘boosted’ through exposure to active chickenpox infections. (...)
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  15. Reasons to Accept Vaccine Refusers in Primary Care.Mark Christopher Navin, Jason Adam Wasserman & Douglas Opel - 2020 - Pediatrics 6 (146):e20201801.
    Vaccine refusal forces us to confront tensions between many values, including scientific expertise, parental rights, children’s best interests, social responsibility, public trust, and community health. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable and emerging infectious diseases have amplified these issues. The prospect of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine signals even more friction on the horizon. In this contentious sociopolitical landscape, it is therefore more important than ever for clinicians to identify ethically justified responses to vaccine refusal.
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  16. Fairly Prioritizing Groups for Access to COVID-19 Vaccines.Govind Persad, Monica E. Peek & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2020 - JAMA 1.
    Initial vaccine allocations for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will be limited. It is crucial to assess the ethical values associated with different methods of allocation, as well as important scientific and practical questions. This Viewpoint identifies three ethical values, benefiting people and limiting harm; prioritizing disadvantaged populations; and equal concern for all. It then explains why these values support prioritizing three groups: health care workers; other essential workers and people in high-transmission settings; and people with medical vulnerabilities associated with (...)
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  17. Human Challenge Trials for a COVID-19 Vaccine.Victor Chidi Wolemonwu - 2020 - Voices in Bioethics 6.
    Photo by CDC on Unsplash INTRODUCTION Safe and effective vaccines are yet to be developed and distributed for the treatment of the virus that causes COVID-19. “Vaccine trials are notoriously lengthy, with optimistic estimates of 12 to 18 months to vaccine rollout.”[1] Safe and effective vaccine development within the shortest possible time requires adopting a medical research strategy like human challenge trials. A few weeks ago, experts in the fields of bioethics, philosophy, medicine, computer sciences - some of whom are (...)
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  18. Childhood Vaccination Mandates: Scope, Sanctions, Severity, Selectivity, and Salience.Katie Attwell & Mark Christopher Navin - 2019 - Milbank Quarterly 97 (4):978–1014.
    Context In response to outbreaks of vaccine‐preventable disease and increasing rates of vaccine refusal, some political communities have recently implemented coercive childhood immunization programs, or they have made existing childhood immunization programs more coercive. Many other political communities possess coercive vaccination policies, and others are considering developing them. Scholars and policymakers generally refer to coercive immunization policies as “vaccine mandates.” However, mandatory vaccination is not a unitary concept. Rather, coercive childhood immunization policies are complex, context‐specific instruments. Their legally and morally (...)
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  19. Uncertainty: How It Makes Science Advance.Kostas Kampourakis & Kevin McCain - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Scientific knowledge is the most solid and robust kind of knowledge that humans have because of its inherent self-correcting character. Nevertheless, anti-evolutionists, climate denialists, and anti-vaxxers, among others, question some of the best-established scientific findings, making claims unsupported by empirical evidence. A common aspect of these claims is reference to the uncertainties of science concerning evolution, climate change, vaccination, and so on. This is inaccurate: whereas the broad picture is clear, there will always exist uncertainties about the details of the (...)
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  20. Trust in Health Care and Vaccine Hesitancy.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 68:105-122.
    Health care systems can positively influence our personal decision-making and health-related behavior only if we trust them. I propose a conceptual analysis of the trust relation between the public and a healthcare system, drawing from healthcare studies and philosophical proposals. In my account, the trust relation is based on an epistemic component, epistemic authority, and on a value component, the benevolence of the healthcare system. I argue that it is also modified by the vulnerability of the public on healthcare matters, (...)
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  21. Vaccine Refusal and Trust: The Trouble With Coercion and Education and Suggestions for a Cure.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):555-559.
    There can be little doubt about the ethical imperative to ensure adequate vaccination uptake against certain infectious diseases. In the face of vaccine refusal, health authorities and providers instinctively appeal to coercive approaches or increased education as methods to ensure adequate vaccine uptake. Recently, some have argued that public fear around Ebola should be used as an opportunity for such approaches, should an Ebola vaccine become available. In this article, the author describes the difficulties associated with coercion and education when (...)
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  22. Personal Beliefs Exemption From Mandatory Immunization of Children for School Entry.Alexander M. Capron - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s2):12-21.
    Public health law courses typically focus a good deal of attention on two related topics: the duty of government agencies to control the spread of communicable diseases and their use of the police power to do so. While governments sometimes take forceful actions in responding to disease outbreaks, they can also act to prevent their occurrence. Indeed, one of the great triumphs of public health in the 20th century was the development of vaccines and their widespread use, which seemed on (...)
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  23. From Beginning to End: The Importance of Evidence-Based Policymaking in Vaccination Mandates.Daniel G. Orenstein & Y. Tony Yang - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S1):99-102.
    Used appropriately, reliance on science distinguishes public health from policymaking driven more by theory and opinion and enhances trust in public health interventions. Evidence-based vaccine policymaking aims to control communicable disease by urging decision makers to base policies on the best available evidence rather than politics or personal views. The results of this approach, such as smallpox eradication, have been dramatic. Historically, mandatory childhood vaccination has been perhaps the most successful evidence-based tool in combating many epidemics. Philosophically, vaccination mandates correspond (...)
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  24. Free to Choose but Liable for the Consequences: Should Non-Vaccinators Be Penalized for the Harm They Do?Arthur L. Caplan, David Hoke, Nicholas J. Diamond & Viktoriya Karshenboyem - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):606-611.
    Can parents who choose not to vaccinate their children be held legally liable for any harm that results? The state of laboratory and epidemiological understanding of a disease such as measles makes it likely that a persuasive causal link can be established between a decision to not vaccinate, a failure to take appropriate precautions to isolate a non-vaccinated child who may have been exposed to measles from highly vulnerable persons, and a death. This paper argues that, even if a parent (...)
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  25. Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health.Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    In these twelve papers notable ethicists use the resources of ethical theory to illuminate important theoretical and practical topics, including the nature of public health, notions of community, population bioethics, the legitimate role of law, the use of cost-effectiveness as a methodology, vaccinations, and the nature of infectious disease.
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  26. History of Immunizations (N. 2); Peter C. English," Therapeutic Strategies to Combat Pneumococcal Disease: Repeated Failure of Physicians to Adopt Pneumococcal Vaccine, 1900-1945,". [REVIEW]A. Parish - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30:170-85.
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