Value Theory, Miscellaneous

Edited by Gwen Bradford (Rice University)
42 found
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  1. added 2019-09-13
    Gute Gründe und natürliche Zwecke: Rosalind Hursthouses Beitrag zum ethischen Naturalismus.Sascha Settegast - 2017 - In Martin Hähnel (ed.), Aristotelischer Naturalismus. Springer. pp. 173-183.
  2. added 2019-09-11
    Mental Health Without Wellbeing.Sam Wren Lewis & Anna Alexandrova - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    What is it to be mentally healthy? In the ongoing movement to promote mental health, to reduce stigma and to establish parity between mental and physical health, there is a clear enthusiasm about this concept and a recognition of its value in human life. However, it is often unclear what mental health means in all these efforts and whether there is a single concept underlying them. Sometimes the initiatives for the sake of mental health are aimed just at reducing mental (...)
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  3. added 2019-09-11
    Norm-Establishing and Norm-Following in Autonomous Agency.Xabier Barandiaran & Matthew Egbert - 2013 - Artificial Life 91 (2):1-24.
    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a (...)
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  4. added 2019-09-10
    Meaning of Life in Death situation from Wittgenstein Point of View using Grounded Theory.Hoshyar Naderpoor, Reza Akbari & Meysam Latifi - 2017 - Falsafeh: The Iranian Journal of Philosophy 45 (1):95-111.
    This study focuses on the experimental and philosophical analysis of the meaning of life in death situation, according to Wittgenstein’s way of life and sayings during the war. The method of extraction and analysis of information is grounded theory. For this purpose, Wittgenstein’s writings such as his letters and memories, and other’s texts about his life and his internal moods were analyzed. After analyzing the collected information and categorizing them in frames of open codes, axial codes, etc. we recognized that (...)
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  5. added 2019-09-09
    Passion for the Art of Morally Responsible Technology Development.Sabine Roeser & Steffen Steinert - 2019 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 85:87-109.
    In this article, we discuss the importance of emotions for ethical reflection on technological developments, as well as the role that art can play in this. We review literature that argues that emotions can and should play an important role in the assessment and acceptance of technological risk and in designing morally responsible technologies. We then investigate how technologically engaged art can contribute to critical, emotional-moral reflection on technological risks. The role of art that engages with technology is unexplored territory (...)
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  6. added 2019-09-06
    Aiming for Moral Mediocrity.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2019 - Res Philosophica 96 (3):347-368.
    Most people aim to be about as morally good as their peers—not especially better, not especially worse. We do not aim to be good, or non-bad, or to act permissibly rather than impermissibly, by fixed moral standards. Rather, we notice the typical behavior of our peers, then calibrate toward so-so. This is a somewhat bad way to be, but it’s not a terribly bad way to be. We are somewhat morally criticizable for having low moral ambitions. Typical arguments defending the (...)
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  7. added 2019-09-04
    The Commercialization of the Biomedical Sciences: (Mis)Understanding Bias.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (3):34.
    The growing commercialization of scientific research has raised important concerns about industry bias. According to some evidence, so-called industry bias can affect the integrity of the science as well as the direction of the research agenda. I argue that conceptualizing industry’s influence in scientific research in terms of bias is unhelpful. Insofar as industry sponsorship negatively affects the integrity of the research, it does so through biasing mechanisms that can affect any research independently of the source of funding. Talk about (...)
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  8. added 2019-08-30
    Identifying Objects of Value at the End of Life.Christopher James Sampson - 2016 - In Jeff Round (ed.), Care at the End of Life: An Economic Perspective. Adis. pp. 103-122.
    End-of-life care has a number of characteristics that make economic evaluation particularly challenging. These include proximity to death, the improbability of survival gain, individuals’ changing priorities, declining cognition and effects on close persons. In view of these particularities of end-of-life care, some researchers have determined that current ‘extra-welfarist’ approaches to defining do not adequately reflect well-being. As a result, suggestions are being made that would see the QALY approach either replaced or subject to significant redefinition. The purported goal of adopting (...)
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  9. added 2019-08-27
    Bridging the Gap Between Rationality, Normativity, and Emotions.Frédéric Minner - forthcoming - Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics.
    Intentional explanation, according to Elster, seeks to elucidate an action by showing that it was intentionally conducted, in order to bring about certain goals . Intentional actions furthermore, are rational actions: they imply that agents establish a connection between the goals they target and the means that are appropriate to reach them, by way of different beliefs about the means, the goals and the environment. But how should we understand intentional actions in the light of philosophical research on emotions, rationality, (...)
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  10. added 2019-08-26
    Do Fitting Emotions Tell Us Anything About Well-Being?James Fanciullo - forthcoming - Utilitas.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Tobias Fuchs has offered a ‘working test’ for well-being. According to this test, if it is fitting to feel compassion for a subject because they have some property, then the subject is badly off because they have that property. Since subjects of deception seem a fitting target for compassion, this test is said to imply that a number of important views, including hedonism, are false. I argue that this line of reasoning is mistaken: (...)
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  11. added 2019-08-22
    Praktische Argumentationstheorie. Theoretische Grundlagen, praktische Begründung und Regeln wichtiger Argumentationsarten.Christoph Lumer - 1990 - Braunschweig, Germany: Vieweg.
    Das spezifische Ziel von Argumentationen ist nicht einfach, den Adressaten etwas glauben zu machen - dies wäre bloße Rhetorik ﷓, sondern: den Adressaten beim Erkennen der Akzeptabilität (insbesondere der Wahrheit) der These anzuleiten und ihn so zu begründetem Glauben, zu Erkenntnis zu führen. Argumentationen leiten das Erkennen an, indem sie in ihren Argumenten hinreichende Akzeptabilitätsbedingungen der These als erfüllt beurteilen und so den Adressaten implizit auffordern, diese Bedingungen zu überprüfen. Argumentationen sind gültig, wenn sie prinzipiell das Erkennen anleiten können; d. (...)
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  12. added 2019-08-20
    Testing for Intrinsic Value.Daniel Coren - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Brentano, Moore, and Chisholm suggest marks of intrinsic value. Contemporary philosophers such as Christine Korsgaard have insightful discussions of intrinsic value. But how do we verify that some specific thing really is intrinsically valuable? I propose a natural way to test for intrinsic value: first, strip the candidate bare of all considerations of good consequences; and, second, see if what remains is still a good thing. I argue that we, as ordinary human beings, have (...)
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  13. added 2019-08-20
    A Fixed-Population Problem for the Person-Affecting Restriction.Jacob M. Nebel - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    According to the person-affecting restriction, one distribution of welfare can be better than another only if there is someone for whom it is better. Extant problems for the person-affecting restriction involve variable-population cases, such as the nonidentity problem, which are notoriously controversial and difficult to resolve. This paper develops a fixed-population problem for the person-affecting restriction. The problem reveals that, in the presence of incommensurable welfare levels, the person-affecting restriction is incompatible with minimal requirements of impartial beneficence even in fixed-population (...)
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  14. added 2019-08-13
    Starting From the Muses: Engaging Moral Imagination Through Memory’s Many Gifts.Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Brian Robinson (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Amusements. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    In Greek mythology the Muses –patron goddesses of fine arts, history, humanities, and sciences– are tellingly portrayed as the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the goddess Memory, who is of the race of Titans, older still than Zeus and other Olympian deities. The relationship between memory and such fields as epic poetry, history, music and dance is easily recognizable to moderns. But bards/poets like Homer and Hesiod, who began oral storytelling by “invoking the Muses” with their audience, knew well that (...)
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  15. added 2019-08-13
    Europa? Una questione di diritto.Elisa Grimi - 2018 - In P. Stagi (ed.), Etica e religione. Roma RM, Italia: pp. 90-102.
    L’origine della storia dell’Europa merita di essere ripercorsa. Troppo spesso infatti si tralascia il fatto che la cultura europea è secondaria ad Atene e Gerusalemme. Nel presentare lo scenario attuale si ragiona spesso sul collante monetario che tiene uniti gli stati, sulla buona morale che li accomuna aperta alla convivenza con l’estraneo, tuttavia non si considera mai il fatto che l’ethos ha ragioni storiche. Si parla di diritti, si erige l’eguaglianza a principio sovrano, trascurando che la Dichiarazione Universale che tutela (...)
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  16. added 2019-08-13
    Secularized Society. Conscience and Forgiveness.Elisa Grimi - 2015 - Aisthema, International Journal 2 (2).
    EN_This paper‘s goal is to investigate secularized society by retracing its structure. What is hidden behind the notion of secularization? Our intention here is to analyse the social phenomenon of secularisation through the study of its ontology. The research will be on the identity issue, in the first place the living identity to see its resonance in social, cultural, religious and political areas. We will then arrive at the end of this paper, at the thesis – starting from the consciousness (...)
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  17. added 2019-08-11
    Brandlife.Andrej Drapal - 2016
    Do you sometimes feel like your brand runs you and not the opposite? Are you feeling depressed for that reason? Are you stunned by brands, but then you do not know how to handle them? Would you like to live in a world free of any brand? Are you sure that brands are not alive? Do not worry! Answers to these and many other brand and branding related questions are to be found in this book. But beware: a)You will find (...)
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  18. added 2019-08-02
    Examinei Live: An Epistemological Exchange Between Philosophy and Cultural Psychology on Reflection.Waldomiro Silva Filho - 2019 - In W. & Tateo Silva-Filho (ed.), Thinking about Oneself. Chan, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 1-18.
    Since the famous passage in which Socrates (Plato 38a5-6) says that the unexamined, and therefore non-reflected, life is not worth living, “reflection” has been a diffuse and iterant term in ethics, moral philosophy, epistemology, political philosophy (Tiberius 2008; Skorupski 2010), but also in psychology (Marsico, Andrisano Ruggieri & Salvatore 2015). This chapter outlines the discussion of reflection and presents the book "Thinking about Onself", a volume that opens a new perspective on the topic of reflection, considering the most recent approaches (...)
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  19. added 2019-08-01
    On ‘Hybrid’ Theories of Personal Good.Thomas Hurka - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-13.
    ‘Hybrid’ theories of personal good, defended by e.g. Parfit, Wolf, and Kagan, equate it, not with a subjective state such as pleasure on its own, nor with an objective state such as knowledge on its own, but with a whole that supposedly combines the two. These theories apply Moore's principle of organic unities, which says the value of a whole needn't equal the sum of the values its parts would have by themselves. This allows them, defenders say, to combine the (...)
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  20. added 2019-08-01
    Keep Score and Punish: Brandom’s Concept of Responsibility.Frieder Vogelmann - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism:019145371986624.
    Although seldom examined and not explained by Robert Brandom himself, the concept of responsibility is as important as the concept of inference for Brandom’s account of discursivity. Whereas ‘inference’ makes explicit the propositional content of concepts as the inferentially structured totality of their relations of material incompatibility, ‘responsibility’ makes explicit the normative force of these relations. ‘Responsibility’ thus becomes the paradigm of understanding normativity’s binding force – and my critical reading demonstrates that it fosters a moralizing, juridifying and economizing understanding (...)
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  21. added 2019-07-30
    Expanding Transformative Experience.Havi Carel & Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    We develop a broader, more fine-grained taxonomy of forms of ‘transformative experience’ inspired by the work of L.A. Paul. Our vulnerability to such experiences arises, we argue, due to the vulnerability, dependence, and affliction intrinsic to the human condition. We use this trio to distinguish a variety of positively, negatively, and ambivalently valenced forms of epistemically and/or personally transformative experiences. Moreover, we argue that many transformative experiences can arise gradually and cumulatively, unfolding over the course of longer periods of time.
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  22. added 2019-07-30
    Superhard Choices.Miguel F. Dos Santos - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-18.
    Sometimes, when comparing a pair of items, it appears that neither is better than the other, nor that they are equally good, relative to a certain value that they bear. Cases of this kind have come to be referred to as superhard comparisons. What grounds superhard comparisons? On the dominant views, held by Joseph Raz and Ruth Chang, they are grounded, at least partially, in the failure of the three classic value relations—‘better than’, ‘worse than’, and ‘equally good’. On an (...)
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  23. added 2019-07-29
    Dear Prudence: The Nature and Normativity of Prudential Discourse.Guy Fletcher - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  24. added 2019-07-28
    Fire and Forget: A Defense of the Use of Autonomous Weapons in War.Duncan MacIntosh - manuscript
    Autonomous and automatic weapons would be fire and forget: you activate them, and they decide who, when and how to kill; or they kill at a later time a target you’ve selected earlier. Some argue that this sort of killing is always wrong. If killing is to be done, it should be done only under direct human control. (E.g., Mary Ellen O’Connell, Peter Asaro, Christof Heyns.) I argue that there are surprisingly many kinds of situation where this is false and (...)
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  25. added 2019-07-24
    Taking Stock of the Risks of Life Without Death.August Gorman - forthcoming - In Travis Timmerman & Michael Cholbi (eds.), Exploring the Philosophy of Death and Dying: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives. Routledge.
    In this chapter I argue that choosing to live forever comes with the threat of an especially pernicious kind of boredom. However, it may be theoretically possible to circumvent it by finding ways to pursue an infinite number of projects consistent with one’s personality, taking on endlessly pursuable endlessly interesting projects, or by rekindling old projects once you’ve forgotten about them. However, each of these possibilities is contingent upon having certain traits that you are likely not currently in a good (...)
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  26. added 2019-07-23
    The Rationality of Emotional Change: Toward a Process View.Oded Na'aman - forthcoming - Noûs.
    The paper argues against a widely held synchronic view of emotional rationality. I begin by considering recent philosophical literature on various backward‐looking emotions, such as regret, grief, resentment, and anger. I articulate the general problem these accounts grapple with: a certain diminution in backward‐looking emotions seems fitting while the reasons for these emotions seem to persist. The problem, I argue, rests on the assumption that if the facts that give reason for an emotion remain unchanged, the emotion remains fitting. However, (...)
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  27. added 2019-07-22
    On Liking Aesthetic Value.Keren Gorodeisky - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    According to tradition, aesthetic value is non-contingently connected to a certain feeling of liking or pleasure. Is that true? Two answers are on offer in the field of aesthetics today: 1. The Hedonist answers: Yes, aesthetic value is non-contingently connected to pleasure insofar as this value is constituted and explained by the power of its possessors to please (under standard conditions). 2. The Non-Affectivist answers: No. At best, pleasure is contingently related to aesthetic value. The aim of this paper is (...)
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  28. added 2019-07-16
    Considering Quality of Life While Repudiating Disability Injustice: A Pathways Approach to Setting Priorities.Govind Persad - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (2):294-303.
    This article proposes a novel strategy, one that draws on insights from antidiscrimination law, for addressing a persistent challenge in medical ethics and the philosophy of disability: whether health systems can consider quality of life without unjustly discriminating against individuals with disabilities. It argues that rather than uniformly considering or ignoring quality of life, health systems should take a more nuanced approach. Under the article's proposal, health systems should treat cases where quality of life suffers because of disability-focused exclusion or (...)
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  29. added 2019-07-09
    From Völkerpsychologie to Cultural Anthropology: Erich Rothacker’s Philosophy of Culture.Johannes Steizinger - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
    Erich Rothacker (1888–1965) was a key figure in early-twentieth-century philosophy in Germany. In this paper, I examine the development of Rothacker’s philosophy of culture from 1907 to 1945. Rothacker began his philosophical career with a völkerpsychological dissertation on history, outlining his early biologistic conception of culture (1907–1913). In his mid-career work, he then turned to Wilhelm Dilthey’s (1833–1911) Lebensphilosophie (philosophy of life), advancing a hermeneutic approach to culture (1919–1928). In his later work (1929–1945), Rothacker developed a cultural anthropology. I shall (...)
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  30. added 2019-07-09
    Other‐Sacrificing Options.Benjamin Lange - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    I argue that you can be permitted to discount the interests of your adversaries even though doing so would be impartially suboptimal. This means that, in addition to the kinds of moral options that the literature traditionally recognises, there exist what I call other-sacrificing options. I explore the idea that you cannot discount the interests of your adversaries as much as you can favour the interests of your intimates; if this is correct, then there is an asymmetry between negative partiality (...)
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  31. added 2019-07-09
    Do Corporations Have a Duty to Be Trustworthy?Nikolas Kirby, Andrew Kirton & Aisling Crean - 2018 - Journal of the British Academy 6 (Supplementary issue 1):75-129.
    Since the global financial crisis in 2008, corporations have faced a crisis of trust, with growing sentiment against ‘elites and ‘big business’ and a feeling that ‘something ought to be done’ to re-establish public regard for corporations. Trust and trustworthiness are deeply moral significant. They provide the ‘glue or lubricant’ that begets reciprocity, decreases risk, secures dignity and respect, and safeguards against the subordination of the powerless to the powerful. However, in deciding how to restore trust, it is difficult to (...)
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  32. added 2019-07-08
    Life, Meaning Of.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A 4000 word critical overview of English-speaking philosophical books devoted to life's meaning.
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  33. added 2019-07-08
    Wokół koncepcji dobra we współczesnym neoarystotelizmie anglosaskim: normatywność, działanie, praktyki.Piotr Machura - 2019 - Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
    Praca poświęcona jest naturze dobrego życia. Zastosowanie odnowionej w połowie XX wieku myśli Arystotelesa pozwala tu uchwycić i przezwyciężyć zarówno miałkość propozycji „przemysłu szczęścia”, jak i akademickiej filozofii. Autor interpretuje koncepcję starożytnego filozofa przy użyciu współczesnych narzędzi filozoficznych wskazując jak ich zastosowanie pozwala uchwycić węzłowe problemy życia (jak pytanie o szczęście i sens) oraz wskazać te metody myślenia, które umożliwiają krytyczny namysł nad rzeczywistością społeczną. Pytanie o dobro jest zatem zarówno o to, jak kształtować własne życie, ale też jak myśleć (...)
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  34. added 2019-07-08
    Review of David Velleman's Foundations for Moral Relativism. [REVIEW]Antti Kauppinen - 2015 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:00-00.
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  35. added 2019-07-07
    Epicurean Advice for the Modern Consumer.Tim O'Keefe - forthcoming - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy.
    Epicurus thought that the conventional values of Greek society—in particular, its celebration of luxury and wealth—often led people astray. It is by rejecting these values, reducing our desires, and leading a moderately ascetic life that we can attain happiness. But Epicurus’ message is also pertinent for those of us in modern Western culture, with an economy based on constant consumption and an advertising industry that molds us to serve that economy by enlarging our desires. This paper begins with an outline (...)
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  36. added 2019-07-07
    Meaning.Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - In Graham Oppy (ed.), A Companion to Atheism and Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 355-366.
    A critical discussion of contemporary analytic philosophical literature arguing against the relevance of God for life's meaning.
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  37. added 2019-07-07
    The Meaning of Life (Annotated Bibliography).Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - In Duncan Pritchard (ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online. Oxford University Press.
    A lengthy annotated bibliography of some of the key literature on analytical philosophical approaches to life's meaning as of 2010.
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  38. added 2019-07-04
    Між Релятивністю Й Абсолютом.Vira Ageyeva - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:38-43.
    У статті розглянуто один із аспектів надзвичайно широкого інтертекстуального поля прози Віктора Домонтовича. Поняття зради й відступництва письменник інтерпретує у різних контекстах і в різному історичному антуражі. Зокрема в оповіданні «Апостоли» він своєрідно представляє проблему віри й довіри, вводячи у євангельський сюжет ще й тему знання, роздуми про побутування релігії й віри у добу раціоналізму й скептицизму. Страждаючи від роздвоєності й сумнівів, герої цього письменника згодні відповідати за наслідки лише власного вибору. Домонтович демонструє трагічні наслідки ситуації, коли людина бере на (...)
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  39. added 2019-06-28
    Virtual Consumption, Sustainability & Human Well-Being.Kenneth R. Pike & C. Tyler DesRoches - forthcoming - Environmental Values.
    There is widespread consensus that present patterns of consumption could lead to the permanent impossibility of maintaining those patterns and, perhaps, the existence of the human race. While many patterns of consumption qualify as ‘sustainable’ there is one in particular that deserves greater attention: virtual consumption. We argue that virtual consumption — the experience of authentic consumptive experiences replicated by alternative means — has the potential to reduce the deleterious consequences of real consumption by redirecting some consumptive behavior from shifting (...)
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  40. added 2019-06-25
    Either/Or: Subjectivity, Objectivity and Value.Katalin Balog - forthcoming - In John Schwenkler & Enoch Lambert (eds.), Becoming Someone New: Essays on Transformative Experience, Choice, and Change. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    My concern in this paper is the role of subjectivity in the pursuit of the good. I propose that subjective thought as well as a subjective mental process underappreciated in philosophical psychology – contemplation – are instrumental for discovering and apprehending a whole range of value. In fact, I will argue that our primary contact with these values is through experience and that they could not be properly understood in any other way. This means that subjectivity is central to our (...)
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  41. added 2019-06-24
    Why the Indifference of the Universe is Irrelevant to Life’s Meaning.Brooke Alan Trisel - forthcoming - Human Affairs 29 (4).
    When pessimists claim that human life is meaningless, they often also assert that the universe is “blind to good and evil” and “indifferent to us”. How, if it all, is the indifference of the universe relevant to whether life is meaningful? To answer this question, and to know whether we should be concerned that the universe is indifferent, we need a clearer and deeper understanding of the concept of “cosmic indifference”, which I will seek to provide. I will argue that (...)
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  42. added 2019-06-24
    How Human Life Matters in the Universe: A Reply to David Benatar.Brooke Alan Trisel - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 9 (1):1-15.
    In his book, The Human Predicament, David Benatar claims that our individual lives and human life, in general, do not make a difference beyond Earth and, therefore, are meaningless from the vast, cosmic perspective. In this paper, I will explain how what we do matters from the cosmic perspective. I will provide examples of how human beings have transcended our limits, thereby giving human life some meaning from the cosmic perspective. Also, I will argue that human life could become even (...)
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