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  1. How Deontologists Can Be Moderate.Christa M. Johnson - 2020 - Journal of Value Inquiry 54 (2):227-243.
    Moderate deontologists hold that while it is wrong to kill an innocent person to save, say, five other individuals, it is indeed morally permissible to kill one if, say, millions of lives are at stake. A basic worry concerning the moderate’s position is whether the view boils down to mere philosophical wishful thinking. In permitting agents to ever kill an innocent, moderates require that agents treat persons as means, in opposition to traditional deontological motivations. Recently Tyler Cook argued that deontologists (...)
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  2. Qadi `Abdul-Jabbar al-Mu`tazili's Moral Theory.Hossein Atrak - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical-Theological Reseach 9 (33):53-96.
    Abstract Qadi `Abdul-Jabbar, although has come to be Known as a Mu`tazili theologian, can be certainly mentioned as a moral philosopher by attention to his ethical views in the theological books. The paper is going to present his ethical opinions concerning normative ethics and Meta-ethics. It shows that `Abdul-Jabbar is a rationalist moral philosopher, who considers reason as the origin of moral obligations, and as the means of evaluating the rightness and wrongfulness of actions. Moreover, he is an essentialist, that (...)
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  3. Gerald Gaus, The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World , Pp. Xx + 621.Fabian Wendt - 2012 - Utilitas 24 (4):548-551.
  4. Recalcitrant Pluralism.Philip Stratton-Lake - unknown
    Here I argue that the best form of deontology is an ethic of prima facie duties, and that this form of deontology is especially resistant to any form of reduction to a single principle.
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  5. Recalcitrant Pluralism.Philip Stratton-Lake - 2011 - Ratio 24 (4):364-383.
    In this paper I argue that the best form of deontology is one understood in terms of prima facie duties. I outline how these duties are to be understood and show how they offer a plausible and elegant connection between the reason why we ought to do certain acts, the normative reasons we have to do these acts, the reason why moral agents will do them, and the reasons certain people have to resent someone who does not do them. I (...)
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  6. God's Command.John E. Hare - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    This work is an exploration of divine command theory, which is the theory that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it.
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  7. Divine Command Ethics: An Argument in Favor of the Command Over the Will Formulation.Fred Richard Jensen - 2003 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    Since the 1970s, contemporary ethical theories metaphysically grounded in the activities of God have enjoyed a resurgence of philosophical interest. These so-called "divine command" theories can be divided into two major formulations: command and will. Today, most of the notable "divine command" ethicists embrace the will formulation in preference to the command formulation. ;In this work I will defend the command formulation from some important attacks and argue that the will formulation suffers from such a fundamental and, I believe, serious (...)
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  8. Command and the Neural Causation of Behavior.Randolf Didomenico - 1988 - Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder
    The concept of command is central to motor control theories and explanations for the initiation of behavior patterns. As currently conceived, command is a process of individual command neurons that receive sensory and other integrative information and trigger the expression of behavioral acts. I review the theory and methods used to show the existence of neurons mediating command function according to a major approach, which I call the Command Neuron Experiment . The CNE claims that command neurons are the cause (...)
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  9. Law as "Act of Reason" and "Command".Fulvio Di Blasi - 2006 - Nova Et Vetera 4:515-528.
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  10. Lost Command: "Benito Cereno" Reconsidered.George Knox - 1959 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 40 (3):280.
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  11. A Relational Moral Theory: Global Ethics in the Light of African Values.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
  12. Sidgwick on Consequentialism and Deontology: A Critique.Thomas Hurka - 2014 - Utilitas 26 (2):129-152.
    In The Methods of Ethics Henry Sidgwick argued against deontology and for consequentialism. More specifically, he stated four conditions for self-evident moral truth and argued that, whereas no deontological principles satisfy all four conditions, the principles that generate consequentialism do. This article argues that both his critique of deontology and his defence of consequentialism fail, largely for the same reason: that he did not clearly grasp the concept W. D. Ross later introduced of a prima facie duty or duty other (...)
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  13. A Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1997 - In Thomas L. Carson & Paul K. Moser (eds.), Morality and the Good Life. Oup Usa.
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  14. Justice, Contestability, and Conceptions of the Good.I. Barry'S. Argument - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (3).
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  15. Understanding Peace Within Contemporary Moral Theory.Court Lewis - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (4):1049-1068.
    In this essay, I continue Nicholas Wolterstorff’s work of developing a rights-based theory of ethics called eirenéism, which maintains the good life only occurs when justice—as a moral state of affairs where agents enjoy the goods to which they have a right—is achieved. As a result, justice is eirenē (the Greek word for peace). In the process of developing eirenéism I explain how eirenē differs from other conceptions of peace, and I offer several interpretive arguments for how best to understand (...)
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  16. Divine Command.John E. Hare - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Divine Command defends the thesis that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it, and what makes something morally forbidden is that God forbids it. John E. Hare successfully defends a version of divine command theory, but also shows that there is considerable overlap with some versions of natural law theory. Hare engages with a number of Christian theologians, most especially Karl Barth, and extends into a discussion of divine command within Judaism and Islam. The work concludes by (...)
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  17. Divine Command Theory.Philip L. Quinn - 2000 - In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell. pp. 53--73.
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  18. The Concept of a Divine Command.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1996 - In D. Z. Phillips (ed.), Religion and Morality. St. Martin's Press. pp. 59--80.
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  19. Some Suggestions for Divine Command Theorists.William Alston - 1990 - In M. Beaty (ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 303--326.
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  20. Note on the Command Held by Seleukos, 323–321 B.C.Edwyn R. Bevan - 1900 - The Classical Review 14 (08):396-398.
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  21. African Conceptions of Human Dignity: Vitality and Community as the Ground of Human Rights.Thaddeus Metz - 2012 - Human Rights Review 13 (1):19-37.
    I seek to advance enquiry into the philosophical question of in virtue of what human beings have a dignity of the sort that grounds human rights. I first draw on values salient in sub-Saharan African moral thought to construct two theoretically promising conceptions of human dignity, one grounded on vitality, or liveliness, and the other on our communal nature. I then argue that the vitality conception cannot account for several human rights that we intuitively have, while the community conception can (...)
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  22. Are There Command Arguments?Gary A. Wedeking - 1970 - Analysis 30 (5):161 - 166.
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  23. There Are Command Sh-Inferences.Hector-Neri Castañeda - 1971 - Analysis 32 (1):13 - 19.
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  24. Utilitarianism and the Divine Command Theory.Edward Wierenga - 1984 - American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (4):311 - 318.
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  25. Divine Command Theories and the Appeal to Love.John Chandler - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (3):231 - 239.
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  26. What is Deontology?, Part One: Orthodox Viewsa Gerald F. Gaus.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    Current moral philosophy is often seen as essentially a debate between the two great traditions of consequentialism and deontology. Although there has been considerable work clarifying consequentialism, deontology is more often attacked or defended than analyzed. Just how we are to understand the very idea of a deontological ethic? We shall see that competing conceptions of deontology have been advanced in recent ethical thinking, leading to differences in classifying ethical theories. If we do not focus on implausible versions, the idea (...)
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  27. Daniel Kahneman, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz , Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology , Pp. Xii + 593.Fred Feldman - 2006 - Utilitas 18 (2):192.
  28. Robert George , Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1996, Pp. X + 311.T. M. Wilkinson - 1999 - Utilitas 11 (1):134.
  29. A Non-Proportional Hybrid Moral Theory.Tim Mulgan - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (3):291.
    A common objection to consequentialism is that it makes unreasonable demands upon moral agents, by failing to allow agents to give special weight to their own personal projects and interests. A prominent recent response to this objection is that of Samuel Scheffler, who seeks to make room for moral agents by building agent-centred prerogatives into a consequentialist moral theory. In this paper, I present a new objection to Scheffler's account. I then sketch an improved prerogative, which avoids this objection by (...)
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  30. Review of Robert Myers Self-Governance and Cooperation. [REVIEW]Skelton Anthony - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (1):128-130.
  31. Obligation and Rightness.W. D. Falk - 1945 - Philosophy 20 (76):129 - 147.
    Butler observes in the Preface to the Sermons that the subject of morals can be approached in two different ways: “One begins from enquiring into the abstract relations of things: the other from a matter of fact, namely what the particular nature of man is, its several parts, their economy or constitution; from whence it proceeds to determine what course of life it is, which is correspondent to his whole nature. In the former method the conclusion is expressed thus, that (...)
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  32. Scalar Properties, Binary Judgments.Larry Alexander - 2008 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):85–104.
    In the moral realm, our deontic judgments are usually (always?) binary. An act (or omission) is either morally forbidden or morally permissible. 1 Yet the determination of an act's deontic status frequently turns on the existence of properties that are matters of degree. In what follows I shall give several examples of binary moral judgments that turn on scalar properties, and I shall claim that these examples should puzzle us. How can the existence of a property to a specific degree (...)
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  33. Paul Rooney. Divine Command Morality. (Aldershot: Avebury, 1996.) Pp. 128. £32.50.B. A. - 1998 - Religious Studies 34 (2):231-234.
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  34. A Theory of Command Relations.Chris Barker & Geoffrey K. Pullum - 1990 - Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (1):1 - 34.
  35. Ross Harrison, Hobbes, Locke, and Confusion's Masterpiece (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), Pp. 281.Deborah Baumgold - 2005 - Utilitas 17 (3):348-349.
  36. Obligation and Moral Worth: Reflections on Prichard and Kant.Norman O. Dahl - 1986 - Philosophical Studies 50 (3):369 - 399.
  37. Reconsidering Mo Tzu on the Foundations of Morality.Kristopher Duda - 2001 - Asian Philosophy 11 (1):23 – 31.
    Dennis Ahern and David Soles raise substantial problems for the conventional interpretation of Mo Tzu as a utilitarian. Although they defend different interpretations, both scholars agree that Mo Tzu is committed to a divine command theory in some form, citing the same key passages where, supposedly, Mo Tzu explicitly endorses the divine command theory. In this paper, I defend the orthodox interpretation, insisting that Mo Tzu is a utilitarian. I show that the passages cited by Ahern and Soles do not (...)
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  38. Categorical Consistency in Ethics.Alan Gewirth - 1967 - Philosophical Quarterly 17 (69):289-299.
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  39. Two Sets of Concerns About Heath’s Pragmatic Theory of Convergence.Pablo Gilabert - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (2):383-390.
  40. The Recent Revival of Divine Command Ethics.Philip L. Quinn - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:345-365.
  41. The Non-Identity Fallacy: Harm, Probability and Another Look at Parfit's Depletion Example.M. A. Roberts - 2007 - Utilitas 19 (3):267-311.
    The non-identity problem is really a collection of problems having distinct logical features. For that reason, non-identity problems can be typed. This article focuses on just one type of non-identity problem, the problem, which includes Derek Parfit's depletion example and many others. The can't-expect-better problem uses an assessment about the low probability of any particular person's coming into existence to reason that an earlier wrong act does not harm that person. This article argues that that line of reasoning is unusually (...)
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  42. Values and the Heart's Command.Bas C. Van Fraassen - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (1):5-19.
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Divine Command Theories
  1. What If God Commanded Something Horrible? A Pragmatics-Based Defence of Divine Command Metaethics.Philipp Kremers - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-21.
    The objection of horrible commands claims that divine command metaethics is doomed to failure because it is committed to the extremely counterintuitive assumption that torture of innocents, rape, and murder would be morally obligatory if God commanded these acts. Morriston, Wielenberg, and Sinnott-Armstrong have argued that formulating this objection in terms of counterpossibles is particularly forceful because it cannot be simply evaded by insisting on God’s necessary perfect moral goodness. I show that divine command metaethics can be defended even against (...)
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  2. The Prior Obligations Objection to Theological Stateism.Frederick Choo - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (3):372-384.
    Theological stateist theories, the most well-known of which is Divine Command Theory (DCT), ground our moral obligations directly in some state of God. The prior obligations objection poses a challenge to theological stateism. Is there a moral obligation to obey God’s commands? If no, it is hard to see how God’s commands can generate any moral obligations for us. If yes, then what grounds this prior obligation? To avoid circularity, the moral obligation must be grounded independent of God’s commands; and (...)
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  3. What Should Theists Say About Constructivist Positions in Metaethics?Christian Miller - 2018 - In Kevin Jung (ed.), Religious Ethics and Constructivism: A Metaethical Inquiry. New York: Routledge. pp. 82-103.
    Constructivist positions in meta-ethics are on the rise in recent years. Similarly, there has been a flurry of activity amongst theistic philosophers examining the relationship between God and normative facts. But so far as I am aware, these two literatures have almost never intersected with each other. Constructivists have said very little about God, and theists working on religious ethics have said very little about constructivist views in meta-ethics. In this paper, I draw some connections between the two literatures, and (...)
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  4. Aquinas on God-Sanctioned Stealing.Matthew Shea - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):277-293.
    A serious challenge to religious believers in the Abrahamic traditions is that the God of the Old Testament seems to command immoral actions. Thomas Aquinas addresses this objection using the biblical story of God ordering the Israelites to plunder the Egyptians, which threatens to create an inconsistency among four of Aquinas’s views: God did indeed command this action; God is perfectly good and cannot command any evil actions; the objective moral goodness or badness of actions is not based on arbitrary (...)
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  5. In Defence of the Epistemological Objection to Divine Command Theory.John Danaher - 2019 - Sophia 58 (3):381-400.
    Divine command theories come in several different forms but at their core all of these theories claim that certain moral statuses exist in virtue of the fact that God has commanded them to exist. Several authors argue that this core version of the DCT is vulnerable to an epistemological objection. According to this objection, DCT is deficient because certain groups of moral agents lack epistemic access to God’s commands. But there is confusion as to the precise nature and significance of (...)
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  6. Can God’s Goodness Save the Divine Command Theory From Euthyphro?Jeremy Koons - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):177-195.
    Recent defenders of the divine command theory like Adams and Alston have confronted the Euthyphro dilemma by arguing that although God’s commands make right actions right, God is morally perfect and hence would never issue unjust or immoral commandments. On their view, God’s nature is the standard of moral goodness, and God’s commands are the source of all obligation. I argue that this view of divine goodness fails because it strips God’s nature of any features that would make His goodness (...)
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  7. Why Adams Needs to Modify His Divine-Command Theory One More Time.Stephen J. Sullivan - 1994 - Faith and Philosophy 11 (1):72-81.
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  8. The Moral Animal: Virtue, Vice, and Human Nature.Christian Miller, Berlin Heather & Shermer Michael - 2016 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:39-56.
    Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion with philosopher Christian Miller, neuroscientist Heather Berlin, and historian of science Michael Shermer to examine our moral ecology and its influence on our underlying assumptions about human nature.
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