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  1. added 2018-12-13
    Metaphysical and Absolute Possibility.Justin Clarke-Doane - forthcoming - Synthese (special issue).
    It is widely alleged that metaphysical possibility is “absolute” possibility (Kripke [1980], Lewis [1986], Rosen [2006, 16], Stalnaker [2005, 203], Williamson [2016, 460]). Indeed, this is arguably its metaphysical significance. Kripke calls metaphysical necessity “necessity in the highest degree” ([1980, 99]). Williamson calls metaphysical possibility the “maximal objective modality” [2016, 459]. Rosen says that “metaphysical possibility is the [most inclusive] sort of real possibility” ([2006, 16]). And Stalnaker writes, “we can agree with Frank Jackson, David Chalmers, Saul Kripke, David Lewis, (...)
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  2. added 2018-09-06
    Trigger Happy. Ein Kommentar zu Barbara Vetters Potentiality.Markus Schrenk - 2015 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 69 (3):396-402.
    This is a book review of Barbara Vetter's Potentiality. -/- Philosophy is most intriguing when it teaches us seeing differently. Barbara Vetter’s book Po- tentiality & Possibility (OUP 2014) offers us precisely that: a new orthodoxy when it comes to our view of dispositions, possibility, and, most of all, potentiality. And it does so commendably well with the clarity of expression and the precision we often miss in the literature on causal powers and the like. -/- Vetter writes on page (...)
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  3. added 2018-08-19
    A Modality Called ‘Negation’.Francesco Berto - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):761-793.
    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While some candidate negations are then ruled out as violating plausible constraints on compatibility, different specifications of the notion of world support different logical conducts for negations. The approach unifies in a philosophically motivated picture the following (...)
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  4. added 2018-06-04
    The Difference Between Epistemic and Metaphysical Necessity.Martin Glazier - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Philosophers have observed that metaphysical necessity appears to be a true or real or genuine form of necessity while epistemic necessity does not. Similarly, natural necessity appears genuine while deontic necessity does not. But what is it for a form of necessity to be genuine? I defend an account of genuine necessity in explanatory terms. The genuine forms of necessity, I argue, are those that provide what I call necessitarian explanation. I discuss the relationship of necessitarian explanation to ground.
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  5. added 2018-05-28
    Causal Overdetermination: Still Crazy After All These Years. Part I: What Is at Stake?Tuomas K. Pernu - 2018 - Philosophical Forum 49 (2):231-244.
    Causal overdetermination occupies an uncomfortable place within all the major theories of causation. A natural solution to the problems it gives rise to would be to resolve overdetermination into preemption or joint causation. However, such a solution would seem to lead to individuate events in a fragile manner. The issue of such modal fragility is addressed and it is argued that events designated as effects are always fragile in a natural way and the putative problems of adopting modal fragility can (...)
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  6. added 2018-05-23
    Nomothetic Explanation and Humeanism About Laws of Nature.Harjit Bhogal - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics.
    Humeanism about laws of nature — the view that the laws reduce to the Humean mosaic — is a popular view, but currently existing versions face powerful objections. The non-supervenience objection, the non-fundamentality objection and the explanatory circularity objection have all been thought to cause problems for the Humean. However, these objections share a guiding thought — they are all based on the idea that there is a certain kind of divergence between the practice of science and the metaphysical picture (...)
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  7. added 2018-03-27
    Are Fundamental Laws Necessary or Contingent?Noa Latham - 2011 - In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science. MIT Press. pp. 97-112.
    This chapter focuses on the dispute between necessitarians and contingentists, mainly addressing the issue as to whether laws of nature are metaphysically necessary or metaphysically contingent with a weaker kind of necessity, commonly referred to as natural, nomological, or nomic necessity. It is assumed here that all fundamental properties are dispositional or role properties, making the dispute a strictly verbal one. The existence of categorical intrinsic properties as well as dispositional properties is also assumed and the relationship between them examined. (...)
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  8. added 2018-02-07
    The Future, and What Might Have Been.Graeme A. Forbes & R. A. Briggs - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):505-532.
    We show that five important elements of the ‘nomological package’— laws, counterfactuals, chances, dispositions, and counterfactuals—needn’t be a problem for the Growing-Block view. We begin with the framework given in Briggs and Forbes (in The real truth about the unreal future. Oxford studies in metaphysics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012 ), and, taking laws as primitive, we show that the Growing-Block view has the resources to provide an account of possibility, and a natural semantics for non-backtracking causal counterfactuals. We show (...)
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  9. added 2018-02-07
    Two Kinds of Necessity in Descartes: Conditional and Absolute.Saniye Vatansever - 2017 - Filosofia Unisinos 18 (2).
    This paper attempts to resolve the apparent conflict between Descartes’ commitments to the creation doctrine and the necessity of eternal truths by elaborating different conceptions of necessity in Descartes’ framework. More specifically, I argue that the fact that Descartes concedes the necessity of eternal truths does not compel him to assert the impossibility of their negation. Necessity, for Descartes, rather means immutability. Descartes distinguishes two kinds of immutable truths. While truths about God’s essence are absolutely immutable, truths about the essences (...)
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  10. added 2018-02-07
    Essence and Modality. The Quintessence of Husserl's Theory.Kevin Mulligan - 2004 - In Mark Siebel & Markus Textor (eds.), Semantik Und Ontologie: Beiträge Zur Philosophischen Forschung. Ontos Verlag. pp. 387--418.
    Even the most cursory reader of Husserl’s writings must be struck by the frequent references to essences (“Wesen”, “Essenzen”), Ideas (“Idee”), kinds, natures, types and species and to necessities, possibilities, impossi- bilities, necessary possibilities, essential necessities and essential laws. What does Husserl have in mind in talking of essences and modalities? What did he take the relation between essentiality and modality to be? In the absence of answers to these questions it is not clear that a reader of Husserl can (...)
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  11. added 2017-11-06
    Modal Objectivity.Clarke-Doane Justin - forthcoming - Noûs.
    It is widely agreed that the intelligibility of modal metaphysics has been vindicated. Quine's arguments to the contrary supposedly confused analyticity with metaphysical necessity, and rigid with non-rigid designators.2 But even if modal metaphysics is intelligible, it could be misconceived. It could be that metaphysical necessity is not absolute necessity – the strictest real notion of necessity – and that no proposition of traditional metaphysical interest is necessary in every real sense. If there were nothing otherwise “uniquely metaphysically significant” about (...)
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  12. added 2017-11-06
    Modal Objectivity1.Justin Clarke‐Doane - 2017 - Noûs.
    It is widely agreed that the intelligibility of modal metaphysics has been vindicated. Quine's arguments to the contrary supposedly confused analyticity with metaphysical necessity, and rigid with non-rigid designators.2 But even if modal metaphysics is intelligible, it could be misconceived. It could be that metaphysical necessity is not absolute necessity – the strictest real notion of necessity – and that no proposition of traditional metaphysical interest is necessary in every real sense. If there were nothing otherwise “uniquely metaphysically significant” about (...)
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  13. added 2017-11-06
    The Necessity of Contingency or Contingent Necessity: Meillassoux, Hegel, and the Subject.John Van Houdt - 2011 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 7 (1):128-141.
    This article addresses the relationship of contingency to necessity as developed by Quentin Meillassoux and G.W.F. Hegel. Meillassoux criticizes the restriction of possibility by modern philosophy to the conditions of the transcendental subject, which he calls ‘correlationism’, and opposes to this correlationism, mathematics as an absolute form of thought. The arch-figure of a metaphysical version of correlationism for Meillassoux is Hegel. This article argues that, while Meillassoux is right to criticize a version of correlationism for restricting the range of contingency, (...)
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  14. added 2017-09-04
    A Note on Morato on Modality and Explanation.Nathan Wildman - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (5):967-974.
    This brief note critically assesses the central arguments in Morato’s recent contribution to the growing literature on Blackburn’s dilemma about necessity. In particular, I demonstrate that neither of Morato’s two novel reconstructions of the dilemma’s contingency horn succeed, since both turn on false premises; and, Morato fails to adequately motivate his own response to these reconstructions. The upshot is that Morato has set himself a pair of flawed problems, then offered a flawed solution.
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  15. added 2017-07-03
    Modality as a Subject for Science.Timothy Williamson - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (3):415-436.
    Section 1 introduces the category of objective modality, closely related to linguists’ category of circumstantial or dynamic modals, and explains metaphysical modality as its maximal element. Section 2 discusses various kinds of skepticism about modality, as in Hume and recent authors, and argues that it is illmotivated to apply such skepticism to metaphysical modality but not to more restricted objective modalities, including nomic modality. Section 3 suggests that the role of counterfactual conditionals in applications of scientific theories involves an objective (...)
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  16. added 2017-03-10
    Time and necessity, studies in Aristotle's theory of modality.Jaakko Hintikka - 1976 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 166 (2):227-227.
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  17. added 2017-03-10
    Time and Necessity: Studies in Aristotle's Theory of Modality. [REVIEW]W. E. W. St G. Charlton - 1976 - The Classical Review 26 (2):280-280.
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  18. added 2017-03-10
    Meaning and Necessity, A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1958 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (4):558-559.
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  19. added 2017-03-10
    Meaning and Necessity, a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1958 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (35):249-251.
  20. added 2017-03-10
    Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1957 - Philosophy of Science 24 (1):92-92.
  21. added 2017-03-10
    Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1949 - Mind 58 (230):228-238.
  22. added 2017-02-20
    Powers as Causal Truthmakers.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2014 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 3 (4):5--31.
    [EN]Most theories of causation assume that it must involve some kind of necessity, or that the cause must be entirely sufficient for the effect. Others have already suggested that it should be possible to get a theory of causation from a theory of powers or dispositions. Such a project is far from complete but even here we find that the key point in a dispositional theory of causation has been lacking. This paper attempts to establish some of the most important (...)
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  23. added 2017-02-20
    The Inaugural Address: Two Kinds of Possibility.Dorothy Edgington - 2004 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 78:1-22.
    I defend a version of Kripke's claim that the metaphysically necessary and the knowable a priori are independent. On my version, there are two independent families of modal notions, metaphysical and epistemic, neither stronger than the other. Metaphysical possibility is constrained by the laws of nature. Logical validity, I suggest, is best understood in terms of epistemic necessity.
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  24. added 2017-02-20
    Selection From Naming and Necessity.Saul Kripke - 2004 - In Tim Crane & Katalin Farkas (eds.), Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  25. added 2017-02-20
    Two Kinds of Possibility.Dorothy Edgington - 2004 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 78 (1):1-22.
    I defend a version of Kripke's claim that the metaphysically necessary and the knowable a priori are independent. On my version, there are two independent families of modal notions, metaphysical and epistemic, neither stronger than the other. Metaphysical possibility is constrained by the laws of nature. Logical validity, I suggest, is best understood in terms of epistemic necessity.
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  26. added 2017-02-20
    On Sameness and Necessity.Patricia Hanna - 1981 - Philosophical Investigations 4 (2):91-103.
  27. added 2017-02-20
    Naming, Necessity, and Natural Kinds. [REVIEW]Peter Van Inwagen - 1978 - International Studies in Philosophy 10:197-199.
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  28. added 2017-02-20
    ``The Third Possibility&Quot.B. Meltzer - 1964 - Mind 73:430-433.
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  29. added 2017-02-19
    Naming and Necessity.J. E. J. Altham - 1981 - Philosophical Books 22 (1):36-37.
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  30. added 2017-02-19
    Convention, Invention, and Necessity.Joseph L. Esposito - 1980 - Dialectica 34 (3):205-210.
    SummaryPhilosophically speaking, invention is the mother of necessity. This means that Hume's analysis of the idea of necessity utilizing the notion of power, when properly qualified, is essentially sound and not at all a discouraging prospect. The task of the paper, then, is to specify in what respect it is possible to claim, for the various important senses of ‘necessary’, that such a notion is applicable whenever successful control has been exercised.RésuméDu point de vue philosophique, I'invention est la mère de (...)
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  31. added 2017-01-24
    Existence, Necessity, and God.Alvin Plantinga - 1976 - New Scholasticism 50 (1):61-72.
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  32. added 2017-01-24
    The Conception of Necessity as Applied to Nature and to Man.D. G. Ritchie - 1894 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3:19-35.
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  33. added 2017-01-23
    Necessity and Language.Morris Lazerowitz & Alice Ambrose - 2016 - Routledge.
    The problem of necessity remains one of the central issues in modern philosophy. The authors of this volume, originally published in 1985, developed a new approach to the problem, which focusses on the logical grammar of necessary propositions. This volume gathers their seminal essays on the problem of necessity, together with new material at the original time publication.
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  34. added 2017-01-23
    What is Absolute Necessity?Bob Hale - 2012 - Philosophia Scientae 16:117-148.
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  35. added 2017-01-23
    A Dilemma About Necessity.Peter W. Hanks - 2008 - Erkenntnis 68 (1):129-148.
    The problem of the source of necessity is the problem of explaining what makes necessary truths necessarily true. Simon Blackburn has presented a dilemma intended to show that any reductive, realist account of the source of necessity is bound to fail. Although Blackburn's dilemma faces serious problems, reflection on the form of explanations of necessities reveals that a revised dilemma succeeds in defeating any reductive account of the source of necessity. The lesson is that necessity is metaphysically primitive and irreducible.
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  36. added 2017-01-23
    Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth.Colin McGinn - 2000 - Oxford University Press UK.
    'There is much food for thought in McGinn's discussions and each chapter is rich with a series of considerations for thinking that the currently received views on the various topics have some serious difficulties that need confronting... For those interested in metaphysics and the philosophy of logic, this book will stimulate much further thought' -Mind 'The sweep of the book is broad and the pace is brisk... There is much material here to provide the basis for many a deep philosophical (...)
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  37. added 2017-01-23
    Absolute Necessities.Bob Hale - 1996 - Philosophical Perspectives 10:93 - 117.
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  38. added 2017-01-23
    Science and Necessity.Joseph Mendola, John Bigelow & Robert Pargetter - 1993 - Philosophical Review 102 (1):117.
  39. added 2017-01-23
    Review of "Science and Necessity". [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):567-565.
  40. added 2017-01-23
    Necessity and Externality.Quassim Cassam - 1986 - Mind 95 (380):446-464.
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  41. added 2017-01-23
    Naming Without Necessity.Joseph Almog - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (4):210-242.
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  42. added 2017-01-23
    Meaning and Modality.H. M. J. - 1977 - Review of Metaphysics 31 (2):323-324.
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  43. added 2017-01-23
    On Necessity de Dicto.Howard Burdick - 1972 - Philosophia 2 (1-2):85-115.
  44. added 2017-01-23
    The Philosophy of Possibility.James Lindsay - 1922 - The Monist 32 (3):321-338.
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  45. added 2016-12-19
    How to Reconcile Essence with Contingent Existence.Stephen K. McLeod - 2008 - Ratio 21 (3):314-328.
    To reconcile true claims of de re necessity with the supposedly contingent existence of the concrete objects those claims are typically about, Kripkean essentialists invoke weak necessity. The claim that a is necessarily F is held to be equivalent to the claim that necessarily, if a exists then a is F. This strategy faces a barrage of serious objections a proper subset of which shows that the strategy fails to achieve its intended purpose. Relief can be provided via recourse to (...)
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  46. added 2016-12-12
    Thoughts: Papers on Mind, Meaning, and Modality.Stephen Yablo - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The real distinction between mind and body -- Is conceivability a guide to possibility? -- Textbook kripkeanism and the open texture of concepts -- Coulda, woulda, shoulda -- No fool's cold : notes on illusions of possibility -- Beyond rigidification : the importance of being really actual -- How in the world? -- Mental causation -- Singling out properties -- Wide causation -- Causal relevance : mental, moral, and epistemic.
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  47. added 2016-12-08
    Strong And Weak Possibility.Jason Turner - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 125 (2):191-217.
    The thesis of existentialism holds that if a proposition p exists and predicates something of an object a, then in any world where a does not exist, p does not exist either. If “possibly, p” entails “in some possible world, the proposition that p exists and is true,” then existentialism is prima facie incompatible with the truth of claims like “possibly, the Eiffel Tower does not exist.” In order to avoid this claim, a distinction between two kinds of world-indexed truth (...)
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  48. added 2016-12-08
    The Only Necessity is Verbal Necessity.Bas C. van Fraassen - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (2):71-85.
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  49. added 2016-12-08
    The Nature of Necessity.Alvin Plantinga (ed.) - 1974 - Clarendon Press.
    This book, one of the first full-length studies of the modalities to emerge from the debate to which Saul Kripke, David Lewis, Ruth Marcus, and others are contributing, is an exploration and defense of the notion of modality de re, the idea that objects have both essential and accidental properties. Plantinga develops his argument by means of the notion of possible worlds and ranges over such key problems as the nature of essence, transworld identity, negative existential propositions, and the existence (...)
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  50. added 2016-11-28
    Energeia and Dunamis.Stephen Makin - 2012 - In Christopher Shields (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle. Oup Usa. pp. 400.
    Modalities enter into practically every area of contemporary philosophy. Great progress has been made in understanding the variety of differences between what is possible, what is actual, and what is necessary. But things were not always so clear. We owe a great debt in this area, as in so many others, to Aristotle, who had a lot to say on the topic, part of which comprises his discussion and use of the actuality/potentiality distinction. One important task in understanding his discussion (...)
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