Varieties of Modality, Misc

Edited by Barbara Vetter (Freie Universität Berlin, Oxford University)
Assistant editor: Steffen Koch (University of Cologne)
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  1. God, Possibility, and Kant.Robert Merrihew Adams - 2000 - Faith and Philosophy 17 (4):425-440.
    In one of his precritical works, Kant defends, as “the only possible” way of demonstrating the existence of God, an argument from the nature of possibility. Whereas Leibniz had argued that possibilities must be thought by God in order to obtain the ontological standing that they need, Kant argued that at least the most fundamental possibilities must be exemplified in God. Here Kant’s argument is critically examined in comparison with its Leibnizian predecessor, and it is suggested that an argument combining (...)
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  2. Descartes, Conceivability, and Logical Modality.Lilli Alanen - 1991 - In Tamara Horowitz (ed.), Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield.
    This paper examines Descartes' controversial theory of the creation of eternal truths and the views of modality attributed to Descartes in recent interpretations of it. It shows why attempts to make Descartes' view intelligible by distinctions of different kinds of modality fail to do justice to his theory, which is radical indeed without being incoherent or involving universal possibilism or irrationalism. Descartes' opposition to traditional rationalist views of modality, it suggests, can be seen instead as foreshadowing contemporary views prefixed, logical (...)
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  3. Naming Without Necessity.Joseph Almog - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (4):210-242.
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  4. Naming and Necessity.J. E. J. Altham - 1981 - Philosophical Books 22 (1):36-37.
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  5. Powers as Causal Truthmakers.Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford - 2014 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 3 (4):5--31.
    [EN]Most theories of causation assume that it must involve some kind of necessity, or that the cause must be entirely sufficient for the effect. Others have already suggested that it should be possible to get a theory of causation from a theory of powers or dispositions. Such a project is far from complete but even here we find that the key point in a dispositional theory of causation has been lacking. This paper attempts to establish some of the most important (...)
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  6. Geometric Possibility.Gordon Belot - 2013 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Gordon Belot investigates the distinctive notion of geometric possibility that relationalists rely upon. He examines the prospects for adapting to the geometric case the standard philosophical accounts of the related notion of physical possibility, with particular emphasis on Humean, primitivist, and necessitarian accounts of physical and geometric possibility. This contribution to the debate concerning the nature of space will be of interest not only to philosophers and metaphysicians concerned with space and time, but also to those interested in laws of (...)
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  7. Alethic Modalities, Temporal Modalities, and Representation.Jiri Benovsky - 2015 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 29:18-34.
    In this article, I am interested in four versions of what is often referred to as "the Humphrey objection". This objection was initially raised by Kripke against Lewis's modal counterpart theory, so this is where I will start the discussion. As we will see, there is a perfectly good answer to the objection. I will then examine other places where a similar objection can be raised: it can arise in the case of temporal counterpart theory (in fact, it can arise (...)
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  8. Lange and Laws, Kinds, and Counterfactuals.Alexander Bird - 2011 - In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at its Joints. MIT Press.
    In this paper I examine and question Marc Lange’s account of laws, and his claim that the law delineating the range of natural kinds of fundamental particle has a lesser grade of necessity that the laws connecting the fundamental properties of those kinds with their derived properties.
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  9. Varieties of Necessity.David Braine & Michael Clark - 1972 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 46 (1):139 - 187.
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  10. On Necessity de Dicto.Howard Burdick - 1972 - Philosophia 2 (1-2):85-115.
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  11. Free Will and the Problem of Evil.James Cain - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (4):437-456.
    According to the free-will defence, the exercise of free will by creatures is of such value that God is willing to allow the existence of evil which comes from the misuse of free will. A well-known objection holds that the exercise of free will is compatible with determinism and thus, if God exists, God could have predetermined exactly how the will would be exercised; God could even have predetermined that free will would be exercised sinlessly. Thus, it is held, the (...)
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  12. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Carnap Rudolf - 1957 - Philosophy of Science 24 (1):92-92.
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  13. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Carnap Rudolf - 1949 - Mind 58 (230):228-238.
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  14. Meaning and Necessity, A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1958 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (4):558-559.
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  15. Meaning and Necessity, a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1958 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (35):249-251.
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  16. Necessity and Externality.Quassim Cassam - 1986 - Mind 95 (380):446-464.
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  17. The Tyranny of the Subjunctive.David J. Chalmers - manuscript
    (1a) If Prince Albert Victor killed those people, he is Jack the Ripper (and Jack the Ripper killed those people). (1b) If Prince Albert Victor had killed those people, Jack the Ripper wouldn't have (and Prince Albert wouldn't have been Jack the Ripper).
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  18. Sources of Essence.Hugh S. Chandler - 1986 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 11 (1):379-389.
    Almost everyone believes in modality de dicto. Necessarily, puppies are young dogs. The necessity here derives from the meaning of “puppy.” The term means young dog. Essentialism is belief in a more exotic sort of modality, one that does not derive from meaning in this direct and simple way. In the first two sections of this paper, I consider indexical and nonindexical kind terms and the sort of modality applicable to each. In the last section, I consider individuals and proper (...)
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  19. Time and Necessity: Studies in Aristotle's Theory of Modality. [REVIEW]W. E. W. St G. Charlton - 1976 - The Classical Review 26 (2):280-280.
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  20. Around the Tree: Semantic and Metaphysical Issues Concerning Branching and the Open Future.Fabrice Correia & Andrea Iacona (eds.) - 2013 - Springer.
    Over the past few years, the tree model of time has been widely employed to deal with issues concerning the semantics of tensed discourse. The thought that has motivated its adoption is that the most plausible way to make sense of indeterminism is to conceive of future possibilities as branches that depart from a common trunk, constituted by the past and the present. However, the thought still needs to be further articulated and defended, and several important questions remain open, such (...)
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  21. Les Catégories de la Modalité.André Darbon & Madelaine Lagarce-Darbon - 1956 - Presses Universitaires de France.
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  22. Contingent A Priori and Two Kinds of Necessity.Erhan Demircioğlu - 2004 - Felsefe Tartismalari 32:47-64.
    Kripke argues that the existence of a priori contingent truths shows the falsity of the traditional idea that the notions of necessity and a priority are coextensional. In this paper, I maintain that the traditional coexistensionality thesis is defendable. I contend that the propositions that are alleged to be a priori contingent truths by Kripke are propositions that express contingent facts and, at the same time, are necessarily true. That they are necessarily true is not because of their metaphysical aspects (...)
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  23. Temporal Necessity and Logical Fatalism.Joseph Diekemper - 2004 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 104 (3):287–294.
    I begin by briefly mentioning two different logical fatalistic argument types: one from temporal necessity, and one from antecedent truth value. It is commonly thought that the latter of these involves a simple modal fallacy and is easily refuted, and that the former poses the real threat to an open future. I question the conventional wisdom regarding these argument types, and present an analysis of temporal necessity that suggests the anti-fatalist might be better off shifting her argumentative strategy. Specifically, two (...)
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  24. Supervenience and Necessity: A Response to Balaguer.J. M. Dieterle - 2000 - Philosophia Mathematica 8 (3):302-309.
  25. Manifesting Belief in Absolute Necessity.John Divers & Daniel Elstein - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 158 (1):109-130.
    McFetridge (in Logical necessity and other essays . London: Blackwell, 1990 ) suggests that to treat a proposition as logically necessary—to believe a proposition logically necessary, and to manifest that belief—is a matter of preparedness to deploy that proposition as a premise in reasoning from any supposition. We consider whether a suggestion in that spirit can be generalized to cover all cases of absolute necessity, both logical and non-logical, and we conclude that it can. In Sect. 2, we explain the (...)
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  26. More on the Possibility of God.Clement Dore - 1990 - Faith and Philosophy 7 (3):340-343.
    In this paper, I draw a distinction between two kinds of impossibility and maintain that one is entitled to suppose that they do not obtain, in the absence of a reason to think that they do. I claim that there is no reason to think that the first kind obtains with respect to God and that, though there are nonnegligible arguments that the second kind does, my argument for the possibility of God, which appeared in an earlier volume of this (...)
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  27. The Inaugural Address: Two Kinds of Possibility.Dorothy Edgington - 2004 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 78:1-22.
    I defend a version of Kripke's claim that the metaphysically necessary and the knowable a priori are independent. On my version, there are two independent families of modal notions, metaphysical and epistemic, neither stronger than the other. Metaphysical possibility is constrained by the laws of nature. Logical validity, I suggest, is best understood in terms of epistemic necessity.
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  28. Two Kinds of Possibility.Dorothy Edgington - 2004 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78 (1):1–22.
    I defend a version of Kripke's claim that the metaphysically necessary and the knowable a priori are independent. On my version, there are two independent families of modal notions, metaphysical and epistemic, neither stronger than the other. Metaphysical possibility is constrained by the laws of nature. Logical validity, I suggest, is best understood in terms of epistemic necessity.
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  29. Two Kinds of Possibility.Dorothy Edgington - 2004 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 78 (1):1-22.
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  30. Convention, Invention, and Necessity.Joseph L. Esposito - 1980 - Dialectica 34 (3):205-210.
    SummaryPhilosophically speaking, invention is the mother of necessity. This means that Hume's analysis of the idea of necessity utilizing the notion of power, when properly qualified, is essentially sound and not at all a discouraging prospect. The task of the paper, then, is to specify in what respect it is possible to claim, for the various important senses of ‘necessary’, that such a notion is applicable whenever successful control has been exercised.RésuméDu point de vue philosophique, I'invention est la mère de (...)
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  31. Modality and Tense.Kit Fine - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
  32. Varieties of Necessity.Kit Fine - 2002 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford Up. pp. 253-281.
    It is argued that there are three main forms of necessity --the metaphysical, the natural and the normative--and that none of them is reducible to the others or to any other form of necessity. In arguing for a distinctive form of natural necessity, it is necessary to refute a version of the doctrine of scientific essentialism; and in arguing for a distinctive form of normative necessity, it is necessary to refute certain traditional and contemporary versions of ethical naturalism.
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  33. Analyticity and Conceptual Revision.Milton Fisk - 1966 - Journal of Philosophy 63 (20):627-637.
    The view that analytic propositions are those which are true in virtue of rules of use is basically correct. But there are many kinds of rules of use, and rules of some of these kinds do not generate truth. There is nothing like a grammatical analytic, though grammatical rules are rules of use. So, this rules-of-use view falls short of being an explanatory account. My problem is to find what it is that is special about those rules of use which (...)
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  34. Mathematical Necessity and Reality.James Franklin - 1989 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67 (3):286 – 294.
    Einstein, like most philosophers, thought that there cannot be mathematical truths which are both necessary and about reality. The article argues against this, starting with prima facie examples such as "It is impossible to tile my bathroom floor with regular pentagonal tiles." Replies are given to objections based on the supposedly purely logical or hypothetical nature of mathematics.
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  35. Accidental Necessity and Logical Determinism.Alfred J. Freddoso - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (5):257-278.
    This paper attempts to construct a systematic and plausible account of the necessity of the past. The account proposed is meant to explicate the central ockhamistic thesis of the primacy of the pure present and to vindicate Ockham's own non-Aristotelian response to the challenge of logical determinism.
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  36. Modal Logic.James W. Garson - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  37. B is Innocent.D. Gregory - 2001 - Analysis 61 (3):225-229.
    The paper replies to an earlier paper by Yannis Stephanou, who presented an argument purportedly showing the falsity of certain instances of the characteristic axiom of the modal logic B. The paper argues that the B axiom was not to blame for the unsoundness of Stephanou's argument.
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  38. All Kinds of Possibility.Ian Hacking - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (3):321-337.
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  39. Possibility.Ian Hacking - 1967 - Philosophical Review 76 (2):143-168.
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  40. What is Absolute Necessity?Bob Hale - 2012 - Philosophia Scientiae 16 (2):117-148.
    On pourrait définir la nécessité absolue comme la vérité dans absolument tous les mondes possibles sans restriction. Mais nous devrions être capables de l’expliquer sans invoquer les mondes possibles. J’envisage trois definitions alternatives de : « Il est absolument nécessaire que p » et défends une définition contrefactuelle généralisée : ∀q.Je montre que la nécessité absolue satisfait le principe S5 et soutiens que la nécessité logique est absolue. Je discute ensuite des relations entre la nécessité logique et la nécessité métaphysique, (...)
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  41. What is Absolute Necessity?Bob Hale - 2012 - Philosophia Scientae 16:117-148.
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  42. Absolute Necessities.Bob Hale - 1996 - Philosophical Perspectives 10:93 - 117.
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  43. Relative Necessity Reformulated.Bob Hale & Jessica Leech - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (1):1-26.
    This paper discusses some serious difficulties for what we shall call the standard account of various kinds of relative necessity, according to which any given kind of relative necessity may be defined by a strict conditional - necessarily, if C then p - where C is a suitable constant proposition, such as a conjunction of physical laws. We argue, with the help of Humberstone, that the standard account has several unpalatable consequences. We argue that Humberstone’s alternative account has certain disadvantages, (...)
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  44. A Dilemma About Necessity.Peter W. Hanks - 2007 - Erkenntnis 68 (1):129-148.
    The problem of the source of necessity is the problem of explaining what makes necessary truths necessarily true. Simon Blackburn has presented a dilemma intended to show that any reductive, realist account of the source of necessity is bound to fail. Although Blackburn's dilemma faces serious problems, reflection on the form of explanations of necessities reveals that a revised dilemma succeeds in defeating any reductive account of the source of necessity. The lesson is that necessity is metaphysically primitive and irreducible.
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  45. On Sameness and Necessity.Patricia Hanna - 1981 - Philosophical Investigations 4 (2):91-103.
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  46. The Necessity of Natures.Rom Harré & G. J. Moran - 1973 - Dialogue 12 (2):318-321.
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  47. Possibility and Actuality.Nicolai Hartmann - 2013 - Walter de Gruyter.
    From a different perspective, “essential actuality” is related to logical actuality. It means plain existence in the ideal sphere of being. One is familiar with this, for example, in “mathematical existence.” This does not merge with validity, but implies ...
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  48. Time and necessity, studies in Aristotle's theory of modality.Jaakko Hintikka - 1976 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 166 (2):227-227.
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  49. (In)Determinism, Branching Time, and Branching Space.Alexander Hughes - manuscript
    The branching time analysis grounds the possibilities entailed by temporal indeterminism in a branching temporal structure. I construct a spatial analog of the branching time analysis – the branching space analysis – according to which the possibilities entailed by spatial indeterminism are grounded in branching spatial structure. The construction proceeds in such a way as to show the analogies between the branching space and branching time analyses. I argue that the two views are a package. In particular: the theoretical virtues (...)
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  50. Modality.Lloyd Humberstone - 2005 - In Frank Jackson & Michael Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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