About this topic
Summary The vegetative state (VS) and coma are categorized as disorders of consciousness. Both are states of unconsciousness, in which patients are defined as being unaware; the VS is a state of wakeful unconsciousness, in which patients experience sleep/wake cycles, which distinguishes it from coma. It has long been suspected that the rate of misdiagnosis in the VS is as high as 40%. That is, ~40% of patients diagnosed as unconsciousness may in fact be conscious. Recent neuroscientific developments, particularly in functional neuroimaging, have identified patients who are functionally locked in, unable to respond behaviorally, but able to wilfully modulate their brain activity to indicate that they are conscious. This has resulted in an effort to rename the VS as Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS), both to more accurately describe the condition, and to remove the stigma and negative associations of the term "vegetative" (and the pejorative "vegetable").The key ethical issues with VS and Coma are the right to die and the value of life in a state of unconsciousness, along with ancillary questoins about precedent autonomy. Other ethical issues include the high rate of misdiagnosis, controversy concerning the concept of brain-based "behavior," and questions about quality of life and the best interests of unconscious persons.
Key works After years of clinical neglect and nihilism, a veritable explosion of research into disorders of consciousness in recent years has prompted considerable bioethical debate, as well as reconsideration of key concepts in consciousness studies. Capron provides an overview of the issues and debates here (Capron 1991). Shewmon interrogates the concept of the vegetative state (Shewmon 2004) here; Stins and Laureys (Stins & Laureys 2009); Monti et al (Monti et al 2010), and Owen et al (Owen et al 2007) discuss the ramifications of brain-based "behavior" and the detection of covert consciousness through functional imaging paradigms. Brukamp ( Brukamp 2013) considers whether a new right attaches to patients with disorders of consciousness, in light of recent neuroscientific evidence: a right to the right diagnosis. Panksepp considers the status of the "mind" in the VS (Panksepp et al 2007); and Levy&Savulescu evaluate the moral significance of phenomenal consciousness in ethical debates.
Introductions Knight 2008; Jox & Kuehlmeyer 2013; Jennett 2006; Goodman 2009; Illes & Sahakian 2011.
Related categories

2 found
Order:
  1. Nutrition and Hydration.I. Assure You That May - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. The French Vegetative State.M. H. Boucand & P. Ver Le Gall - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Severe Organic Brain Syndrome.Eduardo Bruera - forthcoming - Journal of Palliative Care.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue.Athina Demertzi, Eric Racine, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Didier Ledoux, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie Thonnard, Andrea Soddu, Gustave Moonen & Steven Laureys - forthcoming - Neuroethics.
  5. Vegetative States in Children.Geoffrey Miller & Stephen Ashwal - forthcoming - Pediatric Bioethics.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Michael's Short Story: Infant Nutrition and Hydration Discussed with the Ethics Committee Twice.Christine Mitchell & Robert Truog - forthcoming - Journal of Clinical Ethics.
  7. Hydration and Nutrition: Medical, Legal, and Ethical Obligations.Mark Siegler - forthcoming - Scarce Medical Resources and Justice.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Of Medical Nutrition and Hydration.Thomas A. Summon & Iames I. Walter - forthcoming - Bioethics: Basic Writings on the Key Ethical Questions That Surround the Major, Modern Biological Possibilities and Problems.
  9. Further Reflections: Surrogate Decisionmaking When Significant Mental Capacities Are Retained.Jennifer Hawkins - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):192-198.
    Mackenzie Graham has made an important contribution to the literature on decisionmaking for patients with disorders of consciousness. He argues, and I agree, that decisions for unresponsive patients who are known to retain some degree of covert awareness ought to focus on current interests, since such patients likely retain the kinds of mental capacities that in ordinary life command our current respect and attention. If he is right, then it is not appropriate to make decisions for such patients by appealing (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. All Things Considered: Surrogate Decision-Making on Behalf of Patients in the Minimally Conscious State.L. Syd M. Johnson & Kathy L. Cerminara - 2020 - Clinical Ethics 15 (3):111-119.
    The minimally conscious state presents unique ethical, legal, and decision-making challenges because of the combination of diminished awareness, phenomenal experience, and diminished or absent comm...
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Brain Death: What We Are and When We Die.Lukas Meier - 2020 - Dissertation, University of St. Andrews
    When does a human being cease to exist? For millennia, the answer to this question had remained largely unchanged: death had been diagnosed when heartbeat and breathing were permanently absent. Only comparatively recently, in the 1950s, rapid developments in intensive-care medicine called into question this widely accepted criterion. What had previously been deemed a permanent cessation of vital functions suddenly became reversible. -/- A new criterion of death was needed. It was suggested that the destruction of the brain could indicate (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Are the Irreversibly Comatose Still Here? The Destruction of Brains and the Persistence of Persons.Lukas J. Meier - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):99-103.
    When an individual is comatose while parts of her brain remain functional, the question arises as to whether any mental characteristics are still associated with this brain, that is, whether the person still exists. Settling this uncertainty requires that one becomes clear about two issues: the type of functional loss that is associated with the respective profile of brain damage and the persistence conditions of persons. Medical case studies can answer the former question, but they are not concerned with the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  13. Still Human: A Thomistic Analysis of ‘Persistent Vegetative State’.Stewart Clem - 2019 - Studies in Christian Ethics 32 (1):46-55.
    Would Aquinas hold the view that a patient in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) is something other than a human being? Some recent interpreters have argued for this position. I contend that this reading is grounded in a false symmetry between the three stages of Aquinas’s embryology and the (alleged) three-stage process of death. Instead, I show that there are textual grounds for rejecting the view that the absence of higher brain activity in a patient would lead Aquinas to say (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Placing Pure Experience of Eastern Tradition Into the Neurophysiology of Western Tradition.Andrew And Alexander Fingelkurts - 2019 - Cognitive Neurodynamics 13 (1):121-123.
    While the presence or absence of consciousness plays the central role in the moral/ethical decisions when dealing with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), recently it is criticized as not adequate due to number of reasons, among which are the lack of the uniform definition of consciousness and consequently uncertainty of diagnostic criteria for it, as well as irrelevance of some forms of consciousness for determining a patient’s interests and wishes. In her article, Dr. Specker Sullivan reexamined the meaning of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  15. Actual Physical Potentiality for Consciousness.Andrew And Alexander Fingelkurts - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (1):24-25.
    Dr. Vukov analyzing patients with disorders of consciousness, proposed that medical well-regarded policy recommendations cannot be justified by looking solely to patients’ actual levels of consciousness (minimally conscious state – MCS versus vegetative state – VS), but that they can be justified by looking to patients’ potential for consciousness. One objective way to estimate this potential (actual physical possibility) is to consider a neurophysiologically informed strategy. Ideally such strategy would utilize objective brain activity markers of consciousness/unconsciousness. The Operational Architectonics (OA) (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. 意識測量儀初登場.Timothy Joseph Lane - 2018 - Scientific American 193:38-42.
    意識是如此不可捉摸又抽象的概念,「測量」意識簡直就像科幻小說情節。科學家近年來在這方面已大有進展,藉由各項腦造影技術和實驗手法,能夠分析不同意識狀態下的大腦活動型態。.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. When Does Consciousness Matter? Lessons From the Minimally Conscious State.Joseph Vukov - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (1):5-15.
    Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) fall into a different diagnostic category than patients in the more familiar vegetative states (VS). Not only are MCS patients conscious in some sense, they have a higher chance for recovery than VS patients. Because of these differences, we ostensibly have reason to provide MCS patients with care that goes beyond what we provide to patients with some VS patients. But how to justify this differential treatment? I argue we can’t justify it solely (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  18. Should We Treat Vegetative and Minimally Conscious Patients as Persons?Matthew Braddock - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (2):267-280.
    How should we treat patients diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) or minimally conscious state (MCS)? More specifically, should we treat them as having the full moral status of persons? Yes, or so we argue. First, we introduce the medical conditions of PVS, MCS, and the related conditions of Locked-in Syndrome and covert awareness. Second, we characterize the main argument for thinking diagnosed PVS patients are not persons. Third, we contend that this argument is defeated by mounting (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  19. The Uncertainty of Consciousness and Why It Is Important.Matthew Braddock - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (3):155-157.
    How should we treat patients diagnosed with disorders of consciousness, such as patients diagnosed as minimally conscious or vegetative (yet who very well may be conscious)? Fischer and Truog (2017) argue that the consciousness and equal rights of these patients are relatively unimportant when deciding how we should treat them. That is, we should deemphasize their consciousness and equal rights and instead privilege the value judgments of the family/surrogate. We disagree. Drawing upon precautionary reasoning that we develop in Braddock (2017), (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Longitudinal Dynamics of 3-Dimensional Components of Selfhood After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A qEEG Case Study.Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts - 2017 - Clinical EEG and Neuroscience (5):327-337.
    In this report, we describe the case of a patient who sustained extremely severe traumatic brain damage with diffuse axonal injury in a traffic accident and whose recovery was monitored during 6 years. Specifically, we were interested in the recovery dynamics of 3-dimensional components of selfhood (a 3-dimensional construct model for the complex experiential selfhood has been recently proposed based on the empirical findings on the functional-topographical specialization of 3 operational modules of brain functional network responsible for the self-consciousness processing) (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  21. Unconscious Volition.Nada Gligorov - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (3):151-152.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics.L. Syd M. Johnson & Karen S. Rommelfanger (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    _The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics_ offers the reader an informed view of how the brain sciences are being used to approach, understand, and reinvigorate traditional philosophical questions, as well as how those questions, with the grounding influence of neuroscience, are being revisited beyond clinical and research domains. It also examines how contemporary neuroscience research might ultimately impact our understanding of relationships, flourishing, and human nature. The _Handbook_ features easy-to-follow chapters that appear here for the first time in print and—written by (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Consciousness, Intention, and Command-Following in the Vegetative State.Colin Klein - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (1):27-54.
    Some vegetative state patients show fMRI responses similar to those of healthy controls when instructed to perform mental imagery tasks. Many authors have argued that this provides evidence that such patients are in fact conscious, as response to commands requires intentional agency. I argue for an alternative reading, on which responsive patients have a deficit similar to that seen in severe forms of akinetic mutism. Akinetic mutism is marked by the inability to form and maintain intentions to act. Responsive patients (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  24. The Morality of Experience Machines for Palliative and End of Life Care.Dan Weijers - 2017 - In Mark Silcox (ed.), Experience Machines: The Philosophy of Virtual Worlds. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 183-201.
    Experience machines, popularized in print by Robert Nozick and on the screen by the Wachowskis’ film The Matrix, provide highly or perfectly realistic experiences that are more pleasant and less painful than those generated in real life.1 The recent surge in virtual reality and neuro-prosthetic technologies is making the creation of real-world experience machines seem inevitable and perhaps imminent.2 Given the likelihood of the near-future availability of such machines, it behooves ethicists to consider the moral status of their potential uses. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25. An Aristotelian Naturalist Perspective on Artificial Nutrition and Hydration.Paolo Biondi - 2016 - Diametros 50:138-151.
    This polemical note looks at the ethical issue of providing artificial nutrition and hydration to patients with advanced dementia from the perspective of an Aristotelian and naturalist ethics. I argue that this issue may be considered in terms of the Aristotelian notion of eudaimonia, well-being. I present a number of facts about the conditions of human life that contribute to eudaimonia. In addition, I present a number of facts about advanced dementia as well as clarify the goals of medicine. From (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. Normal Brain Response to Propofol in Advance of Recovery From Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome.Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Rober Boshra, Heung Kan Ma, Richard Mah, Kyle Ruiter, Michael Avidan, John F. Connolly & George A. Mashour - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  27. The Future of Inductive Risk for Disorders of Consciousness.Parker Crutchfield - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):56-57.
  28. Persistent Vegetative State, Akinetic Mutism and Consciousness.Will Davies & Neil Levy - 2016 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage. Oxford University Press. pp. 122-136.
  29. Response: Commentary: Cortical Responses to Salient Nociceptive and Not Nociceptive Stimuli in Vegetative and Minimal Conscious State.Marina de Tommaso - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  30. Can Self-Relevant Stimuli Help Assessing Patients with Disorders of Consciousness?Renata del Giudice, Christine Blume, Malgorzata Wislowska, Julia Lechinger, Dominik P. J. Heib, Gerald Pichler, Johann Donis, Gabriele Michitsch, Maria-Teresa Gnjezda, Mauricio Chinchilla, Calixto Machado & Manuel Schabus - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:51-60.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. The Chief Role of Frontal Operational Module of the Brain Default Mode Network in the Potential Recovery of Consciousness From the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Comparison of Three Case Reports.Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi - 2016 - The Open Neuroimaging Journal 10:41-51.
    It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of ‘I’ experience (including autobiographical (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  32. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could Be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study.Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi - 2016 - The Open Neuroimaging Journal 10:69-79.
    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  33. Intrinsic Brain Connectivity in Chronic Pain: A Resting-State fMRI Study in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.Pär Flodin, Sofia Martinsen, Reem Altawil, Eva Waldheim, Jon Lampa, Eva Kosek & Peter Fransson - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  34. Assisted Nutrition and Hydration as Supportive Care During Illness.Barbara Golder, E. Wesley Ely, John Raphael, Ashley K. Fernandes & Annmarie Hosie - 2016 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 16 (3):435-448.
    Confusion surrounds Catholic teaching on the use of assisted nutrition and hydration, specifically the question of when, if ever, its refusal or removal is ethical. This paper focuses on two often-neglected considerations: the relationship between means and mechanism, and an assessment of proportionality of the mechanism from the patient’s perspective. The authors draw on two critical principles of Catholic moral teaching: only ordinary means are required, and proportionality is subject to the perspective of the patient, not just that of experts (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Polemical Note: Can It Be Unethical to Provide Nutrition and Hydration to Patients with Advanced Dementia?Rachel Haliburton - 2016 - Diametros 50:152-160.
    Patients suffering from advanced dementia present ethicists and caregivers with a difficult issue: we do not know how they feel or how they want to be treated, and they have no way of telling us. We do not know, therefore, whether we ought to prolong their lives by providing them with nutrition and hydration, or whether we should not provide them with food and water and let them die. Since providing food and water to patients is considered to be basic (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. What’s Good for Them? Best Interests and Severe Disorders of Consciousness.Jennifer Hawkins - 2016 - In Walter Sinnott Armstrong (ed.), Finding Consciousness. Oxford, UK: pp. 180-206.
    I consider the current best interests of patients who were once thought to be either completely unaware (to be in PVS) or only minimally aware (MCS), but who, because of advanced fMRI studies, we now suspect have much more “going on” inside their minds, despite no ability to communicate with the world. My goal in this chapter is twofold: (1) to set out and defend a framework that I think should always guide thinking about the best interests of highly cognitively (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  37. Court Applications for Withdrawal of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration From Patients in a Permanent Vegetative State: Family Experiences.Celia Kitzinger & Jenny Kitzinger - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):11-17.
  38. Perception of Social Support Among Family Caregivers of Vegetative Patients: A Qualitative Study.Esmat Noohi, Hamid Peyrovi, Zahra Imani Goghary & Majid Kazemi - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 41:150-158.
  39. Neuroethics.Adina Roskies - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  40. Intrinsic Functional Plasticity of the Thalamocortical System in Minimally Disabled Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.Fuqing Zhou, Honghan Gong, Qi Chen, Bo Wang, Yan Peng, Ying Zhuang & Chi-Shing Zee - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  41. Alla fine della vita: bioetica e medicina alla ricerca di un confine [At the end of life: bioethics and medicine looking for a boundary].Rosangela Barcaro - 2015 - Laboratorio dell’ISPF.
    Bioethics, neuroscience, medicine are contributing to a debate on the definition and criteria of death. This topic is very controversial, and it demonstrates clashing views on the meaning of human life and death. Official medical and legal positions agree upon a biological definition of death as irreversible cessation of integrated functioning of the organism as a whole, and whole-brain criterion to ascertain death. These positions have to face many criticisms: some scholars speak of logical and practical inconsistency, some others of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Feeding Versus Artificial Nutrition and Hydration: At the Boundaries of Medical Intervention and Social Interaction.Sara M. Bergstresser & Erick Castellanos - 2015 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (2):204-225.
    In this article, we examine the emergence of a concept of medical feeding that emphasizes artificiality and medical technology. We discuss how this concept has been created in specific contrast to the daily provision of food and water; medical definitions retain clear disjunctures with cultural and religious beliefs surrounding food, gendered aspects of eating and feeding, and the everyday practices of social and family life in the United States. We begin with an examination of the historical processes involved in creating (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Cortical Responses to Salient Nociceptive and Not Nociceptive Stimuli in Vegetative and Minimal Conscious State.Marina de Tommaso, Jorge Navarro, Crocifissa Lanzillotti, Katia Ricci, Francesca Buonocunto, Paolo Livrea & Giulio E. Lancioni - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  44. Interpreting Chronic Disorders of Consciousness: Medical Science and Family Experience.Andrew Edgar, Celia Kitzinger & Jenny Kitzinger - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):374-379.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  45. Understanding the Persistent Vegetative State and the Ethics of Care for its Patients.Norman Ford - 2015 - The Australasian Catholic Record 92 (3):317.
    Ford, Norman In 1972 Brian Jennett and Fred Plum recommended the term 'persistent vegetative state' to describe a state of continuing 'wakefulness without awareness', which can follow a variety of severe insults to the brain. Their description of the syndrome has stood the test of time, but PVS continues to be a source of medical, legal, and ethical debate.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Detailed Behavioral Assessment Promotes Accurate Diagnosis in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.Yael Gilutz, Avraham Lazary, Hana Karpin, Jean-Jacques Vatine, Tamar Misha, Hadassah Fortinsky & Haggai Sharon - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  47. Acknowledging Awareness: Informing Families of Individual Research Results for Patients in the Vegetative State.Mackenzie Graham, Charles Weijer, Andrew Peterson, Lorina Naci, Damian Cruse, Davinia Fernández-Espejo, Laura Gonzalez-Lara & Adrian M. Owen - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):534-538.
  48. Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration From Minimally Conscious and Vegetative Patients: Family Perspectives.Celia Kitzinger & Jenny Kitzinger - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2):157-160.
  49. Does Withdrawing Treatment From a Pregnant Persistent Vegetative State Patient Resulting in Her Death Constitute a Termination of Pregnancy?David Jan McQuoid-Mason - 2015 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 8 (1):8.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. Commentary: Cortical Responses to Salient Nociceptive and Not Nociceptive Stimuli in Vegetative and Minimal Conscious State.Antonino Naro & Rocco S. Calabrò - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.