Virtue Ethics

Edited by Jason Kawall (Colgate University)
About this topic
Key works The essential work inspiring much of the virtue ethics tradition is Aristotle & Ostwald 1962.  Many consider David Hume 1751 and Adam Smith 1759) to provide important, sentimentalist virtue ethics in the early modern period.  Contemporary interest in virtue ethics is often traced to Elizabeth Anscombe's [Anscombe 1958: Modern Moral Philosophy 1958.  In the following decades key contemporary works appeared including Foot 1978, Pincoffs 1971, w#, Hursthouse, Slote, Swanton
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  1. Capitalism After Covid: How the Pandemic Might Inspire a More Virtuous Economy.Julian Friedland - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 2 (89):12-15.
    Today, dramatically increasing economic inequality, imminent climatological calamity, and a global pandemic now place the timeless debate over capitalism into stark relief. Though many seek to pin the blame on capitalism’s excesses, they would do well to recall the historical record of socialism’s deficiencies, namely, stifling innovation, lumbering inefficiency, and stagnation. Fortunately, our moral psychology affords a middle way between these two extremes. For while economic incentives have a tendency to let our civic and prosocial impulses atrophy from disuse, these (...)
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  2. African Ethicists.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Tom Angier (ed.), Ethics: The Key Thinkers, 2nd Edition. Bloomsbury.
    Unlike the Chinese, Indian, and Western ethical traditions, the African one had not been text-based until as recently as the 1960s. Since a very large majority of indigenous sub-Saharan societies had oral cultures, there are no classic texts in the field of African ethics and hence also no Big Names; there's nothing comparable to, say, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics or Confucius’ Analects. However, some names and texts have been more influential than others in shaping ethical reflection, particularly over the past 30 (...)
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  3. Why You Cannot Make People Better by Telling Them What is Good.Ulf Hlobil - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    So-called optimists about moral testimony argue, against pessimists, that, ceteris paribus, we ought to accept and act in accordance with trustworthy, pure moral testimony. I argue that even if we grant this, we need to explain why moral testimony cannot make us more virtuous. I offer an explanation that appeals to the fact that we cannot share inferential abilities via testimony. This explanation is compatible with the core commitments of optimism, but it also allows us to see what is right (...)
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  4. Orthodoxy, Philosophy, and Ethics.Rico Vitz - 2019 - In Christoph Schneider (ed.), Theology and Philosophy in Eastern Orthodoxy: Essays on Orthodox Christianity and Contemporary Thought. Eugene, OR, USA:
    My aim in this chapter is to help develop the groundwork for greater dialogue on ethical issues at the intersection of philosophy, psychology, and the neptic tradition of Orthodox Christianity. My efforts towards this end proceed in three steps. In the first section, I offer some preliminary conceptual clarifications concerning the field of ethics. In the second section, I explain the Orthodox tradition in light of these conceptual clarifications and show that the Orthodox Christian way of life embodies a type (...)
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  5. Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology: Future Directions.Rico Vitz - 2018 - In Philip A. Reed & Rico Vitz (eds.), Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology. London, UK:
    In this concluding chapter to Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology, I identify and briefly discuss a series of questions that are particularly suggestive for promising avenues of future research. These questions concern six topics: (1) the nature of virtue, (2) the nature and role of sympathy, (3) the nature of moral development and moral education, (4) the nature and role of various passions, (5) the nature of moral motivation, and (6) the relationship between Hume’s ‘science of man’ and contemporary (...)
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  6. Gratitude for Being.Sungwoo Um - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (2):222-233.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, I argue that what I call ‘gratitude for being’ can capture the distinctive sort of gratitude that we typically owe to our intimates, such as parents and close friends. Instead of specific actions or beneficial objects, the benefactor herself and her relationship to the beneficiary are considered as the grounds of gratitude. I argue that people who have consistent and particularized care for us deserve our gratitude for being, rather than gratitude for doing.
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  7. Spirituality and the Good Life: Philosophical Approaches, Edited by David McPherson. [REVIEW]Megan Fritts - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 17 (1):115-18.
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  8. A Comparison of Approaches to Virtue for Nursing Ethics.Matt Ferkany & Roger Newham - 2019 - Ethical Perspectives 26 (3):427-457.
    As in many other fields of practical ethics, virtue ethics is increasingly of interest within nursing ethics. Nevertheless, the virtue ethics literature in nursing ethics remains relatively small and underdeveloped. This article aims to categorize which broad theoretical approaches to virtue have been taken, to undertake some initial comparative assessment of their relative merits given the peculiar ethical dilemmas facing nurse practitioners, and to highlight the prob- lem areas for virtue ethics in the nursing context. We find the most common (...)
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  9. Merleau-Ponty, Moral Perception, and Metaethical Internalism.Bryan Lueck - forthcoming - Journal of Speculative Philosophy.
    Two of the most basic commitments of virtue ethics, both ancient and contemporary, are that virtue is knowledge and that this knowledge is a kind of moral sensitivity that is best understood on the model of perception. This view is vulnerable to two potentially very serious objections, both of which concern virtue ethics’ commitment to metaethical internalism, which holds that judgments of the form “x is right” entail some kind of motivation to do x. I argue in this paper that (...)
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  10. Buyer Beware: A Critique of Leading Virtue Ethics Defences of Markets.Roberto Fumagalli - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    Over the last few decades, there have been intense debates concerning the effects of markets on the morality of individuals’ behaviour. On the one hand, several authors argue that markets’ ongoing expansion tends to undermine individuals’ intentions for mutual benefit and virtuous character traits and actions. On the other hand, leading economists and philosophers characterize markets as a domain of intentional cooperation for mutual benefit that promotes many of the character traits and actions that traditional virtue ethics accounts classify as (...)
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  11. Can Public Virtues Be Global?Warren J. Von Eschenbach - 2020 - Journal of Global Ethics 16 (1):45-57.
    An important issue within the field of global ethics is the extent or scope of moral obligation or duties. Cosmopolitanism argues that we have duties to all human beings by virtue of some common property. Communitarian ethics argue that one’s scope of obligation is circumscribed by one’s community or some other defining property. Public virtues, understood to be either a property that communities possess to function well or a moral excellence constitutive of that community, offer an interesting challenge to this (...)
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  12. Morality in Politics: Panacea or Poison?Eirik Lang Harris - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Utah
    In the Western philosophic tradition, virtue theory has rarely been extended to the political realm. There is a long tradition that advocates the role of virtue in ethical theory, but the implications of this tradition for political theory have largely been neglected. However, in the Chinese tradition, we very early on see the use of virtue-based theories not only in ethics but in political thought as well. Indeed, one of the most sophisticated early Confucian philosophers, Xúnzǐ 荀子 (fl. 298–238 BCE), (...)
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  13. Catharine Trotter Cockburn’s Democratization of Moral Virtue.Getty L. Lustila - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):83-97.
    This paper examines Catharine Trotter Cockburn’s moral philosophy, focusing on her accounts of virtuous conduct, conscience, obligation, and moral character. I argue that Cockburn’s account of virtue has two interlocking parts: a view of what virtue requires of us, and a view of how we come to see this requirement as authoritative. I then argue that while the two parts are ultimately in tension with one another, the tension is instructive. I use Cockburn’s encounter with Shaftesbury’s writings to help bring (...)
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  14. Complex Harmony: Rethinking the Virtue-Continence Distinction.Nick Schuster - 2020 - The Journal of Ethics 24 (2):225-240.
    In the Aristotelian tradition, the psychological difference between virtue and continence is commonly understood in terms of inner harmony versus inner conflict. Virtuous agents experience inner harmony between feeling and action because they do not care to do other than what their circumstances call for, whereas continent agents feel conflicted about doing what is called for because of competing concerns. Critics of this view argue, however, that when the circumstances require sacrificing something of genuine value, virtuous agents can indeed feel (...)
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  15. From Biological Functions to Natural Goodness.Parisa Moosavi - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19.
    Neo-Aristotelian ethical naturalism aims to place moral virtue in the natural world by showing that moral goodness is an instance of natural goodness—a kind of goodness supposedly also found in the biological realm of plants and non-human animals. One of the central issues facing neo-Aristotelian naturalists concerns their commitment to a kind of function ascription based on the concept of the flourishing of an organism that seems to have no place in modern biology. In this paper, I offer a novel (...)
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  16. Disordered Actions: A Moral Analysis of Lying and Homosexual Activity.John Skalko - 2019 - Editiones Scholasticae.
    Just fifteen years ago, the common non-religious consensus was that homosexual acts were immoral. Within one decade, however, this consensus waned. The secular majority no longer held, as they previously did, that such actions are morally bad. What explains this sudden change? One explanation is that many conservatives lacked adequate philosophical tools to explain the foundations of the earlier historical consensus. Another is that modern research has shown that there never existed any solid philosophical grounds for calling such actions immoral (...)
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  17. Agency and Virtues.Zahra Khazaei - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (3):119-140.
    In the philosophy of action, agency manifests the capacity of the agent to act. An agent is one who acts voluntarily, consciously and intentionally. This article studies the relationship between virtues and agency to learn to what extent agency is conceptually and metaphysically dependent on moral or epistemic virtues; whether virtue is a necessary condition for action and agency, besides the belief, desire and intention? Or are virtues necessary merely for the moral or epistemic character of the agent and not (...)
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  18. Rituals and Machines: A Confucian Response to Technology-Driven Moral Deskilling.Pak-Hang Wong - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (4):59.
    Robots and other smart machines are increasingly interwoven into the social fabric of our society, with the area and scope of their application continuing to expand. As we become accustomed to interacting through and with robots, we also begin to supplement or replace existing human–human interactions with human–machine interactions. This article aims to discuss the impacts of the shift from human–human interactions to human–machine interactions in one facet of our self-constitution, i.e., morality. More specifically, it sets out to explore whether (...)
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  19. “Interest-based Open-Mindedness: Advocating the Role of Interests in the Formation of Human Character”. [REVIEW]Nadav Berman Shifman - 2018 - Katharsis 30:146-165.
    Ayalon Eidelstein’s Openness and Faith focuses on the centrality of the idea of openness, or open-mindedness, to the educational sphere. The first half presents the challenges in modern ‘divided-consciousness’ and its consequences of egoism, materialism, and hedonism on the one hand, and religious fanatism on the other. Eidelstein’s main audience is the Israeli secular public, to which he proposes an educational and philosophical middle-way rooted in sincere human and inter-human openness. This openness is inspired by the idea of disinterestedness that (...)
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  20. The Suberogation Problem for Lei Zhong's Confucian Virtue Theory of Supererogation.Tsung-Hsing Ho - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 69 (3):779-784.
    A virtue-based theory of right action aims to explain deontic moral principles in terms of virtue and vice. For example, it may maintain the following account of moral obligation: It is morally obligatory for an agent A to ϕ in circumstances C if and only if a fully virtuous and relevantly informed person V would characteristically ϕ in C. However, this account faces the so-called supererogation problem. A supererogatory action is an action that is morally praiseworthy but not morally obligatory. (...)
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  21. Reason in Action in Aristotle: A Reading of EE V.12/NE VI.12.Juan S. Piñeros Glasscock - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (3):391-417.
    I present a reading of EE 5.12/NE 6.12 according to which Aristotle argues for an executive account of φρόνησις (practical wisdom) to show why it is useful to possess this virtue. On this account, the practically wise person's actions are expressive of his knowledge of the fine, a knowledge that only the practically wise person has. This is why he must not only be a good deliberator, but also cunning (δεινότης), able to execute his actions well. An important consequence of (...)
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  22. Is Bill Cosby Still Funny? On Separating the Art From the Artist in Standup Comedy.Phillip Deen - 2019 - Studies in American Humor 5 (2):288-308.
    Bill Cosby’s immorality has raised intriguing aesthetic and ethical issues. Do the crimes that he has been convicted of lessen the aesthetic value of his stand-up and, even if we can enjoy it, should we? This article first discusses the intimate relationship between the comedian and audience. The art form itself is structurally intimate, and at the same time the comedian claims to express an authentic self on stage. After drawing an analogy between the question of the moral character of (...)
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  23. Conspiring with the Enemy: The Ethic of Cooperation in Warfare.Yvonne Chiu - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
    Although military mores have relied primarily on just war theory, the ethic of cooperation in warfare (ECW)—between enemies even as they are trying to kill each other—is as central to the practice of warfare and to conceptualization of its morality. Neither game theory nor unilateral moral duties (God-given or otherwise) can explain the explicit language of cooperation in developing and enforcing principles of military ethics and the law of armed conflict. -/- The ethic of cooperation is borne of various motivations: (...)
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  24. La rinascita delle virtù. Aristotele e Anscombe.Elisa Grimi - 2014 - In M. S. Vaccarezza & S. Langella (eds.), Emozioni e virtù. Percorsi e prospettive di un tema classico. Napoli NA, Italia: pp. 121-132.
    ---abstract not requested by the Editors.
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  25. L’umilité, une ontologie de l’identité.Elisa Grimi - 2017 - Recherques Philosophiques 2017 (1):73-90.
    This contribution aims to designate the role of a “philosophy of humility” in the contemporary horizon of moral philosophy. Starting from a brief historical excursus, always necessary to philosophy, we would like to present a philosophy of humility, far to the Cartesian tabula rasa but open to a real construction of the newness. The contribution contains a criticism of the role of Christian philosophy and the consciousness of the values of the West.
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  26. Dossier “La philosophie de l’humilité”.Elisa Grimi, C. Canullo, M. Micheletti, K. Opalka, R. Pouivet & M. Salvioli - 2017 - Tolosa, Francia: ICT.
    Dossier: L’humilité Présentation du dossier. Coordonné par Elisa Grimi. Essays and contributors: L’intelligence de l’humilité, Carla Canullo; La virtù dell’umiltà e l’eudemonismo, Mario Micheletti; Humility – A work of love?, Katharine Opalka; L’humilité intellectuelle, la foi et l’épistémologie, Roger Pouivet; L’irriducibile ragionevolezza di un paradosso. L’umiltà secondo Tommaso d’Aquino e Gilbert K. Chesterton, Marco Salvioli, O.P.; L’Humilité, une ontologie de l’identité, Elisa Grimi.
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  27. Assessing Technoscientism: Body Enhancement, Human Experience, and the Missing 'Technomoral' Virtue.Marco Stango & David Agler - 2018 - Sociología y Tecnociencia 8 (1):43-59.
    In this paper we assess two sides of the debate concerning biomedical enhancement. First, the idea that biomedical enhancement should be prohibited on the grounds that it degrades human nature; second, that biomedical enhancement can in principle remove the source of moral evil. In so doing, we will propose a different notion of human nature, what we shall call the agato-teleological idea of human nature, and its implications for a philosophical understanding of the human body. Also, we will point out (...)
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  28. Exemplarism in Moral Education: Problems with Applicability and Indoctrination.Michel Croce - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (3):291-302.
    This article introduces an account of moral education grounded in Zagzebski’s recent Exemplarist Moral Theory and discusses two problems that have to be solved for the account to become a realistic alternative to other educational models on the market, namely the limited-applicability problem and the problem of indoctrination. The first problem raises worries about the viability of the account in ordinary circumstances. The second charges the proposed educational model with indoctrinating students. The main goal of this article is to show (...)
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  29. Environmental Ethics and Behavioural Change.Benjamin Franks, Stuart Hanscomb & Sean F. Johnston - 2017 - Routledge.
    Environmental Ethics and Behavioural Change takes a practical approach to environmental ethics with a focus on its transformative potential for students, professionals, policy makers, activists, and concerned citizens. Proposed solutions to issues such as climate change, resource depletion and accelerating extinctions have included technological fixes, national and international regulation and social marketing. This volume examines the ethical features of a range of communication strategies and technological, political and economic methods for promoting ecologically responsible practice in the face of these crises. (...)
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  30. Virtuous Construal: In Defense of Silencing.Denise Vigani - 2019 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 5 (2):229-245.
    Over several articles, John McDowell sketches an analogy between virtue and perception, whereby the virtuous person sees situations in a distinctive way, a way that explains her virtuous behavior. Central to this view is his notion of silencing, a psychological phenomenon in which certain considerations fail to operate as reasons in a virtuous person's practical reasoning. Despite its influence on many prominent virtue ethicists, McDowell's ‘silencing view’ has been criticized as psychologically unrealistic. In this article, I defend a silencing view (...)
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  31. The Covetous Canary: Kierkegaard on the Problem of Social Comparison and the Cultivation of Social Courage.Paul E. Carron - 2019 - In Adam Buben, Eleanor Helms & Patrick Stokes (eds.), The Kierkegaardian Mind. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 457–467.
    This essay contributes to the growing number of Kierkegaard scholars who emphasize Kierkegaard’s social analysis and contribution to political thought analyzing Kierkegaard’s understanding of how the crowd shapes personal identity and how social comparison is a roadblock on the path to authentic selfhood. First, I offer a brief overview of social comparison theory, an important discovery of twentieth century social psychology. Social comparison theory (SCT) is evidenced in stories, anecdotes, and numerous laboratory experiments and studies, and suggests that the agent’s (...)
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  32. The Possibility of Moral Dilemmas Based on Arguments form Emotional Experience.Zahra Khazaei - 2019 - Metaphysics 11 (27):95-110.
    Moral dilemmas are situations in which the agents are provided by two conflicting moral judgments but it's not possible for them to act upon both judgments at the same time. Proponents of moral dilemmas say that agents in conflicting situations, have to act in a way that it is morally wrong. Agents will experience negative feelings such as guilt, regret and remorse, no matter which alternative is chosen by them. Opponents, on the other hand, argue in contrary and say that (...)
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  33. Virtue Ethics.Rosalind Hursthouse & Glen Pettigrove - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. We begin by discussing two concepts that are central to all forms of virtue ethics, namely, virtue and practical wisdom. Then we note some of the features that distinguish different virtue ethical theories from one another before turning to objections that have been raised against virtue ethics and responses offered on its behalf. We conclude with a look at some of the directions in which future research might develop.
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  34. Alternatives to Neo-Aristotelian Virtue Ethics.Glen Pettigrove - 2018 - In Nancy Snow (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtue. New York, NY, USA: pp. 359-376.
    Most contemporary variants of virtue ethics have a neo-Aristotelian timbre. However, standing alongside the neo-Aristotelians are a number of others playing similar tunes on different instruments. This chapter highlights the four most important virtue ethical alternatives to the dominant neo-Aristotelian chorus. These are Michael Slote’s agent-based approach, Linda Zagzebski’s exemplarism, Christine Swanton’s target-centered theory, and Robert Merrihew Adams’s neo-Platonic account. What these four approaches showcase is the range of possible theoretical structures available to virtue ethicists. A virtue ethicist might attempt (...)
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  35. Ressentiment.Andrew Huddleston - manuscript
    In his On the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche famously discusses a psychological condition he calls ressentiment, a form of toxic, vengeful anger. In this paper, I offer a free-standing theory in philosophical psychology of what is characteristic of this state. My view takes some inspiration from Nietzsche, but this paper will not be a work of exegesis. In the process of developing my account, I will try to chart the terrain around ressentiment and closely-related and sometimes overlapping states (ordinary moral (...)
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  36. Finding Middle Ground Between Intellectual Arrogance and Intellectual Servility: Development and Assessment of the Limitations-Owning Intellectual Humility Scale.Megan Haggard, Daniel Howard-Snyder, Wade C. Rowatt, Joseph C. Leman, Benjamin Meagher, Courtney Lomax, Thomas Ferguson, Heather Battaly, Jason Baehr & Dennis Whitcomb - 2018 - Personality and Individual Differences 124:184-193.
    Recent scholarship in intellectual humility (IH) has attempted to provide deeper understanding of the virtue as personality trait and its impact on an individual's thoughts, beliefs, and actions. A limitations-owning perspective of IH focuses on a proper recognition of the impact of intellectual limitations and a motivation to overcome them, placing it as the mean between intellectual arrogance and intellectual servility. We developed the Limitations-Owning Intellectual Humility Scale to assess this conception of IH with related personality constructs. In Studies 1 (...)
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  37. Synthesizing Aquinas and Newman on religion.Matthew D. Walz - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (3):173-198.
    In this paper I carry out a philosophical inquiry that yields an account of religion as a personal disposition. This exercise is also expository, since I take my bearings from two thinkers, Thomas Aquinas and John Henry Newman. Regarding Aquinas, this means delineating his treatment of the virtue of ‘religio’ in the ‘Summa theologiae’; regarding Newman, it means attending to his description of the experience of being religious in ‘Grammar of Assent’. The resulting account captures both the “objective face” of (...)
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  38. The Puzzle of Humility and Disparity.Dennis Whitcomb, Heather Battaly, Jason Baehr & Daniel Howard-Snyder - forthcoming - In Mark Alfano, Michael Lynch & Alessandra Tanesini (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Humility. Routledge.
    Suppose that you are engaging with someone who is your oppressor, or someone who espouses a heinous view like Nazism or a ridiculous view like flat-earthism. In contexts like these, there is a disparity between you and your interlocutor, a dramatic normative difference across which you are in the right and they are in the wrong. As theorists of humility, we find these contexts puzzling. Humility seems like the *last* thing oppressed people need and the *last* thing we need in (...)
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  39. Virtues of the Mind: An Inquiry Into the Nature of Virtue and the Ethical Foundations of the Mind. [REVIEW]Matthias Steup - 1999 - Dialogue 38 (3):619-621.
    In recent years, what is commonly referred to as “virtue epistemology” has gained momentum. One of the first to champion this approach with much force and sophistication was Ernest Sosa. James Montmarquet has contributed to the ascendancy of virtue epistemology with a fine monograph, and Alvin Goldman has, at least indirectly, confirmed the attraction of this approach by rephrasing his latest version of reliabilism in terms of epistemic virtues and vices. In Virtues of the Mind, Linda Zagzebski has set forth (...)
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  40. Is Self-Regulation a Burden or a Virtue? A Comparative Perspective.Hagop Sarkissian - 2014 - In Nancy Snow & Franco V. Trivigno (eds.), The Philosophy and Psychology of Character and Happiness: An Empirical Approach to Character and Happiness. New York, NY, USA: pp. 181-196.
    Confucianism demands that individuals comport themselves according to the strictures of ritual propriety—specific forms of speech, clothing, and demeanor attached to a vast array of life circumstances. This requires self-regulation, a cognitive resource of limited supply. When this resource is depleted, a person can experience undesirable consequences such as social isolation and alienation. However, one’s cultural background may be an important mediator of such costs; East Asians, in particular, seem to have comparatively greater self-regulatory strength. I offer some considerations as (...)
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  41. Review: Stephen C. Angle and Michael Slote (Eds.), Virtue Ethics and Confucianism, Routledge, 2013, 271pp., $125.00 (Hbk), ISBN 9780415815482. [REVIEW]Hagop Sarkissian - 2014 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 5:10.
    Review of Stephen C. Angle and Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics and Confucianism, Routledge, 2013, 271pp., $125.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780415815482.
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  42. Designing Virtuous Sex Robots.Anco Peeters & Pim Haselager - 2019 - International Journal of Social Robotics:1-12.
    We propose that virtue ethics can be used to address ethical issues central to discussions about sex robots. In particular, we argue virtue ethics is well equipped to focus on the implications of sex robots for human moral character. Our evaluation develops in four steps. First, we present virtue ethics as a suitable framework for the evaluation of human–robot relationships. Second, we show the advantages of our virtue ethical account of sex robots by comparing it to current instrumentalist approaches, showing (...)
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  43. Sprawiedliwość jako cnota intelektualna.Piotr Machura - 2008 - In Dorota Probucka (ed.), Czy sprawiedliwość jest możliwa? Kraków, Polska:
    Celem artykułu jest próba analizy cnoty sprawiedliwości jako cnoty intelektualnej (dianoetycznej). Przyjmując Arystotelesowy pogląd o proporcji jako istocie sprawiedliwości zwracam uwagę na zasadnicze znaczenie sprawiedliwości rozumianej nie tylko jako umiejętność oddania każdemu tego, co mu się słusznie należy, ale też jako miary przykładanej do wygłaszanych opinii i stanowisk. W tym sensie proporcja ta oznacza w istocie umiejętność wyjścia poza własne stanowisko i zważenia racji niezależnie od emocji. W ten zaś sposób sprawiedliwość okazuje się być cnotą umożliwiającą ukonstytuowanie się fundamentalnej nie (...)
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  44. Following the Wrong Example: The Exclusiveness of Heroism and Sanctity.Simone Grigoletto - 2018 - Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics 10 (2):89-104.
    Are ordinary moral agents able to follow the moral lead of heroes and saints? In her Exemplarist Moral Theory Linda Zagzebski provided an exemplarist account to morality grounded on admiration. She focused her research on three possible kinds of exemplar: the saint, the hero and the sage. In this paper, I hold that there are at least two possible ways of following an exemplar (inference and strict emulation). Furthermore, I will try to show that when we take morally exceptional agents (...)
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  45. The Promise of Corporate Character Theory. [REVIEW]Matthew Caulfield & William S. Laufer - 2018 - Iowa Law Review Online 103:101-122.
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  46. An Inquiry Into the Relationship Between Public Participation and Moral Education in Contemporary Japan: Who Decides Your Way of Life?Koji Tachibana - 2008 - In Kohji Ishihara & Shunzo Majima (eds.), Applied Ethics: Perspectives from Asia and Beyond. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University. pp. 26-39.
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  47. Neo-Aristotelian Naturalism and the Evolutionary Objection: Rethinking the Relevance of Empirical Science.Parisa Moosavi - 2018 - In John Hacker-Wright (ed.), Philippa Foot on Goodness and Virtue. pp. 277-307.
    Neo-Aristotelian metaethical naturalism is a modern attempt at naturalizing ethics using ideas from Aristotle’s teleological metaphysics. Proponents of this view argue that moral virtue in human beings is an instance of natural goodness, a kind of goodness supposedly also found in the realm of non-human living things. Many critics question whether neo-Aristotelian naturalism is tenable in light of modern evolutionary biology. Two influential lines of objection have appealed to an evolutionary understanding of human nature and natural teleology to argue against (...)
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  48. Review of Michael Sandel's What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012, 256 Pp. [REVIEW]Thomas R. Wells - 2014 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):138-149.
    Michael Sandel’s latest book is not a scholarly work but is clearly intended as a work of public philosophy—a contribution to public rather than academic discourse. The book makes two moves. The first, which takes up most of it, is to demonstrate by means of a great many examples, mostly culled from newspaper stories, that markets and money corrupt—degrade—the goods they are used to allocate. The second follows from the first as Sandel’s proposed solution: we as a society should deliberate (...)
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  49. Moral Advance and Moral Risk -- A Mengzian Reflection.L. K. Gustin Law - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy.
    On one view of ethical development, someone not yet virtuous can reliably progress by engaging in what meaningfully resembles virtuous conduct. However, one’s character may degrade from one’s well-intended conduct because this conduct is advanced for one’s character, which falls short of virtue. This risk of degradation casts doubt on the developmental view. I counter the doubt through one interpretation and one application of the Mengzi. In passage 2A2, invoking the image of a farmer who “helped” the crop grow by (...)
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  50. Clockwork Corporations: A Character Theory of Corporate Punishment.Mihailis Diamantis - 2017 - Iowa Law Review 103:507.
    Retribution and deterrence currently drive the politics and scholarship of corporate criminal law. Since the potential harms and private gains of corporate crime are so large, corporate punishment under these theories must be exacting...too exacting. In fact, it is difficult under current law to punish many corporations formally without killing them. Ironically, this fact leads to the under-punishment of corporations. Prosecutors — understandably hesitant to shutter some of the country’s largest economic engines — increasingly offer corporations deferred prosecution agreements in (...)
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