Virtue Ethics

Edited by Jason Kawall (Colgate University)
About this topic
Key works The essential work inspiring much of the virtue ethics tradition is Aristotle & Ostwald 1962.  Many consider David Hume 1751 and Adam Smith 1759) to provide important, sentimentalist virtue ethics in the early modern period.  Contemporary interest in virtue ethics is often traced to Elizabeth Anscombe's [Anscombe 1958: Modern Moral Philosophy 1958.  In the following decades key contemporary works appeared including Foot 1978, Pincoffs 1971, w#, Hursthouse, Slote, Swanton
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  1. Happiness and Mental Illness: Virtue Ethics in Dialogue with Psychology.Shane Clifton & Bruce Stevens - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (3):546-559.
  2. Nietzsche's Compassion.Vasfi O. Özen - forthcoming - Nietzsche Studien.
    Nietzsche is known for his penetrating critique of Mitleid (now commonly rendered as ‘compassion’). He seems to be critical of all compassion but at times also seems to praise a different form of compassion, which he refers to as “our compassion” and contrasts it with “your compassion” (Beyond Good and Evil § 225). Some commentators have interpreted this to mean that Nietzsche’s criticism is not as unconditional as it may seem–that he does not condemn compassion entirely. I disagree and contend (...)
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  3. Iris Murdoch and the Power of Love.Anil Gomes - 2019 - TLS.
    Anil Gomes considers Murdoch's view that morality is real and that, with the right conceptual resources, we can perceive it.
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  4. The Guise of Good Reason.Ulf Hlobil - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations:1-21.
    The paper argues for a version of the Guise of the Good thesis, namely the claim that if someone acts as the result of practical reasoning, then she takes her premises to jointly provide a sufficient and undefeated reason for her action. I argue for this by showing, first, that it is an application of Boghossian's Taking Condition on inference to practical reasoning and, second, that the motivations for the Taking Condition for theoretical reasoning carry over to practical reasoning. I (...)
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  5. Character, Corruption, and ‘Cultures of Speed’ in Higher Education.Ian Kidd - forthcoming - In Philosophical Perspectives on the Contemporary University: In Shadows and Light. Springer.
    This chapter offers a character-based criticism of ‘the culture of speed’ condemned by the Canadian literary scholars, Maggie Berg and Barbara Seeber in their influential polemic, The Slow Professor. Central to their criticisms of speed and praise of slowness are, I argue, substantive concerns about their effects on moral and intellectual character. I argue that a full reckoning of the wrongs of academic cultures of speed must include appreciation of the ways they promote a host of accelerative vices and failings (...)
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  6. Feminist Virtue Ethics.Robin S. Dillon - 2017 - In Serene Khader Ann Garry (ed.), Routledge Companion to Feminist Philosophy. pp. 568-678.
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  7. “Self-Respect, Arrogance, and Power: A Feminist Perspective,”.Robin S. Dillon - forthcoming - In Richard Dean and Oliver Sensen (ed.), Respect for Persons.
    In many cultures arrogance is regarded as a serious vice and a cause of numerous social ills. Although its badness is typically thought to lie in its harmful consequences for other persons and things, I draw on Kant to argue that what makes it a vice is first and foremost the failure to respect oneself. But arrogance is not only a problem inside individuals. Drawing on feminist insights I argue that it is a systemic problem constructed in and reinforcing unjust (...)
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  8. The Defective Character Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Ben Bramble - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    (*Available on request*. Just email me to receive a copy.) -/- The non-identity problem is that some actions seem morally wrong even though, by affecting future people’s identities, they are worse for nobody. In this paper, I further develop and defend a lesser known solution to the problem, one according to which when such actions are wrong, it is not because of what they do or produce, but rather just because of why they were performed. In particular, I argue that (...)
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  9. Are Gratitude and Forgiveness Symmetrical?Sean McAleer - 2016 - In Perspectives on Gratitude: An interdisciplinary approach. Routledge. pp. 85-96.
    The chapter explores the symmetry thesis, which holds that departures from or variations on the paradigms of forgiveness and gratitude are conceptually and evaluatively symmetrical or parallel: where one makes sense and is praiseworthy, the other should be too. So if third-party forgiveness makes sense, so too should third-party gratitude; if propositional gratitude makes sense, so too should propositional forgiveness; if self-gratitude makes sense, so too should self-forgiveness. The symmetry thesis fares reasonably well, initially; both third- party forgiveness and third-party (...)
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  10. On the Analogy Between Business and Sport: Towards an Aristotelian Response to The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Matthew Sinnicks - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-13.
    This paper explores the notion that business calls for an adversarial ethic, akin to that of sport. On this view, because of their competitive structure, both sport and business call for behaviours that are contrary to ‘ordinary morality’, and yet are ultimately justified because of the goods they facilitate. I develop three objections to this analogy. Firstly, there is an important qualitative difference between harms risked voluntarily and harms risked involuntarily. Secondly, the goods achieved by adversarial relationships in sport go (...)
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  11. On the Law of Nature: A Demonstrative Method.Niels Hemmingsen - 2018 - Grand Rapids: CLP Academic.
  12. MacIntyre and Thomism.Osborne Thomas M. - 2020 - In Learning from MacIntyre. Eugene, OR, USA: pp. 52-76.
    Thomists need to learn from and address MacIntyre’s account of moral disagreement, whether or not they will ultimately agree with its broad outlines. First, they should consider that MacIntyre’s emphasis on social roles as an explanation of moral disagreement accounts for only some kinds of moral disagreement and growth. Second, a recognition of different kinds of disagreement shows that only some can be adequately addressed by moral philosophy, and even those that can be so addressed require not only instruction but (...)
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  13. The Virtues of Economic Rescue Legislation: Distributive Justice, Civil Law, and the Troubled Asset Relief Program.Henry S. Kuo - 2021 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 8 (1):aop.
    This study constitutes an ethical analysis through the lens of distributive justice in the case of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), which was enacted in the midst of the Great Recession of 2007–2009. It begins by engaging with the visions of justice constructed by John Rawls and Robert Nozick, using their insights to locate the injustices of TARP according to their moral imaginations. However, this study argues that Rawls’ and Nozick’s theories of justice primarily envision the nature of law (...)
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  14. Why You Cannot Make People Better by Telling Them What is Good.Ulf Hlobil - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):986-996.
    So-called optimists about moral testimony argue, against pessimists, that, ceteris paribus, we ought to accept and act in accordance with trustworthy, pure moral testimony. I argue that even if we grant this, we need to explain why moral testimony cannot make us more virtuous. I offer an explanation that appeals to the fact that we cannot share inferential abilities via testimony. This explanation is compatible with the core commitments of optimism, but it also allows us to see what is right (...)
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  15. Testing the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Against Egoistic Alternatives.C. Daniel Batson - 2015 - In Lorraine Besser-Jones & Michael Slote (eds.), Routledge Companion to Virtue Ethics. New York: pp. 385-399.
  16. What Does Character Education Mean to Character Education Experts? A Prototype Analysis of Expert Opinions.Robert E. McGrath, Hyemin Han, Mitch Brown & Peter Meindl - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Education:1-19.
    Having an agreed-upon definition of character education would be useful for both researchers and practitioners in the field. However, even experts in character education disagree on how they would define it. We attempted to achieve greater conceptual clarity on this issue through a prototype analysis in which the features perceived as most central to character education were identified. In Study 1 (N = 77), we asked character education experts to enumerate features of character education. Based on these lists, we identified (...)
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  17. Wirtliche Ökonomie. Philosophische und dichterische Quellen [Hospitable Economics. Philosophical and Poetic Sources], Volume II, Elementa Œconomica 1.2.Ivo De Gennaro, Sergiusz Kazmierski, Ralf Lüfter & Robert Simon (eds.) - 2016 - Nordhausen: Verlag Traugott Bautz.
    Dieser Band stellt die erste Fortsetzung der 2013 begonnenen Publikation zur „Wirtlichen Ökonomie“ dar. Er dient der sich fortsetzenden Frage nach der Wirtlichkeit. Zu dieser Frage gehört es, das Ökonomische aus einer notwendig gewordenen Zurückhaltung gegenüber dem methodischen Vorgriff der modernen Wirtschaftswissenschaften zu denken. Die Zurückhaltung verleiht, indem sie den Fragebereich der Wirtlichkeit eröffnet, den hier versammelten Beiträgen ihren wahren Zusammenhang.
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  18. Ethical Advance and Ethical Risk - A Mengzian Reflection.L. K. Gustin Law - 2020 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 19 (4):535-558.
    On one view of ethical development, someone not yet virtuous can reliably progress by engaging in what meaningfully resembles virtuous conduct. However, if the well-intended conduct is psychologically demanding, one's character, precisely because one is not yet virtuous, may worsen rather than improve. This risk of degradation casts doubt on the developmental view. I counter the doubt through one interpretation and one application of the Mengzi. In passage 2A2, invoking the image of a farmer who “helped” the crop grow by (...)
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  19. The Authority of Virtue: Institutions and Character in the Good Society.Tristan Rogers - 2020 - Routledge.
    Political philosophy was once dominated by discussion of the virtues of character and their importance to the good life and the good society. Contemporary political philosophers, however, following the towering influence of John Rawls, have primarily focused on a single virtue of institutions: justice, while largely avoiding controversial claims about the good life. As a result, political philosophy lacks a unified account of the virtues of institutions and the virtues of character. More importantly, we lack an understanding of the connection (...)
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  20. Buyer Beware: A Critique of Leading Virtue Ethics Defenses of Markets.Roberto Fumagalli - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (3):457-482.
    Over the last few decades, there have been intense debates concerning the effects of markets on the morality of individuals’ behaviour. On the one hand, several authors argue that markets’ ongoing expansion tends to undermine individuals’ intentions for mutual benefit and virtuous character traits and actions. On the other hand, leading economists and philosophers characterize markets as a domain of intentional cooperation for mutual benefit that promotes many of the character traits and actions that traditional virtue ethics accounts classify as (...)
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  21. Virtuous Emotions, Written by Kristján Kristjánsson. [REVIEW]Pilar Lopez-Cantero - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 17 (4):457-460.
    Honouring a career-long commitment to interdisciplinarity which has guided a prolific publication history on character, virtue, and emotion, Kristjánsson leads by example in this book. Although he is clearly a philosopher, firmly pro-Aristotelian and devotes a large proportion of the book to look at the original source, Kristjánsson is happy to question or even downright abandon Aristotelian tradition if he has to–and to push the boundaries of philosophical thought on emotions. As a result, Virtuous Emotions has something to offer to (...)
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  22. Merleau-Ponty, Moral Perception, and Metaethical Internalism.Bryan Lueck - 2020 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 34 (3):265-273.
    Two of the most basic commitments of virtue ethics, both ancient and contemporary, are that virtue is knowledge and that this knowledge is a kind of moral sensitivity that is best understood on the model of perception. On this account, the virtuous agent perceives moral goodness and badness in something like the way we perceive that a smiling person is happy or that a raging bull is dangerous. This is opposed to the more widely held view of moral experience, according (...)
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  23. John Calvin and Virtue Ethics: Augustinian and Aristotelian Themes.David S. Sytsma - 2020 - Journal of Religious Ethics 48 (3):519-556.
    Many scholars have argued that the Protestant Reformation generally departed from virtue ethics, and this claim is often accepted by Protestant ethicists. This essay argues against such discontinuity by demonstrating John Calvin’s reception of ethical concepts from Augustine and Aristotle. Calvin drew on Augustine’s concept of eudaimonia and many aspects of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics , including concepts of choice, habit, virtue as a mean, and the specific virtues of justice and prudence. Calvin also evaluated the problem of pagan virtue in (...)
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  24. Community in African Moral-Political Philosophy.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Niall Bond (ed.), Community in Global Thought (tentative title).
    I critically discuss respects in which conceptions of community have featured in African moral-political philosophy over the past 40 years or so. Some of the discussion is in the vein of intellectual history, recounting key theoretical moves for those unfamiliar with the field. However, my discussion is also opinionated, noting prima facie weaknesses with certain positions and presenting others as more promising, particularly relative to prominent Western competitors. There are a variety of forms that African communitarianism has taken and could (...)
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  25. Consent Is Not Enough: A Case Against Liberal Sexual Ethics.David McPherson - 2020 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), College Ethics: A Reader on Moral Issues that Affect You, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press.
    The standard liberal sexual ethic maintains that consent is the only requirement for ethical sexual relations. While consent is certainly necessary for an adequate sexual ethic (and it’s important to know what it involves), I argue that it’s far from sufficient. The key claims that I advance are the following: (1) The consent-only model of sexual ethics affirms a “casual” view of sex and therefore it can’t make sense of and properly combat what’s worst in the sexual domain: namely, the (...)
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  26. The Deontological Foundation of Neo-Confucian Virtue Ethics.George J. Aulisio - 2020 - International Philosophical Quarterly 60 (3):339-353.
    I show that Neo-Confucianism is practiced in two ways: (1) deontologically and (2) as a virtue ethical theory. When fully appreciated, Neo-Confucianism is a virtue ethical theory, but to set out on the path of the sage and behave like a junzi, Neo-Confucianism must first be practiced deontologically. I show this by examining the importance of Neo-Confucian metaphysics to ethical practice and by drawing out the major practical differences between “lesser learning” and “higher learning.” In my view, Neo-Confucianism can be (...)
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  27. Virtuous Contempt (Wu 惡) in the Analects.Hagop Sarkissian - forthcoming - In Justin Tiwald (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Chinese Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Much is said about what Kongzi liked or cherished. Kongzi revered the rituals of the Zhou. He cherished tradition and classical music. He loved the Odes. Far less is said, however, about what he despised or held in contempt (wu 惡). Yet contempt appears in the oldest stratum of the Analects as a disposition or virtue of moral exemplars. In this chapter, I argue that understanding the role of despising or contempt in the Analects is important in appreciating Kongzi’s dao (...)
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  28. The Supremacy of Love: An Agape-Centered Vision of Aristotelian Virtue Ethics by Eric J. Silverman. [REVIEW]Jamie Buckland - 2020 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  29. Reframing the Purpose of Business Education: Crowding-in a Culture of Moral Self-Awareness.Julian Friedland & Tanusree Jain - forthcoming - Journal of Management Inquiry.
    Numerous high-profile ethics scandals, rising inequality, and the detrimental effects of climate change dramatically underscore the need for business schools to instill a commitment to social purpose in their students. At the same time, the rising financial burden of education, increasing competition in the education space, and overreliance on graduates’ financial success as the accepted metric of quality have reinforced an instrumentalist climate. These conflicting aims between social and financial purpose have created an existential crisis for business education. To resolve (...)
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  30. Ethical Theories and Their Application.Andrew Forcehimes - 2018 - In Steven M. Cahn & Andrew T. Forcehimes (eds.), Exploring Moral Problems: An Introductory Anthology. New York, NY, USA: pp. 2-48.
    What are we required to do? Who are we required to be? And why are we required to do these things or be these types of people? Ethical theories attempt to systematically answer these questions. This essay examines the most prominent such theories, evaluating each for their strengths and weaknesses.
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  31. The Anatomy of Normative Ethics.Andrew Forcehimes - 2016 - In Steven M. Cahn & Andrew T. Forcehimes (eds.), Principles of Moral Philosophy: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. New York, NY, USA: pp. 3-18.
    This essay provides an overview of the elements of normative ethics – deontic verdicts, evaluative claims, determining grounds, and core normative principles. It then turns to how these elements fit together and how they might be filled out. This gives us a precise way of categorizing egoism, act-consequentialism, natural law theory, divine command theory, cultural relativism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics.
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  32. Compassion for Enemies.Michael Skerker & John Sattler - 2019 - In David Whetham, Michael Skerker & Donald Carrick (eds.), Military Virtues. London, UK:
    A case study exploring the importance of compassion for enemies appealing to a series of targeting decisions, co-written with the senior Marine in Iraq in 2003-4.
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  33. Cannibals, Gun-Deckers, and Good Idea Fairies: Structural Incentives to Deceive in the Military.Michael Skerker - 2019 - In Michael Skerker, David Whetham & Donald Carrick (eds.), Military Virtues. London, UK:
    Case studies about institutional pressures encouraging dishonesty in the US Navy.
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  34. The Satanic and the Theomimetic: Distinguishing and Reconciling "Sacrifice" in René Girard and Gregory the Great.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2020 - Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 27 (1):177-214.
    Compelling voices charge that the theological notion of “sacrifice” valorizes suffering and fosters a culture of violence by the claim that Christ’s death on the Cross paid for human sins. Beneath the ‘sacred’ violence of sacrifice, René Girard discerns a concealed scapegoat-murder driven by a distortion of human desire that itself must lead to human self-annihilation. I here ask: can one speak safely of sacrifice; and can human beings somehow cease to practice the sacrifice that must otherwise destroy them? Drawing (...)
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  35. Matt Stichter, The Skillfulness of Virtue: Improving Our Moral and Epistemic Lives, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 201 Pages. ISBN: 978-1108472371. Hardback: $ 105.00. [REVIEW]Sungwoo Um - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
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  36. Solving the Puzzle of Partiality.Sungwoo Um - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    If each person is equally valuable and thus deserves equal treatment, why should the fact that we have a close relationship with someone permit or even direct us to treat her preferentially? We may call this the puzzle of partiality. This paper aims to analyze previous attempts to solve the puzzle of partiality and introduce my new approach. I first examine Simon Keller’s individuals view, to show the difficulties of a view that puts each individual’s equal worth at its center (...)
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  37. Kant on Virtue: Seeking the Ideal in Human Conditions.Thomas E. Hill, Jr & Adam Cureton - 2018 - In Nancy Snow (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtue. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 263-280.
    Immanuel Kant defines virtue as a kind of strength and resoluteness of will to resist and overcome any obstacles that oppose fulfilling our moral duties. Human agents, according to Kant, owe it to ourselves to strive for perfect virtue by fully committing ourselves to morality and by developing the fortitude to maintain and execute this life-governing policy despite obstacles we may face. This essay reviews basic features of Kant’s conception of virtue and then discusses the role of emotions, a motive (...)
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  38. Capitalism After Covid: How the Pandemic Might Inspire a More Virtuous Economy.Julian Friedland - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 2 (89):12-15.
    Today, dramatically increasing economic inequality, imminent climatological calamity, and a global pandemic now place the timeless debate over capitalism into stark relief. Though many seek to pin the blame on capitalism’s excesses, they would do well to recall the historical record of socialism’s deficiencies, namely, stifling innovation, lumbering inefficiency, and stagnation. Fortunately, our moral psychology affords a middle way between these two extremes. For while economic incentives have a tendency to let our civic and prosocial impulses atrophy from disuse, these (...)
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  39. African Ethicists.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Tom Angier (ed.), Ethics: The Key Thinkers, 2nd Edition. Bloomsbury.
    Unlike the Chinese, Indian, and Western ethical traditions, the African one had not been text-based until as recently as the 1960s. Since a very large majority of indigenous sub-Saharan societies had oral cultures, there are no classic texts in the field of African ethics and hence also no Big Names; there's nothing comparable to, say, Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics or Confucius’ Analects. However, some names and texts have been more influential than others in shaping ethical reflection, particularly over the past 30 (...)
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  40. Orthodoxy, Philosophy, and Ethics.Rico Vitz - 2019 - In Christoph Schneider (ed.), Theology and Philosophy in Eastern Orthodoxy: Essays on Orthodox Christianity and Contemporary Thought. Eugene, OR, USA:
    My aim in this chapter is to help develop the groundwork for greater dialogue on ethical issues at the intersection of philosophy, psychology, and the neptic tradition of Orthodox Christianity. My efforts towards this end proceed in three steps. In the first section, I offer some preliminary conceptual clarifications concerning the field of ethics. In the second section, I explain the Orthodox tradition in light of these conceptual clarifications and show that the Orthodox Christian way of life embodies a type (...)
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  41. Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology: Future Directions.Rico Vitz - 2018 - In Philip A. Reed & Rico Vitz (eds.), Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology. London, UK:
    In this concluding chapter to Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology, I identify and briefly discuss a series of questions that are particularly suggestive for promising avenues of future research. These questions concern six topics: (1) the nature of virtue, (2) the nature and role of sympathy, (3) the nature of moral development and moral education, (4) the nature and role of various passions, (5) the nature of moral motivation, and (6) the relationship between Hume’s ‘science of man’ and contemporary (...)
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  42. Review of Michael Austin, Humility and Human Flourishing: A Study in Analytic Moral Theology, Oxford Univ. Press, 2018. [REVIEW]Jeanine Grenberg - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):205.
  43. Gratitude for Being.Sungwoo Um - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (2):222-233.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, I argue that what I call ‘gratitude for being’ can capture the distinctive sort of gratitude that we typically owe to our intimates, such as parents and close friends. Instead of specific actions or beneficial objects, the benefactor herself and her relationship to the beneficiary are considered as the grounds of gratitude. I argue that people who have consistent and particularized care for us deserve our gratitude for being, rather than gratitude for doing.
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  44. Spirituality and the Good Life: Philosophical Approaches, Edited by David McPherson. [REVIEW]Megan Fritts - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 17 (1):115-18.
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  45. A Comparison of Approaches to Virtue for Nursing Ethics.Matt Ferkany & Roger Newham - 2019 - Ethical Perspectives 26 (3):427-457.
    As in many other fields of practical ethics, virtue ethics is increasingly of interest within nursing ethics. Nevertheless, the virtue ethics literature in nursing ethics remains relatively small and underdeveloped. This article aims to categorize which broad theoretical approaches to virtue have been taken, to undertake some initial comparative assessment of their relative merits given the peculiar ethical dilemmas facing nurse practitioners, and to highlight the prob- lem areas for virtue ethics in the nursing context. We find the most common (...)
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  46. Can Public Virtues Be Global?Warren J. Von Eschenbach - 2020 - Journal of Global Ethics 16 (1):45-57.
    An important issue within the field of global ethics is the extent or scope of moral obligation or duties. Cosmopolitanism argues that we have duties to all human beings by virtue of some common property. Communitarian ethics argue that one’s scope of obligation is circumscribed by one’s community or some other defining property. Public virtues, understood to be either a property that communities possess to function well or a moral excellence constitutive of that community, offer an interesting challenge to this (...)
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  47. Morality in Politics: Panacea or Poison?Eirik Lang Harris - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Utah
    In the Western philosophic tradition, virtue theory has rarely been extended to the political realm. There is a long tradition that advocates the role of virtue in ethical theory, but the implications of this tradition for political theory have largely been neglected. However, in the Chinese tradition, we very early on see the use of virtue-based theories not only in ethics but in political thought as well. Indeed, one of the most sophisticated early Confucian philosophers, Xúnzǐ 荀子 (fl. 298–238 BCE), (...)
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  48. Catharine Trotter Cockburn’s Democratization of Moral Virtue.Getty L. Lustila - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):83-97.
    This paper examines Catharine Trotter Cockburn’s moral philosophy, focusing on her accounts of virtuous conduct, conscience, obligation, and moral character. I argue that Cockburn’s account of virtue has two interlocking parts: a view of what virtue requires of us, and a view of how we come to see this requirement as authoritative. I then argue that while the two parts are ultimately in tension with one another, the tension is instructive. I use Cockburn’s encounter with Shaftesbury’s writings to help bring (...)
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  49. Complex Harmony: Rethinking the Virtue-Continence Distinction.Nick Schuster - 2020 - The Journal of Ethics 24 (2):225-240.
    In the Aristotelian tradition, the psychological difference between virtue and continence is commonly understood in terms of inner harmony versus inner conflict. Virtuous agents experience inner harmony between feeling and action because they do not care to do other than what their circumstances call for, whereas continent agents feel conflicted about doing what is called for because of competing concerns. Critics of this view argue, however, that when the circumstances require sacrificing something of genuine value, virtuous agents can indeed feel (...)
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  50. Virtue & Law in Plato & Beyond. By Julia Annas. Pp. 234, Vi, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017, £35.00.Matthew Harris - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (1):143-144.
1 — 50 / 1705