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  1. The Return of Vitalism: Canguilhem and French Biophilosophy in the 1960s.Charles T. Wolfe - manuscript
    The eminent French biologist and historian of biology, François Jacob, once notoriously declared “On n’interroge plus la vie dans les laboratoires”: laboratory research no longer inquires into the notion of ‘Life’. Nowadays, as David Hull puts it, “both scientists and philosophers take ontological reduction for granted… Organisms are ‘nothing but’ atoms, and that is that.” In the mid-twentieth century, from the immediate post-war period to the late 1960s, French philosophers of science such as Georges Canguilhem, Raymond Ruyer and Gilbert Simondon (...)
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  2. Teleomechanism Redux? The Conceptual Hybridity of Living Machines in Early Modern Natural Philosophy.Charles T. Wolfe - manuscript
    We have been accustomed at least since Kant and mainstream history of philosophy to distinguish between the ‘mechanical’ and the ‘teleological’; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature exemplified by Newton and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings ultimately expressed in the concept of ‘organism’ – a purposive entity, or at least an entity possessed of functions. The beauty of this distinction is that it seems to make intuitive sense and to map onto historical and conceptual constellations in (...)
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  3. Tackling Discrimination and Systemic Racism in Academic and Workplace Settings.Angela Cooper Brathwaite, Dania Versailles, Daria Juüdi-Hope, Maurice Coppin, Keisha Jefferies, Renee Bradley, Racquel Campbell, Corsita Garraway, Ola Obewu, Cheryl LaRonde-Ogilvie, Dionne Sinclair, Brittany Groom & Doris Grinspun - forthcoming - Nursing Inquiry.
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  4. Hans Driesch Et le Problème de l'Individuation Biologique.P. Gardère - forthcoming - Revue de Philosophie.
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  5. Vitality, Community and Human Dignity in Africa (Rev. Edn).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Filomena Maggino (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 2nd edn. Springer.
    Mildly revised edition of an entry that first appeared in Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 1st edn (2014).
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  6. Knowing How to Feel: Racism, Resilience, and Affective Resistance.Taylor Rogers - forthcoming - Hypatia:1-23.
    This article explores the affective dimension of resilient epistemological systems. Specifically, I argue that responsible epistemic practice requires affective engagement with nondominant experiences. To begin, I outline Kristie Dotson's account of epistemological resilience whereby an epistemological system remains stable despite counterevidence or attempts to alter it. Then, I develop an account of affective numbness. As I argue, affective numbness can promote epistemological resilience in at least two ways. First, it can reinforce harmful stereotypes even after these stereotypes have been rationally (...)
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  7. Andrea Gambarotto, Vital Forces, Teleology and Organization: Philosophy of Nature and the Rise of Biology in Germany. [REVIEW]John H. Zammito - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  8. In Defense of Anti-Racist Training.Myisha Cherry - 2022 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 91:15-24.
    I will argue for anti-racist training in federal and state funded programs. In order to do so, I will begin by discussing recent events occurring in the United States that have challenged such training. I will analyze criticisms of anti-racist programs, focusing particularly on those that began with the Trump administration and continue today. I will then consider what is happening in response and as a result of these criticisms, as well as make some suggestions for what should happen going (...)
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  9. Black Nurses in Action: A Social Movement to End Racism and Discrimination.Angela Cooper Brathwaite, Dania Versailles, Daria A. Juüdi-Hope, Maurice Coppin, Keisha Jefferies, Renee Bradley, Racquel Campbell, Corsita T. Garraway, Ola A. T. Obewu, Cheryl LaRonde-Ogilvie, Dionne Sinclair, Brittany Groom, Harveer Punia & Doris Grinspun - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
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  10. How to Appear Fully Committed to Doing Nothing at All About Structural and Systemic Racism: A Modest Proposal for Health and Higher Education Services.Philip Darbyshire - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
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  11. Structural Injustice and Dismantling Racism in Health and Healthcare.Ryan Essex, Marianne Markowski & Denise Miller - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
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  12. INTRODUCTION Health Law and Anti-Racism: Reckoning and Response.Michele Goodwin & Holly Fernandez Lynch - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):10-14.
    Law and racism are intertwined, with legal tools bearing the potential to serve as instruments of oppression or equity. This Special Issue explores this dual nature of health law, with attention to policing in the context of mental health, schools, and substance use disorders; industry and the environment in the context of food advertising, tobacco regulation, worker safety, and environmental racism; health care and research in the context of infant mortality, bias in medical applications of AI, and diverse inclusion in (...)
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  13. FOREWORD The American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics and Anti-Racism.Ted Hutchinson - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):8-9.
    This foreword explores the history of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics and its role in promoting access to care and antiracism.
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  14. Harmony Between Man and His Environment: Reviewing the Trump Administration’s Changes to the National Environmental Policy Act in the Context of Environmental Racism.Gabrielle M. Kolencik - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):76-84.
    This article aims to show how the changes to NEPA by the Trump Administration are an act of environmental racism, defined as “[i]ntentional or unintentional racial discrimination in environmental policy‐making, enforcement of regulations and laws, and targeting of communities for the disposal of toxic waste and siting of polluting industries.”.
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  15. Polygamy, State Racism, and the Return of Barbarism: The Coloniality of Evolutionary Psychology.Suzanne Lenon - 2022 - Studies in Social Justice 16 (1):143-161.
    This article examines the race-thinking and colonial reasoning circulating in two recent developments in Canadian law with respect to polygamous marriage: the Polygamy Reference that upheld the Criminal Code provision on polygamy and the Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Cultural Practices Act. This legislation introduced changes to Canada’s immigration regulations, which include the practice of polygamy as a basis for refusing foreign applicants and deporting foreign nationals. I address how insights from the field of evolutionary psychology were applied in the Polygamy (...)
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  16. The Mystery of National Identity of Chinese International Students Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Western Neo-Racism and Chinese Nationalism.Fei Long - 2022 - Studies in Social Justice 16 (1):162-181.
    The research aims to explore the changes of national identity among Chinese international students in the odd social context of the global pandemic. By conducting semi-structured interviews with 10 Chinese undergraduate and postgraduate students in a prestigious university located in London, UK, the study provides evidence of Western neo-racism against Chinese students and the rise of Chinese nationalism. More significantly, it is found that Western neo-racism and Chinese nationalism have a push and pull effect on the national identity enhancement of (...)
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  17. Toward a Moral Commitment: Exposing the Covert Mechanisms of Racism in the Nursing Discipline.Samantha Louie-Poon, Carla Hilario, Shannon D. Scott & Joanne Olson - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
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  18. Vitalism and Cognition in a Conscious Universe.Marco Masi - 2022 - Communicative and Integrative Biology 15 (1).
    According to the current scientific paradigm, what we call ‘life’, ‘mind’, and ‘consciousness’ are considered epiphenomenal occurrences, or emergent properties or functions of matter and energy. Science does not associate these with an inherent and distinct existence beyond a materialistic/energetic conception. ‘Life’ is a word pointing at cellular and multicellular processes forming organisms capable of specific functions and skills. ‘Mind’ is a cognitive ability emerging from a matrix of complex interactions of neuronal processes, while ‘consciousness’ is an even more elusive (...)
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  19. New Preemption as a Tool of Structural Racism: Implications for Racial Health Inequities.Courtnee Melton-Fant - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):15-22.
    Preemption is a substantial threat to achieving racial equity. Since 2011, states have increasingly preempted local governments from enacting policies that can improve health and reduce racial inequities such as increasing minimum wage and requiring paid leave.
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  20. Socio-Structural Injustice, Racism, and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Precarious Entanglement Among Black Immigrants in Canada.Joseph Mensah & Christopher J. Williams - 2022 - Studies in Social Justice 16 (1):123-142.
    As several commentators and researchers have noted since late spring 2020, COVID-19 has laid bare the connections between entrenched structurally generated inequalities on one hand, and on the other hand relatively high degrees of susceptibility to contracting COVID-19 on the part of economically marginalized population segments. Far from running along the tracks of race neutrality, studies have demonstrated that the pandemic is affecting Black people more than Whites in the U.S.A. and U.K., where reliable racially-disaggregated data are available. While the (...)
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  21. A Colonização É Aqui E Agora: Elementos de Presentificação Do Racismo.Fabiano Veliq & Paula Magalhães - 2022 - Trans/Form/Ação 45 (spe):111-128.
    Resumo: O racismo, enquanto problema estrutural e estruturante de nossa sociedade, afeta-nos cotidianamente, de formas muito profundas e nem sempre visíveis. A modernidade é frequentemente associada a suas conquistas de independência político-econômica, no território europeu, mas dificilmente é associada a seus atos nefastos, que são condições sine qua non para seu surgimento. São eles o engendramento do capitalismo, da colonização e, portanto, do racismo. O presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar os modos a partir dos quais o racismo se faz (...)
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  22. Racism, Healthcare Access and Health Equity for People Seeking Asylum.Suzanne Willey, Kath Desmyth & Mandy Truong - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
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  23. El pensamiento y la escritura de Carlos Huayquiñir Rain: una llamado por la educación y un combate contra el racismo.Enrique Antileo Baeza - 2021 - Alpha: Revista de Artes, Letras y Filosofia 2 (53):209-229.
    Este artículo es resultado de una investigación exploratoria acerca del pensamiento y la escritura de Carlos Huayquiñir Rain, periodista autodidacta que escribió respecto del pueblo mapuche entre la década de 1930 y 1960. Tiene como propósito analizar dos tópicos centrales que emergen de la prosa de Huayquiñir dispuesta en la prensa mapuche de los años referidos. Por un lado, el llamado a la instrucción y la educación de la niñez y la juventud mapuche realizado por el autor; por otro, su (...)
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  24. Health Disparities, Systemic Racism, and Failures of Cultural Competence: Authors’ Response to Commentaries.Jeffrey Todd Berger & Dana Ribeiro Miller - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):1-3.
    The health system is, in particular ways, a microcosm of society and both reflects and contributes to its ills of racism, inequities, and disparities. As such, the house of medicine is obligated to...
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  25. The Current State of Efforts to Address Disparities, Racism and Cultural Humility in Medical Education.Ross E. McKinney, Norma Poll-Hunter & Lisa D. Howley - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):1-3.
    Racism is a complex problem in the US that is institutionalized, personally mediated, and internalized. Within medical education the recognition and response to structural racism is be...
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  26. discurso de la conservación y el racismo: una aproximación desde los Montes de María.Carmen Elena Jaramillo Restrepo - 2021 - Humanitas Hodie 3 (1):H31a4.
    En este trabajo se intentan mostrar algunas tensiones entre el discurso de la conservación, el multiculturalismo y los prejuicios racistas, tomando como punto de referencia el caso de los Montes de María en el Caribe colombiano, donde han tenido lugar proyectos de cooperación a propósito de la biodiversidad y existen iniciativas locales para su conservación. Se describen tres niveles en los que pueden encontrarse los prejuicios racistas en el discurso de la conservación, y las tensiones que los caracterizan, asociadas tanto (...)
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  27. Cultural Competence as New Racism: Working as Intended?Ranita Ray & Georgiann Davis - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):20-22.
    Berger and Miller offer a strong argument for how cultural competence in medical education reinforces the racial structures that it purports to address. As social scientists with expertise i...
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  28. Dimensiones discursivas del racismo religioso brasileño.Milene Cristina Santos - 2021 - Aisthesis Revista Chilena de Investigaciones Estéticas 70:411-437.
    La evangelización es el resultado de la unión entre la libertad de expresión y la libertad religiosa. Al buscar convencer sobre la veracidad de sus creencias, puede constituir discursos de odio religioso, fomentar la intolerancia, la hostilidad y la discriminación contra minorías históricas y socialmente estigmatizadas. Algunas obras publicadas por líderes católicos y evangélicos fueron objeto de juicios, acusadas de promover el odio religioso mediante la demonización de los Candomblés, de las Umbandas y del Espiritismo. Las mismas surgen de los (...)
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  29. Opposing Vitalism and Embracing Hospice: How a Theology of the Sabbath Can Inform End-of-Life Care.Sarah K. Sawicki - 2021 - Christian Bioethics 27 (2):169-182.
    Medicine often views hospice care as “giving up,” which results in a reduced quality of end-of-life care for many patients. By integrating a theology of the Sabbath with modern medicine, hospice becomes a sacred and valuable way to honor the dying patient in a comprehensive and holistic way. A theology of Sabbath as “Sacredness in Time” can provide the foundation for a shift in understanding hospice as a legitimate care plan, which shifts the focus from controlling and manipulating space for (...)
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  30. Lady Justice May Be Blind, but is She Racist? Examining Brains, Biases, and Behaviors Using Neuro-Voir Dire.Zaev D. Suskin - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):702-709.
    This paper discusses the possible use of functional magnetic-resonance imaging as potentially useful in jury selection. The author suggests that neuro-voir could provide greater impartiality of trials than the standard voir, while also preserving existing privacy protections for jurors. He predicts that ability to image and understand a wide range of brain activities, most notably bias-apprehension and lie detection, will render neuro-voir dire invaluable. However currently, such neuro-solutions remain preliminary.
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  31. The Unfolding of a New Vision of Life, Cosmos and Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Ludus Vitalis 28 (53):81-83.
    Has science already answered the fundamental questions about the concepts of Life, Cosmos and Evolution? Has science not relegated these fundamental questions by following up on more immediate, “useful” and practical endeavors that ultimately ensure that the wheel of capitalism keeps spinning in its frantic search for material and economic progress? There is something terribly wrong with the current theory of evolution, understood as the Darwinian theory with its successive versions and extensions. The concept of natural selection, the cornerstone of (...)
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  32. From Boas to Black Power: Racism, Liberalism, and American Anthropology.[author unknown] - 2019
  33. Life/Force: Novelty and New Materialism in Jane Bennett's Vibrant Matter.Jonathan Basile - 2019 - Substance 48 (2):3-22.
    Among those speaking in the name of materialism, whether speculative, dialectical, or "new," it is commonplace to dismiss with a single gesture a vast field of theoretical and philosophical endeavor, indicated as the last 50 or 250 years of theory and philosophy. Self-styled "speculative" writers who would surpass all philosophy since Kant, and various New Materialists who sequester decades of thought under the heading of "constructivism," manufacture the avant-garde status of their own work by claiming to delineate a simple break (...)
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  34. Between biology and chemistry in the Enlightenment: how nutrition shapes vital organization. Buffon, Bonnet, C.F. Wolff.Cécilia Bognon-Küss - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):11.
    This paper seeks to characterize how the study of nutrition processes contributed to revisit the problem of vital organization in the late eighteenth century. It argues that focusing on nutrition leads to reformulate the problem of the relation between life and organization in terms of processes, rather than static or given structures. This nutrition-centered approach to life amounts to acknowledge the specific strategic role nutrition played in the development of a materialist approach to the generation of vital organization. The paper (...)
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  35. The Artificial Cell, the Semipermeable Membrane, and the Life That Never Was, 1864–1901.Daniel Liu - 2019 - Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 49 (5):504-555.
    Since the early nineteenth century a membrane or wall has been central to the cell’s identity as the elementary unit of life. Yet the literally and metaphorically marginal status of the cell membrane made it the site of clashes over the definition of life and the proper way to study it. In this article I show how the modern cell membrane was conceived of by analogy to the first “artificial cell,” invented in 1864 by the chemist Moritz Traube (1826–1894), and (...)
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  36. Die Perspektive des Lebens: Genealogie und Kritik beim späten Nietzsche.Johannes Steizinger - 2019 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 67 (3):451-463.
    This paper focuses on the relation of genealogy and critique in Nietzsche’s late philosophy. It is argued that the late Nietzsche distinguishes between genealogy and critique. The genealogy of morality is a descriptive endeavor that shows the origin of values in processes of life. The critique of morality assesses the value of values from the perspective of life. It is argued that the concept of life is at the core of Nietzsche’s critical project and thus his fundamental standard. The paper (...)
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  37. La philosophie de la biologie avant la biologie : une histoire du vitalisme.Charles Wolfe - 2019 - Paris, France: Classiques Garnier.
    -/- Table des matières Remerciements 1 -/- INTRODUCTION 2 -/- PREMIERE PARTIE LE VIVANT ET LA REVOLUTION SCIENTIFIQUE 7 -/- ONTOLOGIE DU VIVANT OU BIOLOGIE ? LE CAS DE LA RÉVOLUTION SCIENTIFIQUE 8 -/- Introduction 8 La vie et le vivant sont-ils des thèmes de controverse explicites dans la philosophie naturelle de l’âge classique ? 18 Machines de la nature, ferments et métaphysique chimique 28 Crisis, what crisis ? 42 Conclusion 45 -/- LE MÉCANIQUE FACE AU VIVANT 49 -/- Introduction (...)
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  38. Il minimo, l’unità, e l’universo infinito nella cosmologia vitalistica di Giordano Bruno.Marina P. Banchetti - 2018 - In Andrea Muni (ed.), Platone nel pensiero moderno e contemporaneo - Volume XV. Milano: Limina Mentis. pp. 1-20.
  39. A non-metaphysical evaluation of vitalism in the early twentieth century.Bohang Chen - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):50.
    In biology the term “vitalism” is usually associated with Hans Driesch’s doctrine of the entelechy: entelechies were nonmaterial, bio-specific agents responsible for governing a few peculiar biological phenomena. Since vitalism defined as such violates metaphysical materialism, the received view refutes the doctrine of the entelechy as a metaphysical heresy. But in the early twentieth century, a different, non-metaphysical evaluation of vitalism was endorsed by some biologists and philosophers, which finally led to a logical refutation of the doctrine of the entelechy. (...)
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  40. Canguilhem and the Logic of Life.Arantza Etxeberria & Charles T. Wolfe - 2018 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 4:47.
    In this paper we examine aspects of Canguilhem’s philosophy of biology, concerning the knowledge of life and its consequences on science and vitalism. His concept of life stems from the idea of a living individual, endowed with creative subjectivity and norms, a Kantian view which “disconcerts logic”. In contrast, two different approaches ground naturalistic perspectives to explore the logic of life and the logic of the living individual in the 1970s. Although Canguilhem is closer to the second, there are divergences; (...)
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  41. Complex Organisation and Fundamental Physics.Brian D. Josephson - 2018 - Streaming Media Service, Cambridge University.
    The file on this site provides the slides for a lecture given in Hangzhou in May 2018, and the lecture itself is available at the URL beginning 'sms' in the set of links provided in connection with this item. -/- It is commonly assumed that regular physics underpins biology. Here it is proposed, in a synthesis of ideas by various authors, that in reality structures and mechanisms of a biological character underpin the world studied by physicists, in principle supplying detail (...)
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  42. Ficino, Lucretius and Atomism.Elena Nicoli - 2018 - Early Science and Medicine 23 (4):330-361.
    In this article, I retrace the genesis of Marsilio Ficino’s engagement with the Roman poet and philosopher Titus Lucretius Caro. I show that one of the reasons for Ficino’s early interest in and positive assessment of Lucretius’ philosophy was his favourable attitude toward atomistic notions in the early stages of his intellectual life. Having become acquainted with atomistic ideas through Platonic sources, the young Ficino initially considered atomism – and especially Lucretius’ version of it – perfectly compatible with his own (...)
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  43. Life: the Center of our Existence.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Ludus Vitalis 26 (50):257-260.
    Life is the center of our existence. One would be tempted to say that first of all we live. However, our existence does not seem to pass in that modality. The exacerbated materialism in which our existence takes place, displaces life from the center of the scene. Our society is organized around production, consumerism, exploitation, efficiency, trade and propaganda. That is to say, our existence seems to have economy as the center of organization of our activities. The struggle of this (...)
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  44. The Evolution Concept: The Concept Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 14 (3):354-378.
    This is an epistemologically-driven history of the concept of evolution. Starting from its inception, this work will follow the development of this pregnant concept. However, in contradistinction to previous attempts, the objective will not be the identification of the different meanings it adopted through history, but conversely, it will let the concept to be unfolded, to be explicated and to express its own inner potentialities. The underlying thesis of the present work is, therefore, that the path that leads to the (...)
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  45. Same Spirit, Different Structure: Francis Bacon on Inanimate and Animate Matter.Doina-Cristina Rusu - 2018 - Early Science and Medicine 23 (5-6):444-458.
    This article argues that for Francis Bacon there is only one type of spiritual matter, which acquires different qualities and performs different functions within bodies depending on the structure it has. In order to prove this hypothesis, the paper takes as a case study the process of spontaneous generation, where there is no pre-existent spirit, as contrary to the case of the generation out of seed. For Bacon, tangible matter is prepared to produce certain species, leaving to the spirits the (...)
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  46. Metaphysics, Function and the Engineering of Life: The Problem of Vitalism.Charles T. Wolfe, Bohang Chen & Cécilia Bognon-Küss - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):113-140.
    Vitalism was long viewed as the most grotesque view in biological theory: appeals to a mysterious life-force, Romantic insistence on the autonomy of life, or worse, a metaphysics of an entirely living universe. In the early twentieth century, attempts were made to present a revised, lighter version that was not weighted down by revisionary metaphysics: “organicism”. And mainstream philosophers of science criticized Driesch and Bergson’s “neovitalism” as a too-strong ontological commitment to the existence of certain entities or “forces”, over and (...)
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  47. La Raison des Corps : Mécanisme Et Science Médicale, Written by Raphaële Andrault, 2016. [REVIEW]Fabrizio Baldassarri - 2017 - Early Science and Medicine 22 (4):381-383.
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  48. Życie jako insynuacja w ujęciu Henri Bergsona i George’a Santayany.Katarzyna Kremplewska - 2017 - Diametros 52:47-63.
    The article analyzes Henri Bergson’s understanding of human life in the light of his metaphor of life as “insinuation.” Comparing his ideas with the ideas of another original thinker of the age, George Santayana, allows shedding light on Bergson’s ontological strategy of making matter– as a threat to life –subject to mediation. Memory and imagination use matter to play out the past in the guise of the present–for the sake of life. The text also focuses on the formulas of freedom (...)
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  49. Non/Living Matter, Bioscientific Imaginaries and Feminist Techno-Ecologies of Bioart.Marietta Radomska - 2017 - Australian Feminist Studies 32 (94):377-394.
    Bioart is a form of hybrid artistico-scientific practices in contemporary art that involve the use of bio-materials (such as living cells, tissues, organisms) and scientific techniques, protocols, and tools. Bioart-works embody vulnerability (intrinsic to all beings) and depend on (bio)technologies that allow these creations to come into being, endure and flourish but also discipline them. This article focuses on ‘semi-living’ sculptures by The Tissue Culture and Art Project (TC&A). TC&A’s artworks consist of bioengineered mammal tissues grown over biopolymer scaffoldings of (...)
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  50. La biophilosophie de Georges Canguilhem.Charles T. Wolfe - 2017 - Scienza and Filosofia 17.
    ABSTRACT: GEORGES CANGUILHEM’S BIOPHILOSOPHY The eminent French biologist and historian of biology, François Jacob, once notoriously declared «On n’interroge plus la vie dans les laboratoires»: laboratory research no longer inquires into the notion of “Life”. Certain influential French philosophers of science of the mid‐century such as Georges Canguilhem would disagree, or at least seek to resist some of Jacob’s diagnosis. Not by imposing a different kind of research program in laboratories, but by an unusual combination of historical and philosophical inquiry (...)
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