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Summary

The predominant area in the philosophy of war and violence is just war theory, which examines when the resort to war is justified (jus ad bellum) and the ethical constraints on the conduct of war (jus in bello). The just war tradition encompasses writings from many different philosophical and religious traditions and spans several hundred years of debate. In the last one hundred years, philosophical debates on war and violence have expanded to include discussions about pacifism, the definition and justification of terrorism and counterterrorism, the ethics of nuclear deterrence, and the ethics of torture. 

Key works Key historical writers on just war theory include Grotius unknown, Vitoria, and Carl von Clausewitz. Contemporary just war theory really began with the publication of Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (first edition 1977). Other key works include Richard Wasserstrom 1970, Coady 1985Rodin 2007, and Primoratz 2004
Introductions Nagel 1972 Luban 1980 Narveson 1965 Anscombe ms Hare 1972
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  1. Bagaimana tujuh sociopaths aturan yang Cina menang perang dunia tiga dan tiga cara untuk menghentikan mereka.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Selamat Datang di Neraka di Bumi Bayi, Perubahan Iklim, Bitcoin, Kartel, Tiongkok, Demokrasi, Keragaman, Disgenik, Kesetaraan, Peretas, Hak Asasi Manusia, Islam, Liberalisme, Kemakmuran, Web, Kekacauan, Kelaparan, Penyakit, Kekerasan, Kecerdasan Buatan, P.
    Hal pertama yang harus kita ingat adalah bahwa ketika mengatakan bahwa Cina mengatakan ini atau Cina melakukan itu, kita tidak berbicara tentang orang-orang Cina, tetapi dari Sosiopat yang mengendalikan PKT - Partai Komunis Cina, yaitu, Tujuh Pikun Sosiopat Pembunuh Berantai (SSSSK) dari Komite Tetap PKT atau 25 anggota Politbiro dll. Rencana PKT untuk WW3 dan dominasi total ditata cukup jelas dalam publikasi dan pidato pemerintah Cina dan ini adalah "China Dream" Xi Jinping. Ini adalah mimpi hanya untuk minoritas kecil (mungkin (...)
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  2. The Italian Enlightenment and the Rehabilitation of Moral and Political Philosophy.Sergio Cremaschi - 2020 - The European Legacy 25 (7-8):743-759.
    By reconstructing the eighteenth-century movement of the Italian Enlightenment, I show that Italy’s political fragmentation notwithstanding, there was a constant circulation of ideas, whether on philosophical, ethical, political, religious, social, economic or scientific questions—among different groups in various states. This exchange was made possible by the shared language of its leading illuministi— Cesare Beccaria, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Francesco Maria Zanotti, Antonio Genovesi, Mario Pagano, Pietro Verri, Marco Antonio Vogli, and Giammaria Ortes—and resulted in four common traits. First, the absence of (...)
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  3. The Wildman’s Dilemma: Is the Question ‘What is the Meaning of Life?’ Harmful?Timb Hoswell - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):633-641.
    Is the very question ‘what is the meaning of life?’ harmful? Humans often fight and go to war over various answers offered by religions, prophets, gurus, economists and philosophers. Could the question of seeking a ‘life meaning’ be dangerous? This paper considers existential strains of philosophy in Ray Bradbury’s The Martian Chronicles, through the lens of Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, Albert Camus and Plato’s Allegory of the Chariot in order to argue that Western philosophy needs to ask whether the question of a (...)
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  4. The Claimability Condition: Rights as Action‐Guiding Standards.Cristián Rettig - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (2):322-340.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  5. Just War and Global Distributive Justice.Laura Valentini - 2016 - In Pietro Maffettone & David Held (eds.), Global Political Theory. Cambridge, UK: pp. 143-57.
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  6. Why is Globalization a Threat to Africa? A Study of the Thought of Claude Ake on African Migration to the City and Some of Its Consequences.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2011 - In M. Czerny & J. Tapia Quevedo (eds.), Metropolitan Areas in Transition. Warsaw: pp. 311-323.
    Globalization is seen positively by those to whose societies it brings measurable benefits. Claude Ake, one of the most outstanding African thinkers of the second half of the 20th century and a great advocate for constructing democracy in Africa, primarily viewed the progress of globalization in terms of its numerous dangers. In Ake's opinion, globalization negatively affects the condition of contemporary societies, whose members place increasing importance on market values and principles. He thought that when consumer identity finally triumphs over (...)
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  7. Justification and Legitimacy at War: On the Sources of Moral Guidance for Soldiers.Christopher J. Finlay - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):576-602.
    Attempts to simplify ethics in war by claiming exclusive legitimate authority for the law of armed conflict underestimate the moral complexities facing soldiers. Soldiers risk wrongdoing if they refuse moral guidance that can independently evaluate their legal permissions. State soldiers need to know when to object to a legal duty to fight; nonstate fighters need to know when to disregard legal prohibitions against fighting. And both might sometimes best discharge their moral duties by following a bespoke rule departing from noncombatant (...)
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  8. Commemoration and Emotional Imperialism.Alfred Archer & Benjamin Matheson - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The Northern Irish footballer James McClean chooses not to take part in the practice of wearing a plastic red poppy to commemorate those who have died fighting for the British Armed Forces. Each year he faces abuse, including occasional death threats, for his choice. This forms part of a wider trend towards ‘poppy enforcement’, the pressuring of people, particularly public figures, to wear the poppy. This enforcement seems wrong in part because, at least in some cases, it involves abuse. But (...)
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  9. Conditional and Contingent Pacifism: The Main Battlegrounds.Nicholas Parkin - 2017 - Critical Studies 2 (6):193-206.
    Anti-war pacifism rejects modern war as a means of attaining peace. This paper outlines two varieties of theoretical anti-war pacifism: conditional pacifism (war is conditionally unjustifiable due to the harm it causes to innocent persons) and contingent pacifism (war is justified if certain criteria are met but contingent facts about modern war mean that few, if any, actual wars meet these criteria). It elucidates the main points of contention at which these positions intersect with other war institution preserving theories, and (...)
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  10. Just War, Cyber War, and the Concept of Violence.Christopher Finlay - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (3):357-377.
    Recent debate on the relationship between cyber threats, on the one hand, and both strategy and ethics on the other focus on the extent to which ‘cyber war’ is possible, both as a conceptual question and an empirical one. Whether it can is an important question for just war theorists. From this perspective, it is necessary to evaluate cyber measures both as a means of responding to threats and as a possible just cause for using armed kinetic force. In this (...)
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  11. Is Just War Possible?Christopher J. Finlay - 2018 - Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    The idea that war is sometimes justified is deeply embedded in public consciousness. But it is only credible so long as we believe that the ethical standards of just war are in fact realizable in practice. In this engaging book, Christopher Finlay elucidates the assumptions underlying just war theory and defends them from a range of objections, arguing that it is a regrettable but necessary reflection of the moral realities of international politics. Using a range of historical and contemporary examples, (...)
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  12. The Real Promise of Federalism: A Case Study of Arendt’s International Thought.Shinkyu Lee - forthcoming - European Journal of Political Theory:147488512090605.
    For Hannah Arendt, the federal system is an effective mode of organizing different sources of power while avoiding sovereign politics. This article aims to contribute two specific claims to the burgeoning scholarship on Arendt’s international federalism. First, Arendt’s international thought calls for the balancing of two demands: the domestic need for human greatness and flourishing, and the international demand for regulation and cooperation. Second, her reflections on council-based federalism offer a nuanced position that views the dual elements of equality in (...)
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  13. Freedom, the State, and War: Hegel’s Challenge to World Peace.Shinkyu Lee - 2017 - International Politics 54 (2):203-220.
    Several conflict theorists have appropriated Hegel’s ‘struggle for recognition’ to highlight the healthy dimensions of conflict and to explore ways of reaching reconciliation through mutual recognition. In so doing, some scholars attend to the interpersonal dimension of reconciliation, while others focus on the interstate dimension of reconciliation. This paper argues that both approaches miss important Hegelian insights into the modern state. Hegel understands that freedom must be situated and bounded in order to take a concrete form. He believes that concrete (...)
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  14. The Lex of the Earth? Arendt’s Critique of Roman Law.Shinkyu Lee - forthcoming - Journal of International Political Theory:175508821989823.
    How political communities should be constituted is at the center of Hannah Arendt’s engagement with two ancient sources of law: the Greek nomos and the Roman lex. Recent scholarship suggests that Arendt treats nomos as imperative and exclusive while lex has a relationship-establishing dimension and that for an inclusive form of polity, she favors lex over nomos. This article argues, however, that Arendt’s appreciation occurs within a general context of more reservations about Rome than Roman-centric interpretations admit. Her writings show (...)
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  15. The Truth That Hurts, or the Corps À Corps of Tongues: An Interview with Jacques Derrida.Thomas Clément Mercier, Jacques Derrida & Évelyne Grossman - 2019 - Parallax 25 (1):8-24.
    In this 2004 interview — translated into English and published in its entirety for the first time — Jacques Derrida reflects upon his practices of writing and teaching, about the community of his readers, and explores questions related to corporeity and textuality, sexual difference, desire, politics, Marxism, violence, truth, interpretation, and translation. In the course of the interview, Derrida discusses the work of Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Maurice Blanchot, Hélène Cixous, Jean Genet, Paul Celan, and many others.
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  16. Guidelines for Exploring an Unknown World: The Universality of Military Principles.Kai Jiang - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophy and Social Sciences 5 (1):33-51.
    Despite its pertinence to every field of study, no systematic theory exists for the exploration of the unknown world of new knowledge. In order to construct such a theory, this paper draws on the unique and highly refined principles of military strategy, in the process demonstrating the universal applicability of such principles and developing an effective analogy for the process of research. Such principles include diverging advance, converging attack, and selecting the superior and eliminating the inferior. In seeking further discoveries, (...)
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  17. The Torture Debate and the Toleration of Torture. [REVIEW]Jessica Wolfendale - 2019 - Criminal Justice Ethics 38:138-152.
    One of the questions raised by this important and thought-provoking collection of essays on torture is how and why the consensus that torture is wrong - a consensus enshrined in international law for decade - has become so fragile. As Scott Anderson writes in the introduction to this volume, "how did abusing and torturing prisoners suddenly become so popular?” The chapters in this volume offer insights into this question from the perspectives of history, psychology, law, philosophy, and sociology. This interdisciplinary (...)
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  18. Conspiring with the Enemy: The Ethic of Cooperation in Warfare.Yvonne Chiu - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
    *Winner of the North American Society for Social Philosophy (NASSP) Book Award 2019.* -/- Although military mores have relied primarily on just war theory, the ethic of cooperation in warfare (ECW)—between enemies even as they are trying to kill each other—is as central to the practice of warfare and to conceptualization of its morality. Neither game theory nor unilateral moral duties (God-given or otherwise) can explain the explicit language of cooperation in developing and enforcing principles of military ethics and the (...)
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  19. The Secret Life of Violence.Elena Ruíz - 2019 - In Dustin J. Byrd & Seyed Javad Miri (eds.), Frantz Fanon and Emancipatory Social Theory. Brill.
    This chapter proceeds in two ways. First, I argue that Fanon’s structural witnessing of racism yields important insights about the nature of violence that challenges the settler colonial concept of violence as the extra-legal use of force. Second, I argue that his analysis of violence is insufficient for combating colonial racism and violence because, using the terms of his own analysis, it leaves intact logics and mechanisms that allow racism to structurally renew itself in perpetuity: violence against women. Without a (...)
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  20. Moral Tragedy Pacifism.Nicholas Parkin - 2019 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 16 (3):259-278.
    Conditional pacifism is the view that war is morally justified if and only if it satisfies the condition of not causing serious harm or death to innocent persons. Modern war cannot satisfy this condition, and is thus always unjustified. The main response to this position is that the moral presumption against harming or killing innocents is overridden in certain cases by the moral presumption against allowing innocents to be harmed or killed. That is, as harmful as modern war is, it (...)
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  21. Justification and Legitimacy at War: On the Sources of Moral Guidance for Soldiers.Christopher J. Finlay - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):576-602.
    Attempts to simplify ethics in war by claiming exclusive legitimate authority for the law of armed conflict underestimate the moral complexities facing soldiers. Soldiers risk wrongdoing if they refuse moral guidance that can independently evaluate their legal permissions. State soldiers need to know when to object to a legal duty to fight; nonstate fighters need to know when to disregard legal prohibitions against fighting. And both might sometimes best discharge their moral duties by following a bespoke rule departing from noncombatant (...)
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  22. Civilian Liability.Helen Frowe - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):625-650.
    Adil Ahmad Haque argues that civilians who contribute to unjust lethal threats in war, but who do not directly participate in the war, are not liable to defensive killing. His argument rests on two central claims: first, that the extent of a person’s liability to defensive harm in virtue of contributing to an unjust threat is limited to the cost that she is initially required to bear in order to avoid contributing, and, second, that civilians need not bear lethal costs (...)
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  23. The Quandary of Multiple States as an Internal and External Limit to Marxist Thought: From Poulantzas to Karatani.Baraneh Emadian - 2019 - Rethinking Marxism A Journal of Economics, Culture and Society 31 (1):72–92.
    At the time of the disintegration of “actually existing socialism” in the 1990s, it appeared that the inexorable flux of globalization was going to consume the nation-state. However, recent years have witnessed the increasing role of the states in both the Global North and South. The relationship between the state and capital is a frequently traversed subject, but what needs further illumination is the persistence of “many states” and its relation to capitalism as both a national and global formation. While (...)
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  24. Voltaire, Candido, a cura di Sergio Cremaschi e Filippo Bruni. Voltaire, Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi & Filippo Bruni - 2001 - Scandicci (Firenze), Italy: La Nuova Italia.
    This is one more edition of Voltaire's "Candide", meant to highlight the wealth of philosophical and theological discussions hidden behind the apparently innocent veil of the most renowned fable of modernity. The rather extended apparatus accordingly consists of a series of short chapters by Filippo Bruni on the Enlightenment and Metaphysics, and in more detail, on theology, Free choice, the problem of evil, and happiness in an imperfect world and another by Sergio Cremaschi on the Enlightenment and morality, and in (...)
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  25. Dissent From the Homeland: Essays After September 11.Christopher F. Porter - 2004 - Symploke 12 (1):305-306.
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  26. When Terrorism Threatens Health: How Far Are Limitations on Human Rights Justified.Lawrence O. Gostin - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (4):524-528.
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  27. Non-Violent Resistance and Last Resort.Nicholas Parkin - 2016 - Journal of Military Ethics 15 (4):259-274.
    It is commonly accepted that recourse to war is justifiable only as a last resort. If a situation can be resolved by less harmful means, then war is unjust. It is also commonly accepted that violent actions in war should be necessary and proportionate. Violent actions in war are unjust if the end towards which those actions are means can be achieved by less harmful means. In this article, I argue that satisfaction of the last resort criterion depends in part (...)
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  28. Review: Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Europe. [REVIEW]Pat O'Malley - 1985 - Thesis Eleven 10 (1):272-274.
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  29. Philosophical Scrutiny of the Strategic ‘Defence’ Initiatives.Jonathan Schonsheck - 1986 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 3 (2):151-166.
    Many people have misgivings about the strategy of nuclear deterrence. Some of those misgivings centre on issues of effectiveness: safety depends entirely upon the dissuasion of an adversary. Other misgivings centre on moral concerns: the essence of deterrence is the threat, and the conditional intention, to kill millions of noncombatants. US President Reagan's Strategic Defence Initiative promised an alternative to deterrence, a strategic posture of interception of an adversary's weapons rather than preclusion of the decision to attack. It is conceived (...)
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  30. Robert Ware and Kai Nielsen, Eds., Analyzing Marxism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supplementary Volume 15. [REVIEW]Tony Smith - 1990 - Philosophy in Review 10 (8):334-336.
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  31. A Violent Culture or Culturalized Violence?: Feminist Narratives of Sexual Violence Against South Asian Women.Sherene Razack - 2003 - Studies in Practical Philosophy 3 (1):80-104.
  32. Kerrey and Calley: What Is the Moral Difference?Jan Narveson - 2002 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (2):153-162.
    In the Vietnam war, Lieutenant Calley, claiming to be following orders, ordered the killing of several hundred women, children, and elderly people in the village of My Lai. In 1969, Lieutenant Kerrey led a small group of SEALs in the dead of night on a dangerous military venture. In course, a dozen or so innocent villagers were either shot in crossfire or killed intentionally because there seemed a real chance that they would inform the enemy, endangering themselves and the mission. (...)
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  33. The Shiʿis of IraqThe Shiis of Iraq.Stephen C. Pelletiere & Yitzhak Nakash - 1996 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (4):786.
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  34. Teichman, Jenny, "Illegitimacy: An Examination of Bastardy". [REVIEW]Vinit Haksar - 1982 - Ethics 93:821.
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  35. Deane Curtin and Robert Litke, Eds., Institutional Violence. [REVIEW]Mechthild Nagel - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:408-409.
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  36. A Serb's View Of Nato's Bombs.Svetozar Stojanovic - 1999 - Free Inquiry 19.
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  37. Violence, Reason and Justice: No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed.Ken Knisely, Anthony Ellis, David Garren & Scott Hibbard - forthcoming - DVD.
    Who gets to use force and when? How are we supposed to justify the use of violence in achieving political goals and establishing and maintaining political communities and structures? With Anthony Ellis , David Garren , and Scott Hibbard.
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  38. Leonardo Boff, Fundamentalism, Terrorism, and the Future of Humanity. [REVIEW]Wim Smit - 2007 - Ethical Perspectives 14 (1):110-110.
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  39. [Miscellaneous Publications].Worldwide Movement for Reconciliation - 1998 - The Movement.
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  40. Dåuangéchai Khøåong Måµ.Kritdikøåon Såatamåan - 1988 - S.N.
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  41. Violence, Technocratie Et Vie Quotidienne Philosophie de la Culture.Rafael Angel Herra - 1984
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  42. The Rhetoric of Nonviolent Conflict Resolution: Toward a Philosophy of Peace as a Social Construct.Sheila Marie Murphy - 1996 - Dissertation, University of South Carolina
    As a matter of social practice, the reality of conflict resolution in the United States today is largely a violent one. In the last two decades in particular, Americans have demonstrated an increased reliance on violence as a method of resolving conflict. This is true not only in terms of military intervention in political crises, but also--perhaps especially--in terms of what Berger and Luckmann call "the reality par excellence"--that is, the reality of everyday life. Significant increases in the numbers of (...)
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  43. Jurgen Brauer and J. Paul Dunne, Peace Economics: A Macroeconomic Primer for Violence-Afflicted States. [REVIEW]Kishor Thanawala - 2013 - Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 23 (1):97-100.
  44. Violence and War.K. Verma - 2008 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 18 (3):70-70.
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  45. Contemporary Significance of an Article by Mitchell Franklin on Two Earlier Wars on Terror.Gene Grabiner & James Lawler - 2003 - Nature, Society, and Thought 16 (4):389-404.
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  46. Pacifism, Supreme Emergency, and Moral Tragedy.Nicholas Parkin - 2014 - Social Theory and Practice 40 (4):631-648.
    This paper develops and defends a new way for pacifists to deal with the problem of supreme emergency. In it I argue that a supreme emergency in which some disaster can only be prevented by modern war is a morally tragic situation. This means that a leader faced with a supreme emergency acts unjustifiably in both allowing something terrible to occur, as well as in waging war to prevent it. I also argue that we may have cause to excuse from (...)
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  47. Just Military Preparedness, U.S. Military Hegemony, and Contingency Planning for Intervention in Sudan: A Reply to Lango and Patterson.Harry van der Linden - 2010 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):135-152.
    This paper rejects most aspects of John W. Lango and Eric Patterson’s proposal that the United States should plan for a possible intervention in Sudan on secessionist and humanitarian grounds and announce this planning as a deterrent to the central government of Sudan attacking the people of South Sudan if they would opt in a January 2011 referendum for independence. I argue that secession is not a just cause for armed intervention and that, rightfully, neither the American people nor many (...)
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  48. Atoms for the People: The Atomic Scientists' Association, the British State and Nuclear Education in the Atom Train Exhibition, 1947–1948.Christoph Laucht - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Science 45 (4):591-608.
    This article concerns the Atom Train travelling exhibition that the chief body of the British nuclear scientists' movement, the Atomic Scientists' Association , organized in collaboration with government offices and private industry in 1947–1948. It argues that the exhibition marked an important moment within post-war British nuclear culture where nuclear scientists shared aspects of their nuclear knowledge with the British public, while simultaneously clashing with the interests of the emerging British national security state in the early Cold War.
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  49. The Cruel Radiance: Photography and Political Violence.Susie Linfield - 2010 - University of Chicago Press.
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  50. Seeking Feasible Reconciliation: A Transdisciplinary Contextual Approach to Reconciliation.Christoffel H. Thesnaar - 2014 - Hts Theological Studies 70 (2):01-08.
    In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article (...)
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