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Summary

The predominant area in the philosophy of war and violence is just war theory, which examines when the resort to war is justified (jus ad bellum) and the ethical constraints on the conduct of war (jus in bello). The just war tradition encompasses writings from many different philosophical and religious traditions and spans several hundred years of debate. In the last one hundred years, philosophical debates on war and violence have expanded to include discussions about pacifism, the definition and justification of terrorism and counterterrorism, the ethics of nuclear deterrence, and the ethics of torture. 

Key works Key historical writers on just war theory include Grotius unknown, Vitoria, and Carl von Clausewitz. Contemporary just war theory really began with the publication of Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (first edition 1977). Other key works include Richard Wasserstrom 1970, Coady 1985Rodin 2007, and Primoratz 2004
Introductions Nagel 1972 Luban 1980 Narveson 1965 Anscombe ms Hare 1972
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  1. Douglas Allen (2007). Mahatma Gandhi on Violence and Peace Education. Philosophy East and West 57 (3):290-310.
    : Gandhi can serve as a valuable catalyst allowing us to rethink our philosophical positions on violence, nonviolence, and education. Especially insightful are Gandhi's formulations of the multidimensionality of violence, including educational violence, and the violence of the status quo. His peace education offers many possibilities for dealing with short-term violence, but its greatest strength is its long-term preventative education and socialization. Key to Gandhi's peace education are his ethical and ontological formulations of means-ends relations; the need to uncover root (...)
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  2. Rodger Beehler (1982). Containing Violence. Ethics 92 (4):647-660.
  3. Fritz Caspari (1946). Sir Thomas More and Justum Bellum. Ethics 56 (4):303-308.
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  4. Bhuvan Chandel (forthcoming). Gandhi on Non-Violence. Diogenes:0392192116666470.
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  5. Thomas Eich (2003). Abū L-Hudā, the Rifā‛Iya and Shiism in Ḥamīdian Iraq. Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 80 (1):142-152.
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  6. Andrew Fiala, King Preached Nonviolence, Too.
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  7. Franklin Zahn (1984). Deserter From Violence: Experiments with Gandhi’s Truth.
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  8. Sidney Gendin, Jerome Shaffer & J. Glenn Gray (1972). Violence: Award-Winning Essays in the Council for Philosophical Studies Competition.On Understanding Violence Philosophically, and Other Essays. Journal of Philosophy 69 (7):186.
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  9. Henry S. Lucas (1957). The Problem of the Poems Concerning the Murder of Count Floris V of Holland. Speculum 32 (2):283-298.
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  10. Wendy Pearlman (2011). Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement. Cambridge University Press.
    Why do some national movements use violent protest and others nonviolent protest? Wendy Pearlman shows that much of the answer lies inside movements themselves. Nonviolent protest requires coordination and restraint, which only a cohesive movement can provide. When, by contrast, a movement is fragmented, factional competition generates new incentives for violence and authority structures are too weak to constrain escalation. Pearlman reveals these patterns across one hundred years in the Palestinian national movement, with comparisons to South Africa and Northern Ireland. (...)
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  11. Stephen C. Pelletiere & Yitzhak Nakash (1996). The Shiʿis of IraqThe Shiis of Iraq. Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (4):786.
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  12. Igor Primoratz (2005). Civilian Immunity in War. Philosophical Forum 36 (1):41–58.
    The protection of noncombatants from deadly violence is the centrepiece of any account of ethical and legal constraints on war. It was a major achievement of moral progress from early modern times to World War I. Yet it has been under constant attrition since - perhaps never more so than in our time, with its 'new wars', the spectre of weapons of mass destruction, and the global terrorism alert. -/- Civilian Immunity in War, written in collaboration by eleven authors, provides (...)
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  13. Matthew Rowley (2014). What Causes Religious Violence? Journal of Religion and Violence 2 (3):361-402.
    Violence in the name of God is a complex phenomenon and oversimplification further jeopardizes peace because it obscures many of the causal factors. This paper categorizes three hundred scholarly claimed causes of religious violence and then offers thirteen guidelines for navigating the complicated relationship between religion and violence. Understanding this complexity is an important step towards diagnosing the problem and moving towards reconciliation.
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  14. Ian Roxborough (2006). The New American Warriors. Theoria 53 (109):49-78.
    What will be the future of war? No-one can tell for sure, and so there is much speculation and many contending views. In this article I discuss one of those views, the notion that war of the future will primarily be a protracted form of terrorism, insurgency, and low-intensity conflict within 'failed' states and civilizations, which will sometimes lapse into ethnic cleansing and genocide. It will be 'dirty war'. The antagonists will be rage-filled 'warriors'. War will be fought in the (...)
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  15. Kritdikøåon Såatamåan (1988). Dåuangéchai Khøåong Måµ. S.N.
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  16. Austin Sarat & Jennifer L. Culbert (eds.) (2009). States of Violence: War, Capital Punishment, and Letting Die. Cambridge University Press.
    This book brings together scholarship on three different forms of state violence, examining each for what it can tell us about the conditions under which states use violence and the significance of violence to our understanding of states. This book calls into question the legitimacy of state uses of violence and mounts a sustained effort at interpretation, sense making, and critique. It suggests that condemning the state's decisions to use lethal force is not a simple matter of abolishing the death (...)
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  17. Willa Z. Silverman, Alain Finkielkraut, Roxanne Lapidus & Sima Godfrey (1995). Remembering in Vain: The Klaus Barbie Trial and Crimes Against Humanity. Substance 24 (1/2):196.
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  18. John E. Smith (1969). The Inescapable Ambiguity of Nonviolence. Philosophy East and West 19 (2):155-158.
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  19. Rita Sommers-Flanagan (2007). Ethical Considerations in Crisis and Humanitarian Interventions. Ethics and Behavior 17 (2):187 – 202.
    The need for professionals to volunteer their time in crisis situations and to reach across time and culture in the service of humanitarian interventions will likely not abate in the near future. This article provides readers with multiple venues for considering the ethical dimensions present in crisis and humanitarian interventions. Core ethical concerns common to helping situations are magnified in crisis work. In addition, issues unique to the nature of volunteer and crisis work must also be considered. Using hypothetical case (...)
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  20. S. L. Waugh (1977). The Profits of Violence: The Minor Gentry in the Rebellion of 1321-1322 in Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. Speculum 52 (4):843-869.
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  21. Norman Wilde (1920). The Attack on the State. International Journal of Ethics 30 (4):349-371.
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  22. Norman Wilde (1920). The Attack on the State. International Journal of Ethics 30 (4):349-371.
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Violence
  1. Hanan Alexander (2014). Education in Nonviolence: Levinas' Talmudic Readings and the Study of Sacred Texts. Ethics and Education 9 (1):58-68.
  2. Larry Alexander (1993). Self-Defense, Justification and Excuse. Philosophy and Public Affairs 22 (1):53-66.
  3. Andrew Alexandra (2012). Private Military and Security Companies and the Liberal Conception of Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (3):158-174.
    Abstract The institution of war is the broad framework of rules, norms, and organizations dedicated to the prevention, prosecution, and resolution of violent conflict between political entities. Important parts of that institution consist of the accountability arrangements that hold between armed forces, the political leaders who oversee and direct the use of those forces, and the people in whose name the leaders act and from whose ranks the members of the armed forces are drawn. Like other parts of the institution, (...)
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  4. Elisabeth Anker (2008). National Love in Violent Times. [REVIEW] Political Theory 36 (5):762 - 769.
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  5. Anatole Anton (1990). The Caveman and the Bomb. Social Philosophy Today 3:425-426.
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  6. Hannah Arendt & Hans Jürgen Benedict (2009). Revolution, Violence, and Power: A Correspondence. Constellations 16 (2):302-306.
  7. R. Argullol (2007). What is Left of the Angel? Diogenes 54 (3):77-79.
    The author raises the problem of the presence of terror in contemporary life. He analyzes the continuous dynamic between fear, terror and hopes of peace in contemporary societies. Dignity appears as a blueprint of the ubiquitous presence of terror and fear.
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  8. Samantha Ashenden (2014). On Violence in Habermas's Philosophy of Language. European Journal of Political Theory 13 (4):427-452.
    Habermas does not rule out the possibility of violence in language. In fact his account explicitly licenses a broad conception of violence as ‘systematically distorted communication’. Yet he does rule out the possibility that language simultaneously imposes as it discloses. That is, his argument precludes the possibility of recognizing that there is an antinomy at the heart of language and philosophical reason. This occlusion of the simultaneously world-disclosing and world-imposing character of language feeds and sustains Habermas’s legal and political arguments, (...)
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  9. Alain Badiou (2013). Philosophy for Militants. Verso.
    Enigmatic relationship between philosophy and politics -- Figure of the soldier -- Politics as a nonexpressive dialectics.
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  10. Jeffrey R. Baker, Enjoining Coercion: Squaring Civil Protection Orders with the Reality of Domestic Abuse.
    Every state provides civil protection for victims of domestic abuse, but these regimes typically fixate on physical violence. Domestic abuse, however, does not spring from violent tendencies. Rather, abuse arises from a perpetrator's desire to exert power and control over his victim. Abusers often deploy emotional, economic, political and social tactics to coerce responses from vulnerable partners long before they resort to violence. Violence is the extreme tool to maintain control when a victim challenges the abuser's power over her life. (...)
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  11. Etienne Balibar (2001). Outlines of a Topography of Cruelty: Citizenship and Civility in the Era of Global Violence. Constellations 8 (1):15-29.
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  12. László Levente Balogh (2011). Az Erőszak Kritikája: Tanulmányok. Debreceni Egyetemi Kiadó.
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  13. Tarak Barkawi (2002). Organising Violence in World Politics: A Review Essay. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (1):101-120.
  14. J. Bartelson (1997). Making Exceptions: Some Remarks on the Concept of Coup d'Etat and its History. Political Theory 25 (3):323-346.
  15. William J. Behre, Ron Avi Astor & Heather Ann Meyer (2001). Elementary- and Middle-School Teachers' Reasoning About Intervening in School Violence: An Examination of Violence-Prone School Subcontexts. Journal of Moral Education 30 (2):131-153.
    The study compared middle-school and elementary-school teachers' (N = 108) reasoning about their professional roles when violence occurred in "undefined" and potentially violence-prone school subcontexts (e.g. hallways, cafeterias, playgrounds). The study combined concepts from urban planing, architecture, criminology and cognitive developmental domain theory to explore teachers' moral attributions towards school spaces. Participants were asked to locate dangerous locations and discuss their professional roles in those locations. Teachers were also given hypothetical situations where the specific subcontexts (i.e. hallways, classroom, school yard) (...)
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  16. Robert Bernasconi (2011). Perpetual Peace and the Invention of Total War. In Nathan Eckstrand & Christopher S. Yates (eds.), Philosophy and the Return of Violence: Studies From This Widening Gyre. Continuum International Publishing Group.
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  17. Joseph R. Biden (1998). Commentary: Attacking Youth Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics 17 (1):2-67.
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  18. Peg Birmingham (2011). Agamben on Violence, Language, and Human Rights. In Nathan Eckstrand & Christopher S. Yates (eds.), Philosophy and the Return of Violence: Studies From This Widening Gyre. Continuum International Publishing Group.
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  19. Martin Blanchard (2012). Violence et démocratie délibérative : introduction. Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 7 (1):45-49.
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  20. Jeffrey Bloechl (2011). Towards an Anthropology of Violence: Existential Analyses of Levinas, Girard, Freud. In Nathan Eckstrand & Christopher S. Yates (eds.), Philosophy and the Return of Violence: Studies From This Widening Gyre. Continuum International Publishing Group.
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  21. Geoff Boucher (2010). Slavoj Žižek, Violence. [REVIEW] Critical Horizons 10 (3):425-430.
  22. Richard Bourne, Eli H. Newberger & C. Sue White (forthcoming). Mandated Child Abuse Reporting. Ethics and Behavior.
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  23. Vihren Bouzov (2015). Philosophy of Global Security. In Ioan-Alexandru Tofan Mihai-Dan Chiţoiu (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference “Humanities and Social Sciences Today. Classical and Contemporary Issues” – Philosophy and Other Humanities. pp. 43-51.
    We are living in an imbalanced and insecure world. It is torn by violent conflicts on a global scale: between the West and the East, between rich and poor countries, between Christianity and Islam, between the Great Forces and naughty countries, between a global capitalist elite and workers and between the global democratic community and global terrorism. An optimistic thesis will be grounded asserting that varied cultures and civilizations can solve all existing problems and contradictions peacefully and can carry out (...)
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  24. Cristian Bratu (2011). Political Violence and/as Evil : Sartre's Dirty Hands. In Scott M. Powers (ed.), Evil in Contemporary French and Francophone Literature. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  25. Torkel Brekke (2004). Wielding the Rod of Punishment – War and Violence in the Political Science of Kautilya. Journal of Military Ethics 3 (1):40-52.
    This article presents Kautilya, the most important thinker in the tradition of statecraft in India. Kautilya has influenced ideas of war and violence in much of South- and Southeast Asia and he is of great importance for a comparative understanding of the ethics of war. The violence inflicted by the king on internal and external enemies is pivotal for the maintenance of an ordered society, according to Kautilya. Prudence and treason are hallmarks of Kautilya's world. The article shows that this (...)
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  26. Bruce Buchan (2001). Liberalism and Fear of Violence. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 4 (3):27-48.
    Liberal political thought is underwritten by an enduring fear of civil and state violence. It is assumed within liberal thought that self?interest characterises relations between individuals in civil society, resulting in violence. In absolutist doctrines, such as Hobbes?, the pacification of private persons depended on the Sovereign's command of a monopoly of violence. Liberals, by contrast, sought to claim that the state itself must be pacified, its capacity for cruelty (e.g., torture) removed, its capacity for violence (e.g., war) reduced and (...)
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  27. Richard M. Buck (2004). Beyond Retribution. Social Philosophy Today 20:67-80.
    The very nature of terrorism and the context in which it typically occurs make responding to it much more complicated, morally speaking, than responding to conventional military attacks. Two points are particularly important here: (1) terrorism often arises in the midst of conflicts that can only be resolved at the negotiating table; (2) responses to terrorist acts almost always present significant risks to the lives and well-being of noncombatants. The history of the Israel-Palestinian conflict suggests that its resolution will only (...)
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  28. C. C. (1975). Reason and Violence. Review of Metaphysics 29 (1):152-153.
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