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  1. A critique of and an alternative to the wilderness idea.J. Baird Callicott - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics, A. Light and H. Rolston (Eds), Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
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  2. 47 The Trouble With Wilderness.William Cronon - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions.
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  3. Pleistocene Park: Engineering Wilderness in a More-than-Human World.Anya Bernstein - 2024 - Critical Inquiry 50 (3):452-471.
    Pleistocene Park is a large-scale science experiment in Arctic Siberia in the form of a future-oriented rewilding project with the goal of mitigating climate change. The park’s creators hypothesize that introducing large herbivores into the area will slow the thawing of permafrost. Using the approach of multispecies ethnography in attending to the nonhuman agencies at work in the project, I argue that the park differs from other rewilding projects, which are usually ecocentric, in emerging as a survivalist project with a (...)
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  4. To Conquer and Subdue: An Ecological Reading of Wilderness in Jeremiah 17:5–8 and Beyond.Emily Colgan - 2024 - In Brian Fiu Kolia & Michael Mawson (eds.), Unsettling Theologies: Memory, Identity, and Place. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 153-172.
    This chapter focuses on a dichotomy between wilderness and gardens found in biblical texts such as Jeremiah 17: 5–8. In addition, the author explores how this dichotomy—with its negative construal of wilderness—was appropriated by British settlers in nineteenth century New Zealand, that is, in ways that facilitated the large-scale destruction of perceived wilderness. The author explores what might be possible if we were to free wilderness from this dichotomy. By moving beyond the binary that has traditionally determined meaning in this (...)
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  5. Limits of Wilderness.Shawn Simpson - 2024 - Diálogos. Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 55 (114):81-115. Translated by Etienne Helmer.
    Few debates in environmental philosophy have been more heated than the one over the nature of wilderness. And yet, when one surveys the present scene, one finds that a variety of different conceptions of wilderness are still quite popular – some more so in certain professions than others. In this paper, I look at three popular conceptions of wilderness with an eye toward sussing out the good and the bad them. I look at what I call (1) the folk view (...)
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  6. Faking Biosphere.Oskari Sivula - 2024 - In Mirko Daniel Garasic & Marcello Di Paola (eds.), The philosophy of outer space: explorations, controversies, speculations. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 164-176.
    This chapter examines planetary engineering and human-made biospheres from the perspective of the concept of (un)naturalness using terraformed Mars as a case study. It has been suggested that in the future it may be possible to make Mars habitable for life from Earth. This hypothetical process is known as terraforming or planetary ecosynthesis. The possibility of establishing a biosphere on Mars, or some other celestial body, opens up an interesting case of a biosphere that is unnatural. Furthermore, the concept of (...)
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  7. What We Owe Owls: Nonideal Relationality among Fellow Creatures in the Old Growth Forest.Ben Almassi - 2023 - Relations Beyond Anthropocentrism 10 (2).
    Though many of us have constructed our lives (or have had them constructed for us) such that it is easy to ignore or forget, human lives are entangled with other animals in many ways. Some interspecies relations would arguably exist in some form or another even under an ideal model of animal ethics. Others have an inescapably non-ideal character – these relationships exist as they do because things have gone wrong. In such circumstances we have reparative duties to animals we (...)
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  8. Misrelating values and empirical matters in conservation: A problem and solutions.Matthew J. Barker & Dylan J. Fraser - 2023 - Biological Conservation 281.
    We uncover a largely unnoticed and unaddressed problem in conservation research: arguments built within studies are sometimes defective in more fundamental and specific ways than appreciated, because they misrelate values and empirical matters. We call this the unraveled rope problem because just as strands of rope must be properly and intricately wound with each other so the rope supports its load, empirical aspects and value aspects of an argument must be related intricately and properly if the argument is to objectively (...)
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  9. Wilderness Education at “Naturschule Wildniswandern”.Matthias Blass - 2023 - In Markus Tiedemann (ed.), Philosophical Education Beyond the Classroom. J.B. Metzler. pp. 363-381.
    Nature is calling and currently many people are listening to her call. Wilderness educators guide people in returning to their true home in nature. Building on the knowledge of indigenous people, wilderness educators are able to provide strong and various connections to nature. These connections are facilitated on different levels: on the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual; and that simultaneously. Participants of seminars and programs explore not only the animal and plant world using the approaches from these levels but also (...)
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  10. Do We Have a Moral Obligation to Abolish Wilderness?Joshua Duclos - 2023 - Breakthrough Journal 1 (No. 19).
  11. Does Wilderness Matter in the Anthropocene? Resolving a Fundamental Dilemma About the Role of Wilderness in 21 st Century Conservation.Patrick Kelly & Peter Landres - 2023 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 26 (3):422-437.
    Should wilderness be understood as primarily untrammeled or primarily natural? In this paper, we examine the conceptual and philosophical roots of untrammeled and natural in the context of the 1964 Wilderness Act and show how in some situations tension can arise between them, leading to a stewardship dilemma and subsequent debate over the future conservation role of wilderness. After showing that this debate is ultimately rooted in a false dichotomy, we offer a conceptual framework that presents managers with the tools (...)
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  12. Park Aesthetics Between Wilderness Representations and Everyday Affordances.Tea Lobo - 2023 - British Journal of Aesthetics 63 (3):369-380.
    Scholars criticize privileging aesthetics over social and ecological considerations in park design. I argue that the real culprit is not aesthetics, but aestheticism. Aestheticism treats aesthetic objects as if they were ontologically distinct from everyday objects. Aestheticism in park design—treating parks like artworks to be admired like paintings—dovetails into treating parks like representations of a romanticized wilderness: of pristine, untouched landscapes. I argue that aestheticism is a means of constructing an ontological distinction between the beholder and the beheld, for landscapes (...)
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  13. Wilderness, Morality, and Value, by Joshua S. Duclos, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2022. [REVIEW]Anna Wienhues - 2023 - Environmental Values 32 (5):671-673.
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  14. Wilderness, Morality, and Value.Joshua Duclos - 2022 - Lexington Books.
    What if wilderness is bad for wildlife? This question motivates the philosophical investigation in Wilderness, Morality, and Value. Environmentalists aim to protect wilderness, and for good reasons, but wilderness entails unremittent, incalculable suffering for its non-human habitants. Given that it will become increasingly possible to augment nature in ways that ameliorates some of this suffering, the morality of wilderness preservation is itself in question. Joshua S. Duclos argues that the technological and ethical reality of the Anthropocene warrants a fundamental reassessment (...)
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  15. Behind the Colonial Silence of Wilderness: “In Marronage Lies the Search of a World”.Malcom Ferdinand - 2022 - Environmental Humanities 14 (1):182-201.
    What is the relevance of the concept of wilderness today? For some, the recognition of a troubled history of wilderness regarding people of color does not challenge its pertinence in facing the ecological crisis. However, the author contends that the wilderness concept is problematic because of its inability to recognize other conceptualizations of the Earth held by Indigenous and Black peoples in the Americas and the Caribbean. As a case in point, the author critically engages with a failed attempt to (...)
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  16. A cry in the wilderness: the works of Nārāyaṇa Guru.Narayana Guru - 2022 - Gurugram, Harayana: HarperCollins Publishers India. Edited by Vinaya Chaitanya.
    What is your name, from where, of which caste, what job, how old? One who is free from such questions, his alone is beatitude. In the verdant countryside of south-west India, at the turn of the last century, lived the great poet-seer Narayana Guru. His message was very simple: 'Man is of one caste, one religion and one God / Of one same womb, one same form, with no difference at all.' Grounded in the mystical depths of life, he wandered (...)
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  17. Wilderness, Morality, and Value; By Joshua Duclos.Kyle Johannsen - 2022 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  18. Walking, Wilderness, and Exposure: Learning from Thoreau’s Episode on Katahdin.Christopher Kirby - 2022 - In Douglas Vakoch & Sam Mickey (eds.), Eco-Anxiety and Pandemic Distress: Psychological Perspectives on Resilience and Interconnectedness. Oxford University Press. pp. 54-64.
    This chapter examines Thoreau’s experiences on Mt. Katahdin, vis-à-vis exposure science and wilderness therapy. A close reading of Thoreau’s account suggests the experience had a profound effect on him, emotionally and philosophically, an effect that is relevant to environmental exposure and eco-vulnerability in the contexts of the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change. Thoreau’s experience on that mountain presented to him an aspect of wilderness antithetical to the romantic, transcendentalist notions he previously held and ultimately led to more nuanced, therapeutic depictions (...)
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  19. Just Fodder: The Ethics of Feeding Animals.Josh Milburn - 2022 - Chicago: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Animal lovers who feed meat to other animals are faced with a paradox: perhaps fewer animals would be harmed if they stopped feeding the ones they love. Animal diets do not raise problems merely for individuals. To address environmental crises, health threats, and harm to animals, we must change our food systems and practices. And in these systems, animals, too, are eaters. -/- Looking beyond what humans should eat and whether to count animals as food, Just Fodder answers ethical and (...)
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  20. Reclaiming the Wilderness: Contemporary Dynamics of the Yiguandao by Sébastien Billioud.Jesse Butler - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (4):1-3.
    Reclaiming the Wilderness: Contemporary Dynamics of the Yiguandao by Sébastien Billioud offers a fieldwork-based inquiry into the nature and transmission processes of a growing transnational religious movement as it attempts to "reclaim the wilderness" of mainland China. This group emerged as a prominent millenarian redemptive society in the first half of the 20th century in mainland China, before it was driven away to Taiwan as an illegal secret society by the anti-religion campaign of the Communist regime. The foundation of the (...)
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  21. Animal capabilities and freedom in the city.Nicolas Delon - 2021 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 22 (1):131-153.
    Animals who live in cities must coexist with us. They are, as a result, entitled to the conditions of their flourishing. This article argues that, as the boundaries of cities and urban areas expand, the boundaries of our conception of captivity should expand too. Urbanization can undermine animals’ freedoms, hence their ability to live good lives. I draw the implications of an account of “pervasive captivity” against the background of the Capabilities Approach. I construe captivity, including that of urban animals, (...)
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  22. vad gör en växt främmande? – Några olika perspektiv.Erik Persson - 2021 - In Johanna Alkan Olsson, Helena Hanson, Erik Persson, Carina Sjöholm & Niklas Vareman (eds.), Växtvärk - Perspektiv på invasiva främmande växter i svensk natur. pp. 31-42.
  23. Property, the environment, and the Lockean Proviso.Bas van der Vossen - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (3):395 - 412.
    It is common to posit a clear opposition between the values served by property systems and the value of the environment. To give the environment its due, this view holds, the role of private property needs to be limited. Support for this has been said to be found in Locke’s famous ‘enough and as good’ proviso. This article shows that this opposition is mistaken, and corrects the implied reading of Locke’s proviso. In reality, there is no opposition between property and (...)
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  24. Pervasive Captivity and Urban Wildlife.Nicolas Delon - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (2):123-143.
    Urban animals can benefit from living in cities, but this also makes them vulnerable as they increasingly depend on the advantages of urban life. This article has two aims. First, I provide a detailed analysis of the concept of captivity and explain why it matters to nonhuman animals—because and insofar as many of them have a (non-substitutable) interest in freedom. Second, I defend a surprising implication of the account—pushing the boundaries of the concept while the boundaries of cities and human (...)
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  25. Uncomplicating the Idea of Wilderness.Joshua S. Duclos - 2020 - Environmental Values 29 (1):89-107.
    In this paper I identify and respond to four persistent objections to the idea of wilderness: empirical, cultural, philosophical and environmental. Despite having dogged the wilderness debate for decades, none of these objections withstands scrutiny; rather they are misplaced criticisms that hinder fruitful discussion of the philosophical ramifications of wilderness by needlessly complicating the idea itself. While there may be other justifiable concerns about the idea of wilderness, it is time to move beyond the four discussed in this paper.
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  26. Consequentialism and Nonhuman Animals.Tyler John & Jeff Sebo - 2020 - In Douglas W. Portmore (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Consequentialism. New York, USA: Oup Usa. pp. 564-591.
    Consequentialism is thought to be in significant conflict with animal rights theory because it does not regard activities such as confinement, killing, and exploitation as in principle morally wrong. Proponents of the “Logic of the Larder” argue that consequentialism results in an implausibly pro-exploitation stance, permitting us to eat farmed animals with positive well- being to ensure future such animals exist. Proponents of the “Logic of the Logger” argue that consequentialism results in an implausibly anti-conservationist stance, permitting us to exterminate (...)
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  27. Diverse Environments, Diverse People.Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - In C. Tyler DesRoches, Frank Jankunis & Byron Williston (eds.), Canadian Environmental Philosophy. Mcgill-Queen's University Press. pp. 99-122.
    This paper is about both an application of virtue ethics, and about virtue ethics itself. A popular application of neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics to environmental issues is called interpersonal extensionism. It argues that we should view the normative range of traditional interpersonal virtues, such as compassion and humility, as extending beyond our interactions with people to also include our interactions with non-human environments. This paper uncovers an unaddressed problem for this view, then proposes a solution by revising how we understand neo-Aristotelian (...)
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  28. Not everything is a contest: sport, nature sport, and friluftsliv.Leslie A. Howe - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (3):437-453.
    Two prevalent assumptions in the philosophy of sport literature are that all sports are games and that all games are contests, meant to determine who is the better at the skills definitive of the sport. If these are correct, it would follow that all sports are contests and that a range of sporting activities, including nature sports, are not in fact sports at all. This paper first confronts the notion that sport and games must seek to resolve skill superiority through (...)
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  29. Environmental Heritage and the Ruins of the Future.Erich Hatala Matthes - 2019 - In Jeanette Bicknell, Carolyn Korsmeyer & Jennifer Judkins (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Ruins, Monuments, and Memorials. New York: Routledge.
    We now have good reason to worry that many coastal cities will be flooded by the end of the century. How should we confront this possibility (or inevitability)? What attitudes should we adopt to impending inundation of such magnitude? In the case of place-loss due to anthropogenic climate change, I argue that there may ultimately be something fitting about letting go, both thinking prospectively, when the likelihood of preservation is bleak, and retrospectively, when we reflect on our inability to prevent (...)
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  30. "Mujer" y "naturaleza" en el pensamiento griego antiguo.Aida Míguez Barciela - 2019 - In Género y mujeres en el mediterráneo antiguo.
  31. Why Rewilding is Crucial for Human Health.Jan Deckers - 2018 - Diametros 56:142-150.
    Review of the book Feral: Rewilding the Land, Sea, and Human Life by George Monbiot, Penguin Books, London 2014.
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  32. Wild Animal Suffering is Intractable.Nicolas Delon & Duncan Purves - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):239-260.
    Most people believe that suffering is intrinsically bad. In conjunction with facts about our world and plausible moral principles, this yields a pro tanto obligation to reduce suffering. This is the intuitive starting point for the moral argument in favor of interventions to prevent wild animal suffering. If we accept the moral principle that we ought, pro tanto, to reduce the suffering of all sentient creatures, and we recognize the prevalence of suffering in the wild, then we seem committed to (...)
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  33. Rewilding in Layered Landscapes as a Challenge to Place Identity.Martin Drenthen - 2018 - Environmental Values 27 (4):405-425.
    Rewilding is an increasingly popular strategy in landscape management, yet it is also controversial, especially when applied in culturally 'layered' landscapes. In this paper I examine what is morally at stake in debates between proponents of rewilding and those that see traditional cultural landscapes as worthy of protection. I will argue that rewilding should not only be understood as a conservation practice, but that we also need to understand its hermeneutic aspect. Rewilding implies a radical non-anthropocentric normative reinterpretation of landscape (...)
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  34. Rewilding in Cultural Layered Landscapes.Martin Drenthen - 2018 - Environmental Values 27 (4):325-330.
    introduction to the theme issue of Environmental Values on Rewilding in cultural layered landscapes. Rewilding projects, especially in culturally saturated landscapes, are often being opposed by those who deeply care about the old cultural landscapes (for cultural or ecological reasons). Indeed, some proponents of rewilding today fall back on the language that was developed by the early proponents of wilderness preservation, starting off from an opposition between wild nature and culture, and claiming that nature needs to be protected against human (...)
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  35. Екокритичний аспект дикості у поетичному циклі Олега Лишеги «Снігові і вогню».Tetiana Hanzha - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:62-65.
    У статті проаналізовано категорію дикості в поезії Олега Лишеги. Екокритична категорія дикості – як протилежність до цивілізованого, обжитого, людського – дає змогу окреслити основні ознаки лісу у поезії Лишеги як дикого, непередбачуваного, тваринного, магічного простору. Близька взаємодія суб’єкта лірики із лісовим ландшафтом створює глибшу ідентичність дикого лісу, який, отримавши голос, промовляє у тексті. Надзвичайно важливим для поета є збереження неприрученості, гармонійне співіснування світу природи і світу людей.
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  36. Naturalness, wild-animal suffering, and Palmer on laissez-faire.Ned Hettinger - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (1):65-84.
    NED HETTINGER | : This essay explores the tension between concern for the suffering of wild animals and concern about massive human influence on nature. It examines Clare Palmer’s animal ethics and its attempt to balance a commitment to the laissez-faire policy of nonintervention in nature with our obligations to animals. The paper contrasts her approach with an alternative defence of this laissez-faire intuition based on a significant and increasingly important environmental value: Respect for an Independent Nature. The paper articulates (...)
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  37. Should we help wild animals suffering negative impacts from climate change?Clare Alexandra Palmer - 2018 - In Svenja Springer & Herwig Grimm (eds.), Professionals in food chains. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 35-40.
    Should we help wild animals suffering negative impacts from anthropogenic climate change? It follows from diverse ethical positions that we should, although this idea troubles defenders of wildness value. One already existing climate threat to wild animals, especially in the Arctic, is the disruption of food chains. I take polar bears as my example here: Should we help starving polar bears? If so, how? A recent scientific paper suggests that as bears’ food access worsens due to a changing climate, we (...)
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  38. Leave only Footprints? Reframing Climate Change, Environmental Stewardship, and Human Impact.Monica Aufrecht - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 20 (1):84-102.
    Cheryl Hall has argued that framing of climate change must acknowledge the sacrifices needed to reach a sustainable future. This paper builds on that argument. Although it is important to acknowledge the value of what must be sacrificed, this paper argues that current frames about the environment falsely portray humans and the environment as in a zero-sum game, and in doing so ask people to give up the wrong things. This could undermine the public’s trust in environmentalism, and might even (...)
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  39. Ethical Arguments For and Against De-extinction.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle (eds.), Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 87-124.
    This chapter surveys and critically evaluates all the main arguments both for and against de-extinction. It presents a qualified defence of the claim that conservationists should embrace de-extinction. It ends with a list of do’s and don’ts for conservationist de-extinction projects.
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  40. Naturphilosophie. Ein Lehr- und Studienbuch.Thomas Kirchhoff, Nicole Christine Karafyllis, Dirk Evers, Brigitte Falkenburg, Myriam Gerhard, Gerald Hartung, Jürgen Hübner, Kristian Köchy, Ulrich Krohs, Thomas Potthast, Otto Schäfer, Gregor Schiemann, Magnus Schlette, Reinhard Schulz & Frank Vogelsang (eds.) - 2017 - Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck / UTB.
    Was ist Natur oder was könnte sie sein? Diese und weitere Fragen sind grundlegend für Naturdenken und -handeln. Das Lehr- und Studienbuch bietet eine historisch-systematische und zugleich praxisbezogene Einführung in die Naturphilosophie mit ihren wichtigsten Begriffen. Es nimmt den pluralen Charakter der Wahrnehmung von Natur in den philosophischen Blick und ist auch zum Selbststudium bestens geeignet.
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  41. Towards a Pluralistic Understanding of the Mediating Concept of Wilderness.Jason P. Matzke - 2017 - Environment, Space, Place 9 (2):52-71.
    Abstract:This paper addresses the current debate in environmental ethics regarding the notion of wilderness. It has been argued by J. Baird Callicott and Michael Nelson, William Cronon, and others that our current idea of wilderness is deeply flawed, especially insofar as it draws a sharp dichotomy between us and the rest of nature. This paper first explores what it means (and what it does not) to say that “wilderness” is a constructed concept. It then describes some of the key objections (...)
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  42. Humans Should Not Colonize Mars.Ian Stoner - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (3):334-353.
    This article offers two arguments for the conclusion that we should refuse on moral grounds to establish a human presence on the surface of Mars. The first argument appeals to a principle constraining the use of invasive or destructive techniques of scientific investigation. The second appeals to a principle governing appropriate human behavior in wilderness. These arguments are prefaced by two preliminary sections. The first preliminary section argues that authors working in space ethics have good reason to shift their focus (...)
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  43. Rethinking Wilderness.Mark Woods - 2017 - Peterborough, CA: Broadview Press.
    The concept and values of wilderness, along with the practice of wilderness preservation, have been under attack for the past several decades. In _Rethinking Wilderness_, Mark Woods responds to seven prominent anti-wilderness arguments. Woods offers a rethinking of the received concept of wilderness, developing a positive account of wilderness as a significant location for the other-than-human value-adding properties of naturalness, wildness, and freedom. Interdisciplinary in approach, the book combines environmental philosophy, environmental history, environmental social sciences, the science of ecology, and (...)
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  44. George Wuerthner, Eileen Crist and Tom Butler (eds.), Protecting the Wild: Parks and Wilderness, The Foundation for Conservation.Philip Cafaro - 2016 - Environmental Values 25 (6):759-761.
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  45. Unsere Sehnsucht nach Natur liegt in unserer Kultur.Thomas Kirchhoff - 2016 - Impu!Se 93 (4):3-4.
    Sehnsucht nach Natur ist in unserer Gesellschaft weit verbreitet. Wandern und Wildniscamps sind aktuelle Beispiele dafür. Die zahlreichen Naturfilme und Inszenierungen von Natur in der Werbung sind klare Indizien ihrer gesellschaftlichen Wertschätzung. Wie ist diese Wertschätzung von und Sehnsucht nach Natur zu erklären?
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  46. Nonhuman animals and sovereignty: On Zoopolis, failed states and institutional relationships with free-living animals.Josh Milburn - 2016 - In Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade & Andrew Woodhall (eds.), Intervention or Protest: Acting for Nonhuman Animals. Wilmington, Delaware, USA: Vernon Press. pp. 183-212.
    When considering the possibility of intervening in nature to aid suffering nonhuman animals, we can ask about moral philosophy, which concerns the actions of individuals, or about political philosophy, which concerns the apparatus of the state. My focus in this paper is on the latter, and, in particular, the proposal from Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka that nonhuman animals should be offered sovereignty rights over their territories. Such rights, among other things, seriously limit the occasions on which we might intervene (...)
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  47. Just Visiting.Raquel Robles - 2016 - Stance 9:17-25.
    This paper argues for retaining the concept of “wilderness” as a significant ethical category and considers arguments by J. Baird Callicott and William Cronon for abandoning it. Counters by Paul M. Keeling and Scott Friskics are evaluated and defended. Lastly, the paper recommends thinking of the term “wilderness” as belonging to a certain range of meanings on a spectrum of naturalness.
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  48. Wilderness Experiences as Ethics: From Elevation to Attentiveness.Elisa Aaltola - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):283-300.
    Wilderness experiences were celebrated by the Great Romantics, and figures such as Wordsworth and Thoreau emphasized the need to seek direct contact with the non-human world. Later deep ecologists accentuated the way in which wilderness experiences can spark moral epiphanies and lead to action on behalf of the natural environment. In recent years, psychological studies have manifested how the observations made by the Romantics, nature authors and deep ecologists apply to laypeople: contact with the wilderness does tend to lead to (...)
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  49. Wilderness and the common good: a new ethic of citizenship.Jo Arney - 2015 - Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing.
    A scholar's examination of how wilderness and its preservation enriches all of our lives.
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  50. From Wilderness to Ordinary Nature.Rémi Beau - 2015 - Environmental Ethics 37 (4):425-443.
    The wilderness debate that has raged in American environmentalism since the 1990s has led to the valuation of less spectacular forms of nature than wilderness. This increasing interest in ordinary nature brings American environmental thought to an environmental ground more familiar to French ecologists. Although the wilderness idea that has focused on untrammeled places was difficult to integrate into the French philosophical landscape, reaching common ground could foster exchanges between American environmental ethics and French political ecology. More precisely, the renewal (...)
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