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Summary

Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi 朱熹, 1130-1200) was the most influential Confucian since Confucius and Mencius, both because of his systematic philosophy and his political clout. Zhu Xi is standardly considered the “synthesizer of Song Neo-Confucianism,” and he was instrumental in establishing Confucian classics as the official documents for civic exams. His commentary and interpretation of the Confucian classics became the officially sanctioned orthodoxy.  Zhu Xi is regarded as the founder of the school of principle (lixue 理學), as his main thesis is that nature is identical with principle.  By “nature,” Zhu Xi means the essential traits of each particular thing.  He advocated “the Investigation of things (gewu 格物), which to him means studying the principle within each material object and daily affair.  Zhu Xi believes that one needs to investigate as many things as possible in order to extend the knowledge of Heavenly Principle.  He also redefines “Taiji” as principle, and treats it as the origin of the Universe as well as the ontological foundation of all things. In addition, Zhu Xi also developed a sophisticated virtue ethics and moral epistemology. Zhu Xi’s philosophy is preserved in his numerous commentaries on ancient Confucian texts and his extensive discourses with students and correspondences with associates. In Chinese, his essays and correspondences, etc. have been compiled into a ten-book set of Collected Writings of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi wenji 朱子文集), and his discourses with students were recorded by numerous students and compiled into (several editions of) The Recorded Sayings of Zhu Xi (Zhuji yulu朱子語錄).  The current popular version of his recorded sayings is a set of one-hundred-forty volumes Categorized Recorded Sayings of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類).  Since this collection includes Zhu Xi’s explanations of his ideas in the Q&A with students, and the content is organized thematically, it is the most valuable primary source for Zhu Xi scholars.  The complete electronic text of this collection is available at **Zhongguo zhexueshu dianzihua jihua 中國哲學書電子化計劃** http://ctext.org/zhuzi-yulei/zh).  Unfortunately, most of his works and discourses have not been translated into English.  

Key works

Of primary sources in English, we have Chan 1967, Gardner 2003, Gardner 1990, etc., which translates a tiny portion of Zhu Xi’s copious work and remarks. There are many secondary sources in English, as among all neo-Confucians, Zhu Xi receives the most attention from contemporary scholars working in English. Chan 1989 and Chan 1986 represent earlier scholars’ researches on Zhu Xi, which are more or less from the intellectual historical approach. Kim 2000 is a well-researched book on Zhu Xi’s epistemology and his attitude toward natural science.  Angle 2009 ((cited under Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism) is a monograph devoted to Zhu Xi’s and Wang Yangming’s moral philosophy. The book has received high praises from scholars in the field.  

 

Introductions

Chan, Wing-tsit. Trans. Reflections on Things at Hand (compiled by Zhu Xi). New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.

This work is a translation of Zhu Xi’s Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsilu 近思錄), which is a compilation of important sayings of early Sung Neo-Confucians.

Gardner, Daniel. Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary and the Classical Tradition (Asian Studies). New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

This is a translation of Zhu Xi’s commentary on the Analects, which is more than just a textual commentary but is imbued with Zhu’s philosophical insights.

Gardner, Daniel. Learning to Be A Sage: Selections from the Conversations of Master Chu, Arranged Topically. CA: University of California Press, 1990.

This book provides selected translation of Zhu’s recorded sayings.  

Chan, Wing-tsit.  Zhu Xi: New Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1989.

Wing-tsit Chan, editor of A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (Chan 1963), is also an expert and a staunch defender of Zhu Xi.  This book represents Chan’s lifelong studies of Zhu Xi, with more than thirty papers treating various aspects of Zhu’s life, philosophy and associations. It should be book of interest to Zhu Xi scholars. 

Chan, Wing-tsit (Ed.) Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1986.

This book consists of more than thirty papers on Zhu Xi written by known scholars on Neo-Confucianism. The basis of this anthology is a conference on Zhu Xi held in Honolulu in 1982.  Paper topics mostly reflect studies on Zhu Xi in his historical contexts. There are, however, several papers on Zhu Xi’s theory of principle and the Great Ultimate (Taiji). They will be of interest to scholars who want to learn about Zhu Xi’s metaphysics.

Kim, Yunk Sik. The Natural Philosophy of Chu Hsi (1130-1200). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2000.

This is a scholarly and yet accessible work on Zhu Xi’s theory of knowledge, his worldview and his attitude toward science. It provides a helpful guidance to Zhu Xi’s philosophy.

Related categories

90 found
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  1. added 2020-09-14
    Zhu Xi and Daoism.James Sellmann - 2019 - In Kai-Chiu Ng & Yong Huang (eds.), Dao Companion to Zhu Xi.
    This chapter argues that ZHU Xi was influenced by Daoism. His philosophy begins with the Diagram of the Great Polarity or Taijitu 太極圖 which has Daoist origins. Later in life he studied two Daoist texts, namely, The Seal of the Unity of the Three in the Zhou Book of Changes or the Zhouyi Cantongqi 周易參同契, and The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of the Secret Talisman or the Huangdi Yinfujing 黃帝陰符經. The chapter begins with a discussion about the nature of Daoism and (...)
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  2. added 2020-08-19
    Review of Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, Confucian Discourse and Chu Hsi's Ascendancy. [REVIEW]Joseph A. Adler - 1995 - Asian Thought and Society 20:148-150.
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  3. added 2020-08-19
    Review of Donald J. Munro, Images of Human Nature: A Sung Portrait. [REVIEW]Joseph A. Adler - 1990 - Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 50:707-717.
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  4. added 2020-08-19
    Review of Wing-Tsit Chan, Chu Hsi: Life and Thought. [REVIEW]Joseph A. Adler - 1989 - Bulletin of Sung-Yüan Studies 21:98-101.
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  5. added 2020-08-19
    Review of Daniel K. Gardner, Chu Hsi and the Ta-Hsüeh: Neo-Confucian Reflection on the Confucian Canon. [REVIEW]Joseph A. Adler - 1987 - Bulletin of Sung-Yüan Studies 19:35-41.
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  6. added 2020-08-15
    Re-Forming Confucianism: Zhu Xi's Synthesis.Joseph A. Adler - manuscript
    Forthcoming in Jennifer Oldstone-Moore, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Confucianism (New York: Oxford University Press).
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  7. added 2020-08-15
    The Original Meaning of the Yijing: Commentary on the Scripture of Change, by Zhu Xi.Joseph A. Adler - 2020 - New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
    A translation of Zhu Xi's 朱熹 Zhouyi benyi 周易本義 (1188).
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  8. added 2020-08-15
    Reconstructing the Confucian Dao: Zhu Xi's Appropriation of Zhou Dunyi.Joseph A. Adler - 2014 - Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press.
    Discusses how Zhou Dunyi’s thought became a cornerstone of neo-Confucianism. Zhu Xi, the twelfth-century architect of the neo-Confucian canon, declared Zhou Dunyi to be the first true sage since Mencius. This was controversial, as many of Zhu Xi’s contemporaries were critical of Zhou Dunyi’s Daoist leanings, and other figures had clearly been more significant to the Song dynasty Confucian resurgence. Why was Zhou Dunyi accorded such importance? Joseph A. Adler finds that the earlier thinker provided an underpinning for Zhu Xi’s (...)
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  9. added 2020-08-15
    Introduction to the Study of the Classic of Change, by Chu Hsi [Zhu Xi].Joseph A. Adler - 2002 - Provo, UT, USA: Global Scholarly Publications.
    A bilingual translation of Zhu Xi's 朱熹 Yixue qimeng 易學啟蒙 (1186).
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  10. added 2020-08-15
    Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching.Kidder Smith Jr, Peter K. Bol, Joseph A. Adler & Don J. Wyatt - 1990 - Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
    The I Ching, or Book of Changes, has been one of the two or three most influential books in the Chinese canon. It has been used by people on all levels of society, both as a method of divination and as a source of essential ideas about the nature of heaven, earth, and humankind. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Sung dynasty literati turned to it for guidance in their fundamental reworking of the classical traditions. This book explores how four (...)
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  11. added 2020-03-20
    Song-Ming Confucianism.Justin Tiwald - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    An overview of Confucianism in the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, which many regard as second only to the classical period in philosophical importance and influence. This piece canvasses the major thinkers and schools, competing views on the metaphysics of li (pattern, principle) and qi (vital stuff), criticisms of Buddhism and Daoism, and debates about the heartmind, virtue, knowledge, and governance.
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  12. added 2020-03-11
    Moral Psychology: Heartmind (Xin), Nature (Xing), and Emotions (Qing).Stephen C. Angle & Justin Tiwald - 2020 - In Kai-Chiu Ng & Yong Huang (eds.), Dao Companion to Zhu Xi's Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 361-387.
    An overview of Zhu Xi's moral psychology, with a special focus on the metaphysical underpinnings and the relations between heartmind (xin), emotions (qing), and nature (xing). The authors explain how Zhu uses his account to balance the demand for independent standards of assessment with his commitment to ethical norms that virtuous agents can embrace wholeheartedly.
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  13. added 2020-03-11
    Zhu Xi on Self-Focused Vs. Other-Focused Empathy.Justin Tiwald - 2020 - In Kai-Chiu Ng & Yong Huang (eds.), Dao Companion to Zhu Xi's Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 963-980.
    This chapter is about issues in ethics and moral psychology that have been little explored by contemporary philosophers, ones that concern the advantages and disadvantages of two different kinds of empathy. Roughly, first type is what is sometimes called “other-focused” empathy, in which one reconstructs the thoughts and feelings that someone else has or would have. The second type, “self-focused” empathy, is the sort of emotional attitude someone adopts when she imagines how she would think or feel were she in (...)
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  14. added 2019-11-02
    A Confucian Perspective on Tertiary Education for the Common Good.Edmond Eh - 2018 - Journal of the Macau Ricci Institute 3:26-34.
    Confucian education is best captured by the programme described in the Great Learning. Education is presented first as the process of self-cultivation for the sake of developing virtuous character. Self-cultivation then allows for virtue to be cultivated in the familial, social and international dimensions. My central thesis is that Confucianism can serve as a universal framework of educating people for the common good in its promotion of personal cultivation for the sake of human progress. On this account the common good (...)
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  15. added 2019-07-25
    On the View That People and Not Institutions Bear Primary Credit for Success in Governance: Confucian Arguments.Justin Tiwald - 2019 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 32:65-97.
    This paper explicates the influential Confucian view that “people” and not “institutional rules” are the proper sources of good governance and social order, as well as some notable Confucian objections to this position. It takes Xunzi 荀子, Hu Hong 胡宏, and Zhu Xi 朱熹 as the primary representatives of the “virtue-centered” position, which holds that people’s good character and not institutional rules bear primary credit for successful governance. And it takes Huang Zongxi 黃宗羲 as a major advocate for the “institutionalist” (...)
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  16. added 2019-06-19
    Zhu Xi: Selected Writings.Philip J. Ivanhoe (ed.) - 2019 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press (Oxford Chinese Thought).
    This volume contains nine chapters of translation, by a range of leading scholars, focusing on core themes in the philosophy of Zhu Xi (1130-1200), one of the most influential Chinese thinkers of the later Confucian tradition. -/- Table of Contents: Chapter One: Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Ethics by Philip J. Ivanhoe Chapter Two: Moral Psychology and Cultivating the Self by Curie Virág Chapter Three: Politics and Government by Justin Tiwald Chapter Four: Poetry, Literature, Textual Study, and Hermeneutics by On-cho Ng Chapter (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    The Self-Centeredness Objection to Virtue Ethics: Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucian Response.Yong Huang - 2010 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (4):651-692.
    As virtue ethics has developed into maturity, it has also met with a number of objections. This essay focuses on the self-centeredness objection: since virtue ethics recommends that we be concerned with our own virtues or virtuous characters, it is self-centered. In response, I first argue that, for Zhu Xi’s neo-Confucianism, the character that a virtuous person is concerned with consists largely in precisely those virtues that incline him or her to be concerned with the good of others. While such (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi and Qing Learning by On-Cho Ng. [REVIEW]John H. Berthrong - 2002 - Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
  19. added 2019-06-06
    Concerning Creativity—A Comparison Of Chu Hsi, Whitehead, And Neville. [REVIEW]Steve Odin - 1999 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (2):241-250.
  20. added 2019-06-06
    Chu Hsi's Reading of the Ta‐Hsueh: A Neo‐Confucian's Quest for Truth.Daniel K. Gardner - 1983 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (3):183-204.
  21. added 2019-06-06
    The Goose Lake Monastery Debate.Julia Ching - 1974 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 1 (2):161-178.
    The Goose Lake Monastery Debate was an important event in the history of Chinese thought, chiefly because it marked the differences between two of the greatest representatives of the movement of thought known in the West as Neo-Confucianism. In this article, it is my aim to offer a historical reconstruction of the events that took place, to give an exegetical analysis of the problems discussed, and to conclude with an interpretation that places these problems in a wider perspective. I hope (...)
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  22. added 2019-03-05
    Moral Emotions, Awareness, and Spiritual Freedom in the Thought of Zhu Xi.Kai Marchal - 2013 - Asian Philosophy 23 (3):199-220.
    It is well known that the Neo-Confucian thinker Zhu Xi particularly emphasizes the role of emotions in human life. This paper shows that the four ‘moral emotions’ are central to Zhu's thinking, insofar as only their genuine actualization enables the individual to achieve spiritual freedom. Moreover, I discuss the crucial notions of ‘awareness’/‘perception’ and ‘knowledge’/‘wisdom’, in order to reveal the complex dynamic that moral emotions are said to create in the moral agent. I also analyse two important passages from the (...)
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  23. added 2019-03-05
    Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary and the Classical Tradition.Daniel Gardner - 2003 - Columbia University Press.
    A pioneering study of Zhu Xi's reading of the Analects, this book demonstrates how commentary is both informed by a text and informs future readings, and highlights the importance of interlinear commentary as a genre in Chinese philosophy.
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  24. added 2019-02-01
    Struggle Between the Two Orientations: A Study of Zhu Xi's Commentary on the Analects.Liu Xiaogan - 2008 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 40 (2):46-66.
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  25. added 2018-04-01
    Zhu Xi's Critique of Buddhism: Selfishness, Salvation, and Self-Cultivation.Justin Tiwald - 2018 - In John Makeham (ed.), The Buddhist Roots of Zhu Xi's Philosophical Thought. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 122-155.
    This article (1) offers a relatively comprehensive survey of criticisms of Buddhism made by the influential Chinese philosopher Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200) with translations of key passages, and (2) proposes that these criticisms are best understood as targeting the implicit presuppositions and practical implications of Buddhist teachings, not so much the explicit doctrines of the Buddhists. The article examines three sets of criticisms. The first has to do with Buddhist soteriology, the fundamental priority of Buddhist salvation, which Zhu takes to (...)
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  26. added 2018-04-01
    Two Notions of Empathy and Oneness.Justin Tiwald - 2018 - In Philip J. Ivanhoe, Owen Flanagan, Victoria S. Harrison, Hagop Sarkissian & Eric Schwitzgebel (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. 371-387.
    This essay is about the relations between two different types of empathy and two different conceptions of oneness. Roughly, the first type of empathy is what is sometimes called “other-focused” or “imagine-other” empathy, in which one reconstructs the thoughts and feelings that someone else has or would have. The second type, “self- focused” or “imagine-self” empathy, is the sort of emotional attitude someone adopts when she imagines how she would think or feel were she in the other person’s place. Some (...)
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  27. added 2016-12-12
    ZHU Xi on Moral Motivation: An Alternative Critique.Chan Lee - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):622-638.
  28. added 2016-12-08
    Harmony and The Neo-Confucian Sage.A. S. Cua - 1983 - Philosophical Inquiry 5 (2-3):124-142.
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  29. added 2016-12-04
    Xunzi Among the Chinese Neo-Confucians.Justin Tiwald - 2016 - In Eric Hutton (ed.), Dao Companion to the Philosophy of Xunzi. Springer. pp. 435-473.
    This chapter explains how Xunzi's text and views helped shape the thought of the Neo-Confucian philosophers, noting and explicating some areas of influence long overlooked in modern scholarship. It begins with a general overview of Xunzi’s changing position in the tradition (“Xunzi’s Status in Neo-Confucian Thought”), in which I discuss Xunzi’s status in three general periods of Neo-Confucian era: the early period, in which Neo-Confucian views of Xunzi were varied and somewhat ambiguous, the “mature” period, in which a broad consensus (...)
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  30. added 2016-05-16
    Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,”.Ann A. Pang-White - 2016 - In The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender. pp. 69-88.
    In Chinese philosophy’s encounter with modernity and feminist discourse, Neo-Confucianism often suffered the most brutal attacks and criticisms. In “Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,” Ann A. Pang-White investigates Song Neo-Confucians’ views (in particular, that of Zhu Xi) on women by examining the Classifi ed Conversations of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi Yulei), the Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsi Lu), Further Reflections on Things at Hand (Xu Jinsi Lu), and other texts. Pang-White also takes a close (...)
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  31. added 2016-04-10
    Zhu Xi Yu Dai Zhen Mengzi Xue Zhi Bi Jiao Yan Jiu: Yi Xi Fang Quan Shi Xue Suo Zhan Kai de Fan Si.Yachun Luo - 2012 - Xiu Wei Zi Xun Ke Ji Gu Fen You Xian Gong Si.
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  32. added 2015-03-25
    Dai Zhens Konzeption des> Li Li<-Theorie der Cheng-Zhu-Schule.Wolfgang Ommerborn - 2000 - Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 42:9-54.
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  33. added 2014-04-02
    Zhu Xi’s Choice, Historical Criticism and Influence—An Analysis of Zhu Xi’s Relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism.Weixiang Ding - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (4):521-548.
    As a great synthesist for the School of Principles of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties, Zhu Xi’s influence over the School of Principles was demonstrated not only through his positive theoretical creation, but also through his choice and critical awareness. Zhu’s relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism is a typical case; and his activities, ranging from his research of Buddhism (the Chan School) in his early days to his farewell to the Chan School as a student of Li Dong from (...)
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  34. added 2014-04-01
    Cultivation of Self in Chu Hsi and Plotinus.Donald N. Blakeley - 1996 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 23 (4):385-413.
  35. added 2014-03-30
    Sagehood: The Contemporary Significance of Neo-Confucian Philosophy.Stephen C. Angle - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The book's significance is two-fold: it argues for a new stage in the development of contemporary Confucian philosophy, and it demonstrates the value to Western ...
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  36. added 2014-03-29
    The Possibility of Sagehood:Reverence and Ethical Perfection in Zhu XI's Thought.Stephen C. Angle - 1998 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (3):281-303.
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  37. added 2014-03-24
    Ultimate Origin, Ultimate Reality, and the Human Condition: Leibniz, Whitehead, and Zhu XI.Chung‐Ying Cheng - 2002 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 29 (1):93–118.
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  38. added 2014-03-22
    Zhu XI's Prayers to the Spirit of Confucius and Claim to the Transmission of the Way.Hoyt Cleveland Tillman - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (4):489-513.
    : What philosophical and historical insights might be gained by juxtaposing and linking two distinct areas of Zhu Xi's comments, those on guishen (conventionally glossed as ghosts or spirits) and those on the transmission and succession of the Way (daotong)? There is considerable evidence that he regarded canonical rites for ancestors and teachers as insufficiently satisfying, and thus he sought enhanced communion with the dead. His statements about spirits and especially his prayers to Confucius' spirit served to enhance his confidence (...)
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  39. added 2014-03-21
    Moral World, Ethical Terminology: The Moral Significance of Metaphysical Terms in Zhou Dunyi and Zhu XI.Galia Patt-Shamir - 2004 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (3):349–362.
  40. added 2014-03-20
    Inventing Zhu XI: Process of Principle.John Berthrong - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (2):257–279.
  41. added 2014-03-20
    The Status of Cosmic Principle in Neo-Confucian Metaphysics.JeeLoo Liu - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (3):391-407.
    In this paper, I attempt to make use of Western metaphysical taxonomy to explicate the cosmological variances in Chinese philosophical schools, especially with regard to the debates among the Neo-Confucian thinkers. While I do not presume that Chinese philosophers dealt with the same Western issues, I do believe that a comparative study of this nature can point to a new direction of thinking concerning the metaphysical debates in Neo-Confucianism. This paper is divided into three parts. In Part I, I employ (...)
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  42. added 2014-03-18
    On Zhu XI's Theory of Interpretation.Pan Derong & Peng Qifu - 2006 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (s1):135-143.
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  43. added 2014-03-18
    To Catch a Thief: Zhu XI (1130–1200) and the Hermeneutic Art.John H. Berthrong - 2006 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (s1):145-159.
  44. added 2014-03-18
    Flowing Within the Text: A Discussion on He Lin’s Explanation of Zhu Xi’s Method of Intuition.Xianglong Zhang - 2005 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (1):60-65.
    The author examines He Lin's interpretation of Zhu Xi's method of intuition from a phenomenological-hermeneutical perspective and by exposing Zhu's philosophical presuppositions. In contrast with Lu Xiangshan's intuitive method, Zhu Xi's method of reading classics advocates "emptying your heart and flowing with the text" and, in this spirit, explains the celebrated "exhaustive investigation on the principles of things (ge wu qiong li)." "Text," according to Zhu, is therefore not an object in ordinary sense but a "contextual region" or "sensible pattern" (...)
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  45. added 2014-03-17
    The Archery of "Wisdom" in the Stream of Life: "Wisdom" in the "Four Books" with Zhu Xi's Reflections.Kirill O. Thompson - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (3):330 - 344.
    Confucian wisdom is commonly assumed to consist in the Confucian value perspective as humanism in a naturalistic outlook. In fact, Confucius and Mencius sketched out a far more interesting notion of wisdom (zhi) as rooted in cognizance and flexibility and expressed in sensitive discernment and the ability to read and respond to complex, changing circumstances--to read (and respond to) the writing on the wall. Whereas the notions of tradition and the Way are thought to weigh heavily in the Confucian perspective, (...)
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  46. added 2014-03-16
    Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism (1) : From Cheng Yi to Zhu Xi.Shu-Hsien Liu - 2008 - In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  47. added 2014-03-09
    The Formation, Development and Evolution of Neo-Confucianism — with a Focus on the Doctrine of “Stilling the Nature” in the Song Period.Renqiu Zhu - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (3):322-342.
    The formation of the discourse of Neo-Confucianism 1 in the Song period was a result of the interactions between many social and cultural trends. In the development of the Neo-Confucian discourse, the Cheng brothers (Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi) played key roles with their charismatic thoughts and impelling personalities, while Zhu Xi pushed Neo-Confucian thought and discourse to a pinnacle with his broad knowledge and precise reasoning. In the warm discussions and debates between different schools and thoughts, the Neo-Confucian discourse (...)
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  48. added 2014-03-07
    Ideal Interpretation: The Theories of Zhu Xi and Ronald Dworkin.A. P. & Yang Xiao - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (1):88-114.
    Ideal interpretation is understanding a text in the best possible way. It is usually used when the text has a canonical status, such as the Bible or the U.S. Constitution. We argue that Zhu Xi’s view about interpreting the Four Books and Ronald Dworkin’s view about constitutional interpretation are examples of ideal interpretation and that their basic principles are similar. Each holds, roughly, that their target text contains moral truth; that the author’s mind requires the mediation of learning; that the (...)
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  49. added 2014-03-06
    A Further Analysis of Zhu Xi’s Theory of Mind.Peiyuan Meng - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):377-395.
    Mind was the oneness of form and function. The change from an old theory to a new one about zhong 中 (the mean) and he 和 (harmony) was a shift from the idea of the separate form of nature and function of mind to one about both form and function of mind. Form was both the form of the spirit of the mind and of the substantiality of nature (not the same as substantial realities in substantialism); it was the integration (...)
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  50. added 2014-03-06
    Zhu XI on the “Internal” and the “External”: A Response to Chan Lee.Kwong-Loi Shun - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):639-654.
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