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Summary

Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi 朱熹, 1130-1200) was the most influential Confucian since Confucius and Mencius, both because of his systematic philosophy and his political clout. Zhu Xi is standardly considered the “synthesizer of Song Neo-Confucianism,” and he was instrumental in establishing Confucian classics as the official documents for civic exams. His commentary and interpretation of the Confucian classics became the officially sanctioned orthodoxy.  Zhu Xi is regarded as the founder of the school of principle (lixue 理學), as his main thesis is that nature is identical with principle.  By “nature,” Zhu Xi means the essential traits of each particular thing.  He advocated “the Investigation of things (gewu 格物), which to him means studying the principle within each material object and daily affair.  Zhu Xi believes that one needs to investigate as many things as possible in order to extend the knowledge of Heavenly Principle.  He also redefines “Taiji” as principle, and treats it as the origin of the Universe as well as the ontological foundation of all things. In addition, Zhu Xi also developed a sophisticated virtue ethics and moral epistemology. Zhu Xi’s philosophy is preserved in his numerous commentaries on ancient Confucian texts and his extensive discourses with students and correspondences with associates. In Chinese, his essays and correspondences, etc. have been compiled into a ten-book set of Collected Writings of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi wenji 朱子文集), and his discourses with students were recorded by numerous students and compiled into (several editions of) The Recorded Sayings of Zhu Xi (Zhuji yulu朱子語錄).  The current popular version of his recorded sayings is a set of one-hundred-forty volumes Categorized Recorded Sayings of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類).  Since this collection includes Zhu Xi’s explanations of his ideas in the Q&A with students, and the content is organized thematically, it is the most valuable primary source for Zhu Xi scholars.  The complete electronic text of this collection is available at **Zhongguo zhexueshu dianzihua jihua 中國哲學書電子化計劃** http://ctext.org/zhuzi-yulei/zh).  Unfortunately, most of his works and discourses have not been translated into English.  

Key works

Of primary sources in English, we have Chan 1967, Gardner 2003, Gardner 1990, etc., which translates a tiny portion of Zhu Xi’s copious work and remarks. There are many secondary sources in English, as among all neo-Confucians, Zhu Xi receives the most attention from contemporary scholars working in English. Chan 1989 and Chan 1986 represent earlier scholars’ researches on Zhu Xi, which are more or less from the intellectual historical approach. Kim 2000 is a well-researched book on Zhu Xi’s epistemology and his attitude toward natural science.  Angle 2009 ((cited under Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism) is a monograph devoted to Zhu Xi’s and Wang Yangming’s moral philosophy. The book has received high praises from scholars in the field.  

 

Introductions

Chan, Wing-tsit. Trans. Reflections on Things at Hand (compiled by Zhu Xi). New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.

This work is a translation of Zhu Xi’s Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsilu 近思錄), which is a compilation of important sayings of early Sung Neo-Confucians.

Gardner, Daniel. Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary and the Classical Tradition (Asian Studies). New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

This is a translation of Zhu Xi’s commentary on the Analects, which is more than just a textual commentary but is imbued with Zhu’s philosophical insights.

Gardner, Daniel. Learning to Be A Sage: Selections from the Conversations of Master Chu, Arranged Topically. CA: University of California Press, 1990.

This book provides selected translation of Zhu’s recorded sayings.  

Chan, Wing-tsit.  Zhu Xi: New Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1989.

Wing-tsit Chan, editor of A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (Chan 1963), is also an expert and a staunch defender of Zhu Xi.  This book represents Chan’s lifelong studies of Zhu Xi, with more than thirty papers treating various aspects of Zhu’s life, philosophy and associations. It should be book of interest to Zhu Xi scholars. 

Chan, Wing-tsit (Ed.) Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1986.

This book consists of more than thirty papers on Zhu Xi written by known scholars on Neo-Confucianism. The basis of this anthology is a conference on Zhu Xi held in Honolulu in 1982.  Paper topics mostly reflect studies on Zhu Xi in his historical contexts. There are, however, several papers on Zhu Xi’s theory of principle and the Great Ultimate (Taiji). They will be of interest to scholars who want to learn about Zhu Xi’s metaphysics.

Kim, Yunk Sik. The Natural Philosophy of Chu Hsi (1130-1200). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2000.

This is a scholarly and yet accessible work on Zhu Xi’s theory of knowledge, his worldview and his attitude toward science. It provides a helpful guidance to Zhu Xi’s philosophy.

Related categories

72 found
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1 — 50 / 72
  1. added 2019-02-01
    Struggle Between the Two Orientations: A Study of Zhu Xi's Commentary on the Analects.Liu Xiaogan - 2008 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 40 (2):46-66.
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  2. added 2018-04-01
    Zhu Xi's Critique of Buddhism: Selfishness, Salvation, and Self-Cultivation.Justin Tiwald - 2018 - In John Makeham (ed.), The Buddhist Roots of Zhu Xi's Philosophical Thought. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 122-155.
    This article (1) offers a relatively comprehensive survey of criticisms of Buddhism made by the influential Chinese philosopher Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200) with translations of key passages, and (2) proposes that these criticisms are best understood as targeting the implicit presuppositions and practical implications of Buddhist teachings, not so much the explicit doctrines of the Buddhists. The article examines three sets of criticisms. The first has to do with Buddhist soteriology, the fundamental priority of Buddhist salvation, which Zhu takes to (...)
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  3. added 2018-04-01
    Two Notions of Empathy and Oneness.Justin Tiwald - 2018 - In Philip J. Ivanhoe, Owen Flanagan, Victoria S. Harrison, Hagop Sarkissian & Eric Schwitzgebel (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. 371-387.
    This essay is about the relations between two different types of empathy and two different conceptions of oneness. Roughly, the first type of empathy is what is sometimes called “other-focused” or “imagine-other” empathy, in which one reconstructs the thoughts and feelings that someone else has or would have. The second type, “self- focused” or “imagine-self” empathy, is the sort of emotional attitude someone adopts when she imagines how she would think or feel were she in the other person’s place. Some (...)
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  4. added 2016-12-12
    ZHU Xi on Moral Motivation: An Alternative Critique.Chan Lee - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):622-638.
  5. added 2016-12-08
    Harmony and The Neo-Confucian Sage.A. S. Cua - 1983 - Philosophical Inquiry 5 (2-3):124-142.
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  6. added 2016-12-04
    Xunzi Among the Chinese Neo-Confucians.Justin Tiwald - 2016 - In Eric Hutton (ed.), Dao Companion to the Philosophy of Xunzi. Springer. pp. 435-473.
    This chapter explains how Xunzi's text and views helped shape the thought of the Neo-Confucian philosophers, noting and explicating some areas of influence long overlooked in modern scholarship. It begins with a general overview of Xunzi’s changing position in the tradition (“Xunzi’s Status in Neo-Confucian Thought”), in which I discuss Xunzi’s status in three general periods of Neo-Confucian era: the early period, in which Neo-Confucian views of Xunzi were varied and somewhat ambiguous, the “mature” period, in which a broad consensus (...)
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  7. added 2016-05-16
    Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,”.Ann A. Pang-White - 2016 - In The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender. pp. 69-88.
    In Chinese philosophy’s encounter with modernity and feminist discourse, Neo-Confucianism often suffered the most brutal attacks and criticisms. In “Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,” Ann A. Pang-White investigates Song Neo-Confucians’ views (in particular, that of Zhu Xi) on women by examining the Classifi ed Conversations of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi Yulei), the Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsi Lu), Further Reflections on Things at Hand (Xu Jinsi Lu), and other texts. Pang-White also takes a close (...)
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  8. added 2016-04-10
    Zhu Xi Yu Dai Zhen Mengzi Xue Zhi Bi Jiao Yan Jiu: Yi Xi Fang Quan Shi Xue Suo Zhan Kai de Fan Si.Yachun Luo - 2012 - Xiu Wei Zi Xun Ke Ji Gu Fen You Xian Gong Si.
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  9. added 2015-03-25
    Dai Zhens Konzeption des> Li Li<-Theorie der Cheng-Zhu-Schule.Wolfgang Ommerborn - 2000 - Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 42:9-54.
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  10. added 2014-04-02
    Zhu Xi’s Choice, Historical Criticism and Influence—An Analysis of Zhu Xi’s Relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism.Weixiang Ding - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (4):521-548.
    As a great synthesist for the School of Principles of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties, Zhu Xi’s influence over the School of Principles was demonstrated not only through his positive theoretical creation, but also through his choice and critical awareness. Zhu’s relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism is a typical case; and his activities, ranging from his research of Buddhism (the Chan School) in his early days to his farewell to the Chan School as a student of Li Dong from (...)
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  11. added 2014-04-01
    Cultivation of Self in Chu Hsi and Plotinus.Donald N. Blakeley - 1996 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 23 (4):385-413.
  12. added 2014-03-30
    Sagehood: The Contemporary Significance of Neo-Confucian Philosophy.Stephen C. Angle - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The book's significance is two-fold: it argues for a new stage in the development of contemporary Confucian philosophy, and it demonstrates the value to Western ...
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  13. added 2014-03-29
    The Possibility of Sagehood:Reverence and Ethical Perfection in Zhu XI's Thought.Stephen C. Angle - 1998 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (3):281-303.
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  14. added 2014-03-28
    John Berthrong, Concerning Creativity—A Comparison Of Chu Hsi, Whitehead, And Neville.Steve Odin - 1999 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (2):241-250.
  15. added 2014-03-24
    Ultimate Origin, Ultimate Reality, and the Human Condition: Leibniz, Whitehead, and Zhu XI.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2002 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 29 (1):93–118.
  16. added 2014-03-24
    Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642-1718) and Qing Learning (Review).John H. Berthrong - 2002 - Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
  17. added 2014-03-22
    Zhu XI's Prayers to the Spirit of Confucius and Claim to the Transmission of the Way.Hoyt Cleveland Tillman - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (4):489-513.
    : What philosophical and historical insights might be gained by juxtaposing and linking two distinct areas of Zhu Xi's comments, those on guishen (conventionally glossed as ghosts or spirits) and those on the transmission and succession of the Way (daotong)? There is considerable evidence that he regarded canonical rites for ancestors and teachers as insufficiently satisfying, and thus he sought enhanced communion with the dead. His statements about spirits and especially his prayers to Confucius' spirit served to enhance his confidence (...)
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  18. added 2014-03-21
    Moral World, Ethical Terminology: The Moral Significance of Metaphysical Terms in Zhou Dunyi and Zhu XI.Galia Patt-Shamir - 2004 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (3):349–362.
  19. added 2014-03-20
    Inventing Zhu XI: Process of Principle.John Berthrong - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (2):257–279.
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  20. added 2014-03-20
    The Status of Cosmic Principle in Neo-Confucian Metaphysics.JeeLoo Liu - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (3):391-407.
    In this paper, I attempt to make use of Western metaphysical taxonomy to explicate the cosmological variances in Chinese philosophical schools, especially with regard to the debates among the Neo-Confucian thinkers. While I do not presume that Chinese philosophers dealt with the same Western issues, I do believe that a comparative study of this nature can point to a new direction of thinking concerning the metaphysical debates in Neo-Confucianism. This paper is divided into three parts. In Part I, I employ (...)
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  21. added 2014-03-18
    On Zhu XI's Theory of Interpretation.Pan Derong & Peng Qifu - 2006 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (s1):135-143.
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  22. added 2014-03-18
    To Catch a Thief: Zhu XI (1130–1200) and the Hermeneutic Art.John H. Berthrong - 2006 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (s1):145-159.
  23. added 2014-03-18
    Flowing Within the Text: A Discussion on He Lin’s Explanation of Zhu Xi’s Method of Intuition.Xianglong Zhang - 2005 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (1):60-65.
    The author examines He Lin's interpretation of Zhu Xi's method of intuition from a phenomenological-hermeneutical perspective and by exposing Zhu's philosophical presuppositions. In contrast with Lu Xiangshan's intuitive method, Zhu Xi's method of reading classics advocates "emptying your heart and flowing with the text" and, in this spirit, explains the celebrated "exhaustive investigation on the principles of things (ge wu qiong li)." "Text," according to Zhu, is therefore not an object in ordinary sense but a "contextual region" or "sensible pattern" (...)
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  24. added 2014-03-17
    The Archery of "Wisdom" in the Stream of Life: "Wisdom" in the "Four Books" with Zhu Xi's Reflections.Kirill O. Thompson - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (3):330 - 344.
    Confucian wisdom is commonly assumed to consist in the Confucian value perspective as humanism in a naturalistic outlook. In fact, Confucius and Mencius sketched out a far more interesting notion of wisdom (zhi) as rooted in cognizance and flexibility and expressed in sensitive discernment and the ability to read and respond to complex, changing circumstances--to read (and respond to) the writing on the wall. Whereas the notions of tradition and the Way are thought to weigh heavily in the Confucian perspective, (...)
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  25. added 2014-03-16
    Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism (1) : From Cheng Yi to Zhu Xi.Shu-Hsien Liu - 2008 - In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  26. added 2014-03-09
    The Formation, Development and Evolution of Neo-Confucianism — with a Focus on the Doctrine of “Stilling the Nature” in the Song Period.Renqiu Zhu - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (3):322-342.
    The formation of the discourse of Neo-Confucianism 1 in the Song period was a result of the interactions between many social and cultural trends. In the development of the Neo-Confucian discourse, the Cheng brothers (Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi) played key roles with their charismatic thoughts and impelling personalities, while Zhu Xi pushed Neo-Confucian thought and discourse to a pinnacle with his broad knowledge and precise reasoning. In the warm discussions and debates between different schools and thoughts, the Neo-Confucian discourse (...)
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  27. added 2014-03-07
    Ideal Interpretation: The Theories of Zhu Xi and Ronald Dworkin.A. P. & Yang Xiao - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (1):88-114.
    Ideal interpretation is understanding a text in the best possible way. It is usually used when the text has a canonical status, such as the Bible or the U.S. Constitution. We argue that Zhu Xi’s view about interpreting the Four Books and Ronald Dworkin’s view about constitutional interpretation are examples of ideal interpretation and that their basic principles are similar. Each holds, roughly, that their target text contains moral truth; that the author’s mind requires the mediation of learning; that the (...)
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  28. added 2014-03-06
    Zhu XI on the “Internal” and the “External”: A Response to Chan Lee.Kwong-Loi Shun - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):639-654.
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  29. added 2014-03-06
    A Reconsideration of the Characteristics of Song-Ming Li Xue.Chunfeng Jin - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):352-376.
    By analyzing Zhu Xi and Zhang Zai’s three representative explanatory paradigms—that of Feng Youlan, Mou Zongsan and Zhang Dainian, the paper tries to show that studying Chinese philosophy in a Western way and emphasizing logical consistency will unavoidably lead to the defects of simplicity and partiality. In addition to Buddhism and Daoism, Song-Ming philosophy had also absorbed thoughts from the Pre-Qin, Han, Wei and Jin dynasties. The existence of multiple philosophical thoughts and their new synthesis lead to internal contradictions in (...)
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  30. added 2014-03-06
    A Further Analysis of Zhu Xi’s Theory of Mind.Peiyuan Meng - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):377-395.
    Mind was the oneness of form and function. The change from an old theory to a new one about zhong 中 (the mean) and he 和 (harmony) was a shift from the idea of the separate form of nature and function of mind to one about both form and function of mind. Form was both the form of the spirit of the mind and of the substantiality of nature (not the same as substantial realities in substantialism); it was the integration (...)
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  31. added 2014-03-06
    The Spirit of the School of Principles in Zhu Xi’s Discussion of “Dreams”—And on “Confucius Did Not Dream of Duke Zhou”.Yu Chang - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):94-110.
    Dreams were a topic of study even in ancient times, and they are a special spiritual phenomenon. Generations of literati have defined the meaning of dreams in their own way, while Zhu Xi was perhaps the most outstanding one among them. He made profound explanations of dreams from aspects such as the relationship between dreams and the principles li and qi, the relationship between dreams and the state of the heart, and the relationship between dreams and an individual’s moral improvement. (...)
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  32. added 2014-03-05
    Sympathy and Perspective‐Taking in Confucian Ethics.Justin Tiwald - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):663-674.
    This article spells out a forgotten debate in Confucian ethics that concerns the finer points of empathy, sympathy, and perspective-taking (sometimes called ‘role-taking’). The debate’s central question is whether sympathy is more virtuous when it is automatic and other-focused – that is, when we engage in perspective-taking without conscious effort and sympathize without significant reference to our selves or our own feelings.
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  33. added 2014-03-04
    A Productive Dialogue: Contemporary Moral Education and Zhu XI's Neo‐Confucian Ethics.Stephen C. Angle - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):183-203.
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  34. added 2013-08-18
    Does Zhu Xi Distinguish Prudence From Morality?Justin Tiwald - 2013 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (3):359-368.
    In Stephen Angle’s Sagehood, he contends that Neo-Confucian philosophers reject ways of moral thinking that draw hard and fast lines between self-directed or prudential concerns (about what is good for me) and other-directed or moral concerns (about what is right, just, virtuous, etc.), and suggests that they are right to do so. In this paper, I spell out Angle’s arguments and interpretation in greater detail and then consider whether they are faithful to one of the chief figures in Neo-Confucian thought. (...)
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  35. added 2012-09-08
    Zhu Xi's Spirituality: A New Interpretation of the Great Learning.Diana Arghirescu - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (2):272-289.
    This essay analyzes the spiritual dimension of Zhu Xi's thought as reflected in his commentary on the four inner stages of the Great Learning (the Daxue《大學》). I begin with a presentation of the notions “spirituality,” “religion,” and “practice,” and of the interpretative methods used. I then examine the signification of Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucian numinous root as embodied in the luminous moral potentiality, investigate from this perspective each one of the four inner stages of the Great Learning, and point out the (...)
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  36. added 2012-08-09
    Sagehood: The Contemporary Significance of Neo-Confucian Philosophy (Review).Thorian R. Harris - 2012 - Philosophy East and West 62 (3):392-397.
  37. added 2012-05-07
    The Self-Centeredness Objection to Virtue Ethics.Yong Huang - 2010 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (4):651-692.
    As virtue ethics has developed into maturity, it has also met with a number of objections. This essay focuses on the self-centeredness objection: since virtue ethics recommends that we be concerned with our own virtues or virtuous characters, it is self-centered. In response, I first argue that, for Zhu Xi’s neo-Confucianism, the character that a virtuous person is concerned with consists largely in precisely those virtues that incline him or her to be concerned with the good of others. While such (...)
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  38. added 2011-08-28
    Self-Cultivation, Moral Motivation, and Moral Imagination : A Study of Zhu Xi's Virtue Ethics.Chan Lee - unknown
    Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008.
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  39. added 2011-08-28
    Ideal Interpretation: The Theories of Zhu XI and Ronald Dworkin.A. P. Martinich Yang Xiao - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (1):pp. 88-114.
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  40. added 2011-08-28
    The Formation, Development and Evolution of Neo-Confucianism — with a Focus on the Doctrine of "Stilling the Nature" in the Song Period.Zhu Renqiu & Liu Huawei - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (3):322 - 342.
    The frmation of the discourse of Neo-Confucianism in the Song period was a result of the interactions between many social and cultural trends. In the development of the Neo-Confucian discourse, the Cheng brothers (Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi) played key roles with their charismatic thoughts and impelling personalities, while Zhu xi pushed Neo-Confucian thought and discourse to a pinnacle wth his broad knowledge and precise reasoning. In the warm discussions and debates between different schools and thoughts, the Neo-Confucian discourse proceeded (...)
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  41. added 2011-08-28
    Aesthetic Judgment: The Power of the Mind in Understanding Confucianism.Xie Xialing & Gao Limin - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):38 - 51.
    Mou Zongsan incorrectly uses Kant's practical reason to interpret Confucianism. The saying that "what is it that we have in common in our minds? It is the il 理 (principles) and the yi 义 (righteousness)" reveals how Mencius explains the origin of il and yi through a theory of common sense. In "the li and the yi please our minds, just as the flesh of beef and mutton and pork please our mouths," "please" is used twice, proving aesthetic judgment is (...)
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  42. added 2011-08-28
    The Lure of the Transcendent in Zhu Xi.Donald N. Blakeley - 2004 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 21 (3):223 - 240.
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  43. added 2011-08-28
    Emotion, Desire, and Numismatic Experience in Descartes, Zhu Xi, and Wang Yangming.Brian Bruya - 2001 - Ming Qing Yanjiu 2001:45-75.
    In this article, I explore the relationship between desire and emotion in Descartes, Zhu Xi, and Wang Yangming with the aim of demonstrating 1) that Zhu Xi, by keying on the detriments of selfishness, represents an improvement over the more sweeping Cartesian suggestion to control desires in general; and 2) that Wang Yangming, in turn, represents an improvement over Zhu Xi by providing a more sophisticated hermeneutic of the cosmology of desire.
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  44. added 2011-08-26
    Metaphysics and Morality in Neo-Confucianism and Greece: Zhu XI, Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus.Kenneth Dorter - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):255-276.
    If Z hu Xi had been a western philosopher, we would say he synthesized the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus: that he took from Plato the theory of forms, from Aristotle the connection between form and empirical investigation, and from Plotinus self-differentiating holism. But because a synthesis abstracts from the incompatible elements of its members, it involves rejection as well as inclusion. Thus, Z hu Xi does not accept the dualism by which Plato opposed to the rational forms an (...)
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  45. added 2011-08-26
    Zhu Xi’s Spiritual Practice as the Basis of His Central Philosophical Concepts.Joseph A. Adler - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (1):57-79.
    The argument is that (1) the spiritual crisis that Zhu Xi discussed with Zhang Shi 張栻 (1133–1180) and the other “gentlemen of Hunan” from about 1167 to 1169, which was resolved by an understanding of what we might call the interpenetration of the mind’s stillness and activity (dong-jing 動靜) or equilibrium and harmony (zhong-he 中和), (2) led directly to his realization that Zhou Dunyi’s thought provided a cosmological basis for that resolution, and (3) this in turn led Zhu Xi to (...)
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  46. added 2011-08-26
    Wholeness in Confucian Thought : Zhu XI on Cheng, Zhong, Xin, and Jing.Kwong-loi Shun - 2008 - In Zhongying Cheng & On Cho Ng (eds.), The Imperative of Understanding: Chinese Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy, and Onto-Hermeneutics: A Tribute Volume Dedicated to Professor Chung-Ying Cheng. Global Scholarly Publications.
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  47. added 2011-08-26
    Zhu XI (Chu Hsi, 1130-1200 CE).Kirill O. Thompson - 2007 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  48. added 2011-08-26
    Zhu Xi on Gong (Impartial) and Si (Partial).Kwong-Loi Shun - 2005 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (1):1-9.
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  49. added 2011-08-26
    Contemporary Chinese Studies of Zhuzi in Mainland China.Xudong Fang - 2003 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 3 (1):121-141.
    Zuphu Xi (1130–1200) was one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Chinese philosophy. From the beginning of the fourteenth century until 1905, when the examination system was abolished, his and Cupheng Yi’s interpretations of the Confucian Classics were regarded as orthodox and served as the basis of civil service examinations and intellectual standards for the Chinese literati. His influence was not limited to China, as his thoughts became orthodoxy in Korea and in some important schools of thought (...)
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  50. added 2011-08-26
    Zhu XI on Ren (Humanity) and Love: A Neo-Confucian Way Out of the Liberal-Communitarian Impasse.Yong Huang - 1996 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 23 (2):213-235.
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