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  1. A Pluralist Account of Spiritual Exemplarity.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Tyler McNabb & Victoria S. Harrison (eds.), Philosophy and the Spiritual Life. Routledge.
    This Chapter sketches a pluralist account of spiritual exemplarity. Starting from recent work by Linda Zagzebski, three main kinds of spiritual exemplarity are described, distinguished by their underlying aspiration. I name these the aspirations to allegiance, enlightened insight, and emulation, illustrated with examples from the Western and South and East Asian spiritual dispensations. The Chapter concludes by warning against tendencies either to occlude this plurality or to illicitly privilege one of these aspirations by nominating it alone as the 'authentic' form (...)
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  2. Happiness for a Fish: Zhuāngzǐ and Huizi at the Hao River.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Helen De Cruz (ed.), Philosophy Illustrated: Forty-two Thought Experiments to Broaden your Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    I discuss the famous 'happiness for a fish' exchange between Zhuāngzǐ and Huizi.
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  3. Genealogy as Meditation and Adaptation with the Han Feizi.Lee Wilson - forthcoming - The Monist 105 (4).
    This paper focuses on an early Chinese conception of genealogical argumentation in the late Warring States text Han Feizi and a possible response it has to the problem of genealogical self-defeat as identified by Amia Srinivasan (2015)—i.e., the genealogist cannot seem to support their argument with premises their interlocutor or themselves can accept, given their own argument. The paper offers a reading of Han Fei’s genealogical method that traces back to the meditative practice of an earlier Daoist text the Zhuangzi (...)
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  4. Sense Perception in the Zhuangzi 莊子.Massimiliano Lacertosa - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (1):e12798.
    In this essay I explore the controversial issue of sense perception in the Zhuangzi 莊子. Although scholars have not explicitly addressed this aspect of the Chinese text, a common assumption is that the Zhuangzi proposes a mysticism that undermines sense perception in favour of a transcendent self. After an overview of this interpretation, and after analysing some key passages of the text that deal with heart fasting (xinzhai 心齋), sitting and forgetting (zuowang 坐忘) and skill mastery, I demonstrate that some (...)
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  5. On Becoming a Rooster: Zhuangzian Conventionalism and the Survival of Death.Michael Tze-Sung Longenecker - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (1):61-79.
    The Zhuangzi 莊子 depicts persons as surviving their deaths through the natural transformations of the world into very different forms—such as roosters, cart-wheels, rat livers, and so on. It is common to interpret these passages metaphorically. In this essay, however, I suggest employing a “Conventionalist” view of persons that says whether a person survives some event is not merely determined by the world, but is partly determined by our own attitudes. On this reading, Zhuangzi’s many teachings urging us to embrace (...)
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  6. Turner as a Daoist Sage.Jason Dockstader - 2021 - Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology 7 (2):113-127.
    In this paper, I provide a cross-cultural comparison between the life and work of the English land- and seascape painter, J.M.W. Turner, and the conception of aesthetic experience and artisanship f...
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  7. Epistemology and Ethics in Zhuangzi.S. Evan Kreider - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (3):58.
    On a prima facia reading, Zhuangzi seems to endorse some form of skepticism or relativism. This seems at odds with Zhuangzi as one of the two main sources of classical Daoism, considering the ideals of virtue and self-development promoted by that philosophy. However, Zhuangzi’s metaphorical and allegorical style lends itself to a number of interpretations of his epistemology, as well as the kind of self-knowledge and ethical development it might allow. A survey of the relevant literature shows that the epistemological (...)
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  8. Freedom and Agency in the Zhuangzi: Navigating Life’s Constraints.Karyn Lai - 2021 - Tandf: British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-21.
    The Zhuangzi, a 4th century BCE Chinese text, is optimistic about life unrestrained by entrenched values. This paper contributes to existing debates on Zhuangzian freedom in three ways. First, it reflects on how it is possible to enjoy the freedom envisaged in the Zhuangzi. Many discussions welcome the Zhuangzi’s picture of release from life shaped by canonical visions, without also giving thought to life without these driving visions. Consider this scenario: in a world with limitless possibilities, would it not be (...)
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  9. Freedom and Agency in the Zhuangzi: Navigating Life’s Constraints.Karyn Lai - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (1):3-23.
    The Zhuangzi, a 4th century BCE Chinese text, is optimistic about life unrestrained by entrenched values. This paper contributes to existing debates on Zhuangzian freedom in three ways. First, it reflects on how it is possible to enjoy the freedom envisaged in the Zhuangzi. Many discussions welcome the Zhuangzi’s picture of release from life shaped by canonical visions, without also giving thought to life without these driving visions. Consider this scenario: in a world with limitless possibilities, would it not be (...)
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  10. Who Is a Wise Person? Zhuangzi and Epistemological Discussions of Wisdom.Shane Ryan & Karyn Lai - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (3):665-682.
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  11. Zhuangzi on ‘Happy Fish’ and the Limits of Human Knowledge.Lea Cantor - 2020 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 28 (2):216-230.
    The “happy fish” passage concluding the “Autumn Floods” chapter of the Classical Chinese text known as the Zhuangzi has traditionally been seen to advance a form of relativism which precludes objectivity. My aim in this paper is to question this view with close reference to the passage itself. I further argue that the central concern of the two philosophical personae in the passage – Zhuangzi and Huizi – is not with the epistemic standards of human judgements (the established view since (...)
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  12. Is Zhuangzi a Wanton? Observation and Transformation of Desires in the Zhuangzi.Jenny Hung - 2020 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 19 (2):289-305.
    This essay considers how the Zhuangzi 莊子 sheds light on a new direction to the contemporary discussion of desires. Harry Frankfurt proposes an account of personhood based on a hierarchy of desires. He defines a wanton as a being that does not have second-order volitions, the desires that a certain desire of action becomes her will. J. David Velleman proposes, in the context of the Zhuangzi, that when a Daoist sage performs her skills she can be regarded as a “higher” (...)
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  13. Daoism, Humanity, and the Way of Heaven.Ian James Kidd - 2020 - Religious Studies 56:111-126.
    I argue that Zhuangist Daoism manifests what I label the spiritual aspiration to emulation, and then use this to challenge some of John Cottingham's attempts to confine authentic spiritual experience to theistic traditions.
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  14. ‘Following the Way of Heaven’: Exemplarism, Emulation, and Daoism.Ian James Kidd - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (1):1-15.
    Many ancient traditions recognise certain people as exemplars of virtue. I argue that some of these traditions incorporate a 'cosmic' mode of emulation, where certain of the qualities or aspects of the grounds or source of the world manifest, in human form, as virtues. If so, the ultimate objection of emulation is not a human being. I illustrate this with the forms of Daoist exemplarity found in the Book of Zhuangzi, and end by considering the charge that the aspiration to (...)
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  15. Wu-Wei, Merleau-Ponty, And Being Aware of What We Do.Marcus Lee - 2020 - Philosophy East and West 70 (1):116-135.
    In classical Chinese philosophy, the best kind of life is a life lived in line with the Dao (the “Way”). A core feature of this kind of life is attaining the ideal of wu-wei. In early Daoist writings, wu-wei denotes an ideal way of acting. However, since wu-wei is normally translated as “no-action” these ancient texts give us a picture of the best kind of life that may appear paradoxical to many philosophers. In this paper, I suggest a way to (...)
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  16. Skill and Expertise in Three Schools of Classical Chinese Thought.Hagop Sarkissian - 2020 - In Ellen Fridland & Carlotta Pavese (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Skill and Expertise. Routledge. pp. 40-52.
    The classical Chinese philosophical tradition (ca. 6th to 3rd centuries BCE) contains rich discussion of skill and expertise. Various texts exalt skilled exemplars (whether historical persons or fictional figures) who guide and inspire those seeking virtuosity within a particular dao (guiding teaching or way of life). These texts share a preoccupation with flourishing, or uncovering and articulating the constituents of an exemplary life. Some core features thought requisite to leading such a life included spontaneity, naturalness, and effortless ease. However, there (...)
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  17. The Theory of the Self in the Zhuangzi: A Strawsonian Interpretation.Jenny Hung - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 69 (2):376-394.
    This essay investigates the Zhuangzian theory of the self, which has long been the subject of a heated and controversial debate in Chinese intellectual history. According to an interpretation that has been quite prominent since the 1990s, the self in the Zhuangzi is a substantial, persisting self; it is a simple, basic object that is distinct from its properties. A substance, generally speaking, is an object or entity that has properties. Substance metaphysicians claim that substances, as primary units of reality, (...)
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  18. Goblet Words and Moral Knack: Non-Cognitivist Moral Realism in the Zhuangzi?Christopher Kirby - 2019 - In Colin Marshall (ed.), Comparative Metaethics: Neglected Perspectives on the Foundations of Morality. New York: Routledge. pp. 159-178.
    This chapter focuses on Daoist praxeology and language in order to build something of a moral realist position (the contours of which may differ from most western versions insofar as it need not commit to moral cognitivism) that hinges on the seemingly paradoxical notions of ineffable moral truths and non-transferable moral skill.
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  19. The Cicada Catcher: Learning for Life.Karyn L. Lai - 2019 - In Karyn L. Lai & Wai-wai Chiu (eds.), Skill and Mastery Philosophical Stories from the Zhuangzi. UK: Rowman and Littlefield International. pp. 143 - 162.
    The cicada catcher focuses as much on technique as he does on outcomes. In response to Confucius’ question, he articulates in detail the learning he has undertaken to develop techniques at each level of competence. This chapter explains the connection between the cicada catcher’s development of technique and his orientation toward outcomes. It uses details in this story to contribute to recent discussions in epistemology on the cultivation of technique.
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  20. Chai, David, Zhuangzi and the Becoming of Nothingness: Albany: State University of New York Press, 2019, 216 Pages.Eric Nelson - 2019 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 18 (2):291-294.
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  21. The Unskilled Zhuangzi: Big and Useless and Not So Good at Catching Rats.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2019 - In Skill and Mastery Philosophical Stories from the Zhuangzi. London, UK: pp. 101-110.
    The mainstream tradition in recent Anglophone Zhuangzi interpretation treats spontaneous skillful responsiveness – similar to the spontaneous responsiveness of a skilled artisan, athlete, or musician – as a, or the, Zhuangzian ideal. However, this interpretation is poorly grounded in the Inner Chapters. On the contrary, in the Inner Chapters, this sort of skillfulness is at least as commonly criticized as celebrated. Even the famous passage about the ox-carving cook might be interpreted more as a celebration of the knife’s passivity than (...)
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  22. Dao and Sign in History: Daoist Arche-Semiotics in Ancient and Medieval China.Daniel Fried - 2018 - Albany: SUNY.
    From its earliest origins in the Dao De Jing, Daoism has been known as a movement that is skeptical of the ability of language to fully express the truth. While many scholars have compared the earliest works of Daoism to language-skeptical movements in twentieth-century European philosophy and have debated to what degree early Daoism does or does not resemble these recent movements, Daniel Fried breaks new ground by examining a much broader array of Daoist materials from ancient and medieval China (...)
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  23. Death, Self, and Oneness in the Incomprehensible Zhuangzi.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2018 - In The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundaries of the Self. New York, NY, USA:
    The ancient Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi defies coherent interpretation. This is an inextricable part of the beauty and power of his work. The text – by which I mean the “Inner Chapters” of the text traditionally attributed to him, the authentic core of the book – is incomprehensible as a whole. It consists of shards, in a distinctive voice – a voice distinctive enough that its absence is plain in most or all of the “Outer” and “Miscellaneous” Chapters, and which I (...)
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  24. On Goblet Words.Wim De Reu - 2017 - NTU Philosophical Review 53:75-108.
    This article attempts to reframe the state of research on the notion of goblet words in the Zhuangzi. Recent studies predominantly view the notion of zhiyan as referring to peculiar stylistic forms exhibited in the Zhuangzi—forms such as dilemmatic questions and paradoxes. In this article, I question the quick identification of these forms as zhiyan. I argue that zhiyan are essentially definite yet provisional simple-form utterances located on the level of everyday interaction and coexistence. On this level, the peculiar stylistic (...)
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  25. Study on Logic Reasoning and Ideological Characteristic of “Equivalence of Life and Death” of Chuang-Tzu. Di Wu - 2017 - Theory Horizon 526 (6):46-51.
    The Concept of Life and Death of Chuang-tzu have inherited and developed Confucianism and Taoism thoughts, establishing Ontological foundation of "Life - Body", distinguishing the transcendental concept of "Dead Heart" and the empirical concept of "Death Body", as well as proposing the thought of "Equivalence of Life and Death" finally. The logic Reasoning of Chuang-tzu "Equivalence of Life and Death", start from constructing the equal status of "Life" and “Death" from ontological argument. Life and Death then are reduced to be (...)
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  26. Can a Daoist Sage Have Close Relationships with Other Human Beings?Joanna Iwanowska - 2017 - Diametros 52:23-46.
    This paper explores the compatibility between the Daoist art of emptying one’s heart-mind and the art of creating close relationships. The fact that a Daoist sage is characterized by an empty heart-mind makes him somewhat different from an average human being: since a full heart-mind is characteristic of the human condition, the sage transcends what makes us human. This could alienate him from others and make him incapable of developing close relationships. The research goal of this paper is to investigate (...)
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  27. Naturalism and Moral Expertise in the Zhuangzi.Christopher Kirby - 2017 - Journal of East-West Thought 7 (3):13-27.
    This essay will examine scholarly attempts at distilling a proto-ethical philosophy from the Daoist classic known as the Zhuangzi. In opposition to interpretations of the text which characterize it as amoralistic, I will identify elements of a natural normativity in the Zhuangzi. My examination features passages from the Zhuangzi – commonly known as the “knack” passages – which are often interpreted through some sort of linguistic, skeptical, or relativistic lens. Contra such readings, I believe the Zhuangzi prescribes an art of (...)
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  28. Zhuangzi's Suggestiveness: Skeptical Questions.Karyn L. Lai - 2017 - In Stephen Hetherington (ed.), What Makes a Philosopher Great? London and NY: Routledge. pp. 30-47.
  29. Zhuangzi: Closet Confucian?Michael Nylan - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (4):411-429.
    Confucius and Zhuangzi are the two most famous thinkers in all of Chinese history, aside from Laozi, the Old Master. They occupy positions in the history of Chinese thinking roughly comparable to those held by Plato and Epicurus in the Western narrative of civilisation, in that they offer visions of the engaged political life and the engaged social self to which later political theorists and ethicists invariably return. For the last century or so, if not longer, Sinologists and comparative philosophers (...)
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  30. Phenomenology of Embodied Intersubjectivity: From Zhuangzi to Hermann Schmitz.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2017 - Yearbook for Eastern and Western Philosophy 2017 (2):291-303.
    Hermann Schmitz has developed a “New Phenomenology.” It emphasizes fundamental conceptions that undercut traditional subject-object distinctions. In the Chinese classic The Zhuangzi we find stories that describe involvements and dialogue that can be seen as doing something similar. I will bring out some of these parallels. In particular I will focus on freedom and mutual understanding.
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  31. Chinese Perspectives on Free Will.Christian Helmut Wenzel & Marchal Kai - 2017 - In Kevin Timpe, Meghan Griffith & Neil Levy (eds.), Routledge Companion to Free Will. Routledge. pp. 374-388.
    The problem of free will as it is know in Western philosophical traditions is hardly known in China. Considering how central the problem is in the West, this is a remarkable fact. We try to explain this, and we offer insights into discussions within Chinese traditions that we think are related, not historically but regarding the issues discussed. Thus we introduce four central Chinese concepts, namely: (1) xīn 心 (heart, heart-mind), (2) xìng 性 (human nature, characteristic tendencies, inborn capacity), (3) (...)
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  32. Zhuangzi and Buber in Dialogue: A Lesson in Practicing Integrative Philosophy.Robert Allinson - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (4):547-562.
    I put forward the case that comparative philosophy is best practiced as integrative philosophy. The model for integrative philosophy employed embodies its own methodology, integrating the Hegelian dialectic and the Yin-Yang 陰陽, cyclical model of change illustrated by the Yijing 易經 as strategies for integrating philosophical traditions. As an object lesson, I integrate a real, historical one-way encounter with an imagined two-way encounter between Martin Buber and Zhuangzi 莊子, to provide a counter-example to replace Huntington’s clash of civilizations with a (...)
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  33. On Pillowing One’s Skull: Zhuangzi and Heidegger on Death.David Chai - 2016 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 11 (3):483-500.
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  34. The Live Creature and The Crooked Tree: Thinking Nature in Dewey and Zhuangzi.Christopher C. Kirby - 2016 - Philosophica 47 (47):61-76.
    This paper will compare the concept of nature as it appears in the philosophies of the American pragmatist John Dewey and the Chinese text known as the Zhuangzi, with an aim towards mapping out a heuristic program which might be used to correct various interpretive difficulties in reading each figure. I shall argue that Dewey and Zhuangzi both held more complex and comprehensive philosophies of nature than for which either is typically credited. Such a view of nature turns on the (...)
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  35. Metaphorical Language in the Zhuangzi.C. M. Morrow - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (4):179-188.
    Chapter 27 of the ancient Chinese text the Zhuangzi describes three kinds of language: yuyan, zhiyan, and chongyan. Wang Fuzhi first coined the term ‘sanyan ’ or ‘tripartite-language’ to emphasize their overlapping characteristics and incorporate them into a cohesive approach to the text. Sanyan has been used consistently in interpreting the Zhuangzi since the earliest compilation of its extant version and continues to inform academic publications today. Based on descriptions found in the Zhuangzi's ‘miscellaneous chapters’ and on contemporary scholarship, I (...)
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  36. La espontaneidad no es un valor en el Zhuangzi.Mercedes Valmisa - 2016 - In Paulina Rivero Weber (ed.), Daoísmo: Interpretaciones Contemporáneas. Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico: pp. 197-223.
    Spontaneity is an almost inevitable commonplace in discussions of Daoism, especially the Zhuangzi. The idea that spontaneity is one of the most important values in the Zhuangzi was presented by Angus Graham for the Anglo-European audience, and divulged among Chinese readers by Liú Xiàogǎn 劉笑敢 and Chén Gǔyīng 陳鼓應. Hungarian psychologist Csikszentmihalyi popularly combined Daoist spontaneity with the idea of flow. In the state of flow the person carries out an activity for the sake of the activity itself--autotelically--and acts with (...)
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  37. Of Fish, Butterflies and Birds: Relativism and Nonrelative Valuation in the Zhuangzi.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2015 - Asian Philosophy 25 (3):238-252.
    I argue that the main theme of the Zhuangzi is that of spiritual transformation. If there is no such theme in the Zhuangzi, it becomes an obscure text with relativistic viewpoints contradicting statements and stories designed to lead the reader to a state of spiritual transformation. I propose to reveal the coherence of the deep structure of the text by clearly dividing relativistic statements designed to break down fixed viewpoints from statements, anecdotes, paradoxes and metaphors designed to lead the reader (...)
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  38. Zhuangzi and the Heterogeneity of Value.Chris Fraser - 2015 - In Livia Kohn (ed.), New Visions of the Zhuangzi. Lulu. pp. 40–58.
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  39. Nature, Mystery, and Morality: A Daoist View.Ian James Kidd - 2015 - Religious Studies 51 (2):165-181.
    This paper argues that a sense of nature‘s mystery can inspire and inform ways of experiencing and engaging with natural places and creatures in a way that is deeply morally transformative. Focusing on Daoism, it is argued that engagement with natural places and creates can facilitate the cultivation of receptivity to a sense of nature‘s mystery in a way that gradually releases a person from stances and conceptions that are morally and ecologically objectionable. The paper closes by suggesting that a (...)
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  40. Ecstatic Language of Early Daoism: A Sufi Point of View.Esmaeil Radpour - 2015 - Transcendent Philosophy Journal 16:213-230.
    Various esoteric traditions apply different modes of expression for the same metaphysical truths. We may name the two most known esoteric languages as ecstatic and scholastic. Early Daoist use of reverse symbolism as for metaphysical truths and its critical way of viewing formalist understanding of traditional teachings, common virtues and popular beliefs show that it applies an ecstatic language, which, being called shaṭḥ in Sufi terminology, has a detailed literature and technical description in Sufism. This article tries, after a short (...)
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  41. Well-Being and Daoism.Justin Tiwald - 2015 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge. pp. 56-69.
    In this chapter, I explicate several general views and arguments that bear on the notion and contemporary theories of human welfare, as found in two foundational Daoist texts, the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi. Ideas drawn from the Daodejing include its objections to desire theories of human welfare and its distinction between natural and acquired desires. Insights drawn from the Zhuangzi include its arguments against the view that death is bad for the dead, its attempt to develop a workable theory of (...)
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  42. Beyond Our Control? Two Responses to Uncertainty and Fate in Early China.Mercedes Valmisa - 2015 - In Livia Kohn (ed.), New Visions of the Zhuangzi. St. Petersburg, FL, USA: pp. 1-22.
    The first contribution, by Mercedes Valmisa, begins by repositioning the Zhuangzi 莊子 as a whole within pre-Qin thought under the impact of newly excavated materials. Moving away from the traditional classification of texts according to schools, it focuses instead on varying approaches to life issues. Centering the discussion on life situations and changes we have no control over, including the unpredictable vagaries of fate (ming 命), it outlines several typical responses. One is adaptation, finding ways to go along with what (...)
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  43. Meontological Generativity: A Daoist Reading of the Thing.David Chai - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (2):303-318.
    This paper relocates the philosophical discourse on the Thing (das Ding) to the world of classical Daoism. In doing so, it explores the bond between the One, the Thing and its signifier before discussing how the Thing unveils itself to the world while receiving the gift of nothingness from Dao. It furthermore contends that the two most prominent discussions of the Thing in the Western tradition--those by Heidegger and Lacan--while philosophically valuable in their own right, fail to provide the degree (...)
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  44. Nothingness and the Clearing: Heidegger, Daoism and the Quest for Primal Clarity.David Chai - 2014 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (3): 583 - 601.
    Martin Heidegger has made uncovering the truth of being his life’s work. He ultimately came to locate this truth at the site of the clearing (lichtung), which allowed him to sweep away the traditional formulation of the question of being and begin anew with beyng. This second beginning, as Heidegger called it, stood apart from the original in that he saw fit to cloak beyng in nothingness. This paper explores Heidegger’s use of nothingness and his claim that in order to (...)
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  45. Zhuangzi on Friendship and Death.Alexis Elder - 2014 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (4):575-592.
    Zhuangzi suggests that death is a transformation that we commonly and mistakenly think means the end of someone but really just marks a new phase of existence. This metaphysical thesis is presented at several points in the text as an explanation of distinctively Daoist responses to death and loss. Some take a Daoist response to death, as presented by Zhuangzi, to indicate dual perspectives on friendship and death. But I argue that the metaphysical view sketched above is consistent with a (...)
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  46. How to Say What Cannot Be Said: Metaphor in the Zhuangzi.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2014 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 41 (3-4):268-286.
    I argue that it is only on the condition of a preconceptual understanding that Zhuangzi's metaphors can be cognitive. Kim-chong Chong holds that the choice between metaphors as noncognitive and cognitive is a choice between Allinson and Davidson. Chong's view of metaphors possessing multivalence is reducible to Davidson's choice, because there is no built-in parameter between multivalence and limitless valence. If Zhuangzi's metaphors were multivalent, the text would be subject to infinite interpretive viewpoints and the logical consequence of relativism. It (...)
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  47. Zhuangzi: Text and Context.Livia Kohn - 2014 - Lulu Press.
    This is a second major text on ancient Daoism, one with multiple aspects and dimensions.
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  48. Dialogue and Epistemological Humility.Karyn Lai - 2014 - In Jesper Garsdal & Johanna Seibt (eds.), How is Global Dialogue Possible?: Foundational Reseach on Value Conflicts and Perspectives for Global Policy. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 69-84.
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  49. The Dao Against the Tyrant: The Limitation of Power in the Political Thought of Ancient China.Daniel Rodríguez Carreiro - 2013 - Libertarian Papers 5:111-152.
    In Chinese history the periods known as Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC) and the Warring States (475-221 BC) were times of conflict and political instability caused by the increasing power of centralized and competing states. During this time of crisis many schools of thought appeared to offer different philosophical doctrines. This paper describes and studies ideas about the limitation of power defended by these different schools of ancient Chinese thought, and suggests some reasons why they failed to prevent the emergence (...)
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  50. Environmental Concern: Can Humans Avoid Being Partial? Epistemological Awareness in the Zhuangzi.Karyn L. Lai - 2013 - In Carmen Meinert (ed.), Nature, Environment and Culture in East Asia: The Challenge of Climate Change. Brill. pp. 69-82.
    Discussions of human partiality—anthropocentrism—in the literature in environmental ethics have sought to locate reasons for unnecessary and thoughtless degradation of the earth’s environment. Many of the debates have focused on metaethical issues, attempting to set out the values appropriate for an environmental ethic not constrained within an anthropocentric framework. In this essay, I propose that the fundamental problem with anthropocentrism arises when it is assumed that that is the only meaningful evaluative perspective. I draw on ideas in the Zhuangzi, a (...)
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