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  1. The Contents of Consciousness: A Neuropsychological Conjecture.Jeffrey A. Gray - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):659-76.
    Drawing on previous models of anxiety, intermediate memory, the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and goal-directed behaviour, a neuropsychological hypothesis is proposed for the generation of the contents of consciousness. It is suggested that these correspond to the outputs of a comparator that, on a moment-by-moment basis, compares the current state of the organism's perceptual world with a predicted state. An outline is given of the information-processing functions of the comparator system and of the neural systems which mediate them. The hypothesis (...)
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  • The Elevated Plus-Maze Test: Differential Psychopharmacology of Anxiety-Related Behavior.Cornelius R. Pawlak, Britta D. Karrenbauer, Peggy Schneider & Ying-Jui Ho - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (1):98-115.
    The role of individual factors in behavioral neuroscience is an important, but still neglected, area of research. For example, the Elevated Plus-Maze Test has been one of the most used paradigms to gauge unconditioned aversively motivated behavior in rodents. However, despite a great number of experiments with this test there have been only few efforts to assess systematic individual variations in the elevated plus-maze and related neurobiological functions. The present review aims to give, first, a general overview and introduction about (...)
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  • The Hippocampal System: Dissociating its Functional Components and Recombining Them in the Service of Declarative Memory.Howard Eichenbaum, Tim Otto & Neal J. Cohen - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):772-776.
  • Sequential Processing of “Items” and “Relations”.Dave G. Mumby - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):770-771.
    Eichenbaum et al. (1994a) hypothesized that perceptually distinct items and the relations among them are processed sequentially by the parahippocampal region and the hippocampal formation, respectively. Predictions based solely on their model's sequential-processing feature might prove easier to disconfirm than those based on its representational features. Two such predictions are discussed: (1) double dissociations should be impossible following hippocampal vs. parahippocampal lesions, and (2) hippocampal lesions should not exacerbate impairments that follow complete parahippocampal lesions.
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  • The Hippocampus Seen in the Context of Declarative and Procedural Control.Frederick Toates - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):771-772.
  • The Hunting of the Hippocampal Function.Wim E. Crusio - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):767-768.
  • Recovered Consciousness: A Proposal for Making Consciousness Integral to Neuropsychological Theories of Memory in Humans and Nonhumans.Morris Moscovitch - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):768-770.
  • Hippocampus, Delay Neurons, and Sensory Heterogeneity.Michael Colombo & Charles G. Gross - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):766-767.
  • The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming.Antti Revonsuo - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):877-901.
    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is consistently (...)
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  • Novelty Signals: A Window Into Hippocampal Information Processing.Dharshan Kumaran & Eleanor A. Maguire - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (2):47-54.
  • Subconscious Detection of Threat as Reflected by an Enhanced Response Bias.Sabine Windmann & Thomas Krüger - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):603-633.
    Neurobiological and cognitive models of unconscious information processing suggest that subconscious threat detection can lead to cognitive misinterpretations and false alarms, while conscious processing is assumed to be perceptually and conceptually accurate and unambiguous. Furthermore, clinical theories suggest that pathological anxiety results from a crude preattentive warning system predominating over more sophisticated and controlled modes of processing. We investigated the hypothesis that subconscious detection of threat in a cognitive task is reflected by enhanced ''false signal'' detection rather than by selectively (...)
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  • Liking and Wanting Pleasant Odors: Different Effects of Repetitive Exposure in Men and Women.Chantal Triscoli, Ilona Croy, HÃ¥kan Olausson & Uta Sailer - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Priming Determinist Beliefs Diminishes Implicit Components of Self-Agency.Margaret T. Lynn, Paul S. Muhle-Karbe, Henk Aarts & Marcel Brass - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Confounding Valence and Arousal: What Really Underlies Political Orientation?Shona M. Tritt, Michael Inzlicht & Jordan B. Peterson - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):330-331.
  • The Sound Of One Hand Clapping.J. Gray - 2002 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 8.
    The 'non-sensory' feelings of familiarity, rightness and tip-of-the-tongue postulated in the target article all find a natural explanation within existing models, including Gray's comparator model, of the way in which top-down and bottom-up processing interact to select the contents of consciousness.
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  • Genetic Issues in “the Sociobiology of Sociopathy”.Stephen C. Maxson - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):565-565.
    A consideration of the genetics of sociopathy suggests the following. The author's Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) types 2 to 4 are more likely than types 1 and 5 in crimes of violence, and there may not be an ESS for crimes of property or for sociopathy. Correlations between sociopathy and crimes of property are also more likely due to environmental than to genetic variants, and correlations between sociopathy and crimes of property are due more to environmental than genetic variants.
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  • Sociopathy or Hyper-Masculinity?Anne Campbell - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-549.
    Definitional slippage threatens to equate secondary sociopathy with mere criminality and leaves the status of noncriminal sociopaths ambiguous. Primary sociopathy appears to show more environmental contingency than would be implied by a strong genetic trait approach. A reinterpretation in terms of hypermasculinity and hypofemininity is compatible with the data.
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  • Affective Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Future.Tim Dalgleish, Barnaby D. Dunn & Dean Mobbs - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (4):355-368.
    The discipline of affective neuroscience is concerned with the underlying neural substrates of emotion and mood. This review presents an historical overview of the pioneering work in affective neuroscience of James and Lange, Cannon and Bard, and Hess, Papez, and MacLean before summarizing the current state of research on the brain regions identified by these seminal researchers. We also discuss the more recent strides made in the field of affective neuroscience. A final section considers different hypothetical organizations of affective neuroanatomy (...)
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  • An IRT Analysis of Motive Questionnaires: The Unified Motive Scales.Felix D. Schönbrodt & Friederike X. R. Gerstenberg - unknown
    Multiple inventories claiming to assess the same explicit motive show only mediocre convergent validity. In three studies the structure, nomological net, and content coverage of multiple existing motive scales was investigated with exploratory factor analyses. The analyses revealed four approach factors and a general avoidance factor with a facet structure. New scales were developed using IRT, reflecting these underlying dimensions. In comparison to existing questionnaires, the UMS have the highest measurement precision and provide short and ultra-short scales. In a fourth (...)
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  • The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia: Act 3.D. R. Hemsley, J. N. P. Rawlins, J. Feldon, S. H. Jones & J. A. Gray - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):209-215.
  • Toward the More Direct Study of Attention in Schizophrenia: Alertness Decrement and Encoding Facilitation.Daniel W. Smothergill & Alan G. Kraut - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):208-209.
  • Schizophrenia: In Context or in the Garbage Can?Alan D. Pickering - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):205-206.
  • A “Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia” Without Vision.Fred H. Previc - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):207-208.
  • The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia: Beyond the Dopamine Hypothesis to Behavioural Function.Michael H. Joseph - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):203-205.
  • Beyond the Answer: Post-Error Processes.Gernot D. Kleiter & Kurt Schwarzenbacher - 1989 - Cognition 32 (3):255-277.
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  • Fears, Phobias, and Preparedness: Toward an Evolved Module of Fear and Fear Learning.Arne Öhman & Susan Mineka - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (3):483-522.
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  • Mediating Effect of Trait Emotional Intelligence Between the Behavioral Activation System /Behavioral Inhibition System and Positive and Negative Affect.Ana Merchán-Clavellino, Jose Ramón Alameda-Bailén, Antonio Zayas García & Rocio Guil - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Group Differences ≢ Individual Differences.C. S. Bergeman & A. D. Seroczynski - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):546-548.
    Mealey's etiological distinction between primary and secondary sociopathy blurs the delineation between individual and group differences. She uses physiological evidence to support her claim of genetic influences, neglecting variability within social classes, frequency of delinquent behavior in upper and middle classes (measured by self-report), and discontinuity of criminal behavior across the life span. Finally, Mealey's proposals for differential intervention fall short of a future agenda, which should tailor to individual needs, not social classes.
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  • Primary Sociopathy (Psychopathy) is a Type, Secondary is Not.Linda Mealey - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):579-599.
    Recent studies lend support to the two-pathway model of the evolution of sociopathy with evidence that: 1) psychopathy (primary sociopathy) is a discrete type and 2) in general, sociopaths have relatively high levels of reproductive success. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist may provide a start for the revision of terminology that will be necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary trajectories.
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  • From Angst to Information Processing.J. A. Gray - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):747.
  • The Neuropsychology of Depression.Paul Willner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):746.
  • Information Processing in the Hippocampal Formation.Nestor A. Schmajuk - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):745.
  • The Septo-Hippocampal System and Ego.Roger K. Pitman - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):744.
  • On Incest and Mathematical Modeling.C. J. Lumsden & E. O. Wilson - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):742.
  • Gene–Culture Theory and Inherited Individual Differences in Personality.J. Philippe Rushton & Robin J. H. Russell - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):740.
  • Natural Selection and Unnatural Selection of Data.Atam Vetta - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):741.
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  • Is Sociopathy a Type or Not? Will the “Real” Sociopathy Please Stand Up?James Snyder - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):575.
  • Prisoner's Dilemma, Chicken, and Mixedstrategy Evolutionary Equilibria.Andrew M. Colman - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):550.
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  • Commentary: Primary Emotional Systems and Personality: An Evolutionary Perspective.Stefano I. Di Domenico & Richard M. Ryan - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Dysfunctional Freezing Responses to Approaching Stimuli in Persons with a Looming Cognitive Style for Physical Threats.John H. Riskind, Laura Sagliano, Luigi Trojano & Massimiliano Conson - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Author Reply: More Than Evaluation: Lateralization of the Neural Substrates Supporting Approach and Avoidance Motivational Systems.Helena J. V. Rutherford & Annukka K. Lindell - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):347-348.
    Rutherford and Lindell (2011) review the theoretical and empirical research conceptualizing emotion and emotional processing within an approach-avoidance framework. This is accompanied by an extensive discussion of the cerebral lateralization of approach-avoidance. Berntson, Norman, and Cacioppo (2011) extend this discussion by presenting a bivariate evaluative model of emotion which adopts a valence-based (positive, negative) dictum. Here we discuss this latter model in the context of an approach-avoidance perspective.
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  • Sociobiology, Sociopathy, and Social Policy.Richard Machalek - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):564-564.
    Evolutionary analysis suggests that policies based on deterrence may cope effectively with primary sociopathy if the threat of punishment fits the crime in the cost/benefit calculus of the sociopath, not that of the public. On the other hand, policies designed to offset serious disadvantage in social competition may help inhibit the development of secondary sociopathy, rather than deter its expression.
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  • Evolution, Mating Effort, and Crime.David C. Rowe - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):573-574.
    Unlike some psychiatric illnesses, criminal lifestyles are not reproductive dead ends and may represent frequency-dependent adaptations. Sociopaths may gain reproductively from their greater relative to nonsociopaths. This mating-effort construct should be assessed directly in future studies of sociopathy. Collaboration between biologically oriented and environmentally oriented researchers is needed to investigate the biosocial basis of sociopathy.
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  • Sociopathy Within and Between Small Groups.David Sloan Wilson - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):577-577.
    If sociopathy is a biological adaptation, it probably evolved in small social groups in which individuals lacked the social mobility required for a con-man strategy to work. On the other hand, conflicts between groups may have provided a large niche for sociopathy throughout human history.
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  • Ingestion and Emotional Health.Nancy K. Dess - 1991 - Human Nature 2 (3):235-269.
    Evidence abounds of a close relation between ingestive and affective processes in rats and in humans. Emotional distress alters food intake and body weight; conversely, alterations in eating and weight influence emotional health. Thorough experimental analysis of the ingestion-affect relation may clarify the mechanisms of anxiety and depression. A strategy is proposed for examination of environmental and dispositional determinants of ingestive processes, emotionality, and responses to stress.
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  • Dodging Monsters and Dancing with Dreams: Success and Failure at Different Levels of Approach and Avoidance.Abigail A. Scholer & E. Tory Higgins - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (3):254-258.
    Many models of motivation suggest that goals can be arranged in a hierarchy, ranging from higher-level goals that represent desired end-states to lower-level means that operate in the service of those goals. We present a hierarchical model that distinguishes between three levels—goals, strategies, and tactics—and between approach/avoidance and regulatory focus motivations at different levels. We focus our discussion on how this hierarchical framework sheds light on the different ways that success and failure are defined within the promotion and prevention systems (...)
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  • Psychopathy is a Nonarbitrary Class.Vernon L. Quinsey & Martin L. Lalumière - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):571-571.
    Recent evidence that psychopathy is a nonarbitrary population, such that the trait may be categorical rather than continuous, is consistent with Mealey's distinction between primary and secondary psychopaths. Thus, there are likely to be at least two routes to criminality, and psychopathic and nonpsychopathic criminals are likely to respond differently to interventions.
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  • Is the Distinction Between Primary and Secondary Sociopaths a Matter of Degree, Secondary Traits, or Nature Vs. Nurture?Marvin Zuckerman - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):578-579.
    Psychopathy has as its central traits socialization, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. These are combined in a supertrait: Impulsive Unsocialized Sensation Seeking (ImpUSS). Secondary types are defined by combinations of ImpUSS and neuroticism or sociability. All broad personality traits have both genetic and environmental determination, and therefore different etiologies (primary as genetic, secondary as environmental) for primary and secondary sociopathy are unlikely.
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  • Moral Judgments by Alleged Sociopaths as a Means for Coping with Problems of Definition and Identification in Mealey's Model.Yuval Wolf - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):577-578.
    Problems of definition and identification in the integrated evolutionary model of sociopathy are suggested by Schoenfeld's (1974) criticism of the field of race differences in intelligence. Moral judgments by those labeled primary and secondary sociopaths may offer a way to validate the assumptions of the model.
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  • An Evaluation of Mealey's Hypotheses Based on Psychopathy Checklist: Identified Groups.David S. Kosson & Joseph P. Newman - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):562-563.
    Although Mealey's account provides several interesting hypotheses, her integration across disparate samples renders the value of her explanation for psychopathy ambiguous. Recent evidence on Psychopathy Checklist-identified samples (Hare, 1991) suggests primary emotional and cognitive deficits inconsistent with her model. Whereas high-anxious psychopaths display interpersonal deficits consistent with Mealey's hypotheses, low-anxious psychopaths' deficits appear more sensitive to situational parameters than predicted.
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