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  1. On the Brain and Personality Substrates of Psychopathy.Jaak Panksepp, Brian Knutson & Laura Bird - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):568-570.
    Further understanding at neuroscientific and personality levels should considerably advance our ability to deal with individuals that have strong sociopathic tendencies. An analysis of neurodynamic responses to emotional stimuli will eventually be able to detect sociopathic tendencies of the brain. Such information could be used to enhance the options available to individuals at risk without limiting their personal freedoms.
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  • Psychopathy and Violence: Arousal, Temperament, Birth Complications, Maternal Rejection, and Prefrontal Dysfunction.Adrian Raine - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):571-573.
    The key questions arising from Mealey's analysis are: Do environmental factors such as early maternal rejection also contribute to the emotional deficits observed in psychopaths? Are there psychophysiological protective factors for antisocial behavior that have clinical implications? Does a disinhibited temperament and low arousal predispose to primary psychopathy? Would primary or secondary psychopaths be most characterized by prefrontal dysfunction?
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  • “Genetics” and DNA Polymorphisms.Robert Plomin - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):570-570.
    Four questions are raised about Mealey's genetic argument: (1) Where is the evidence that secondary sociopathy is less heritable than primary sociopathy? (2) What is the genetic correlation between the two types of sociopathy? (3) How does genotype-environment interaction relate? (4) How strong are the links between our evolutionary past and current heritability?
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  • Putting Cognition Into Sociopathy.R. J. R. Blair & John Morton - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-548.
    We make three suggestions with regard to Mealey's work. First, her lack of a cognitive analysis of the sociopath results in underspecified mappings between sociobiology and behavior. Second, the developmental literature indicates that Mealey's implicit assumption, that moral socialisation is achieved through punishment, is invalid. Third, we advance the use of causal modelling to map the developmental relationships between biology, cognition, and behaviour.
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  • Editorial: Effects of Game and Game-Like Training on Neurocognitive Plasticity.Guido P. H. Band, Chandramallika Basak, Heleen A. Slagter & Michelle W. Voss - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  • A Neuropsychology of Deception and Self-Deception.Roger A. Drake - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):552-553.
    As more criminals are imprisoned, other individuals change their behavior to replace them, as predicted by the theory of strategic behavior. The physiological correlates of sociopathy suggest that research in cognitive neuroscience can lead toward a solution. Promising pathways include building upon current knowledge of self-deceit, the independence of positive and negative emotions, the lateralization of risk and caution, and the conditions promoting prosocial behavior.
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  • You Can Cheat People, but Not Nature!John Barresi - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):544-545.
    The psychological mechanisms implicated in psychopathy do not limit their activity to those behaviors that support a cheater strategy in social games. They result in a number of other clearly maladaptive behaviors that do not directly involve other individuals. Thus, any gains that might arise from the use of a cheater strategy in social situations are probably lost elsewhere.
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  • Approach and Avoidance Behaviour: Multiple Systems and Their Interactions.Philip J. Corr - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (3):285-290.
    Approach–avoidance theories describe the major systems that motivate behaviours in reaction to classes of appetitive (rewarding) and aversive (punishing) stimuli. The literature points to two major “avoidance” systems, one related to pure avoidance and escape of aversive stimuli, and a second, to behavioural inhibition induced by the detection of goal conflict (in addition, there is evidence for nonaffective behavioural constraint). A third major system, responsible for approach behaviour, is reactive to appetitive stimuli, and has several subcomponents. A number of combined (...)
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  • Sociopathy and Sociobiology: Biological Units and Behavioral Units.Carl J. Erickson - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):555-555.
    Behavioral biologists have long sought to link behavioral units (e.g., aggression, depression, sociopathy) with biological units (e.g., genes, neurotransmitters, hormones, neuroanatomical loci). These units, originally contrived for descriptive purposes, often lead to misunderstandings when they are reified for purposes of causal analysis. This genetic and biochemical explanation for sociopathy reflects such problems.
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  • Implications of an Evolutionary Biopsychosocial Model.Harmon R. Holcomb - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):559-560.
    Mealey's work has several interesting implications: It refutes the charge that sociobiology paints a cynical portrait of human nature and adopts a one-sided reductionism; it exemplifies a general theoretical scheme for constructing evolutionary biopsychosocial models of human behavior; and it has the practical effect of promoting and informing early intervention in children at risk for psychopathic disorder.
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  • The Sociobiology of Sociopathy: An Integrated Evolutionary Model.Linda Mealey - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:523-541.
    Sociopaths are members of society in two senses: politically, they draw our attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they hold our fascination because most ofus cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to (...)
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  • The Primary/Secondary Distinction of Psychopathy: A Clinical Perspective.Gisli H. Gudjonsson - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):558-559.
    In this brief commentary the author concentrates on the treatment perspectives of Mealey's model. The main weakness of the model is that it does not provide a satisfactory theoretical connection between treatment and different types of target behavior. Even within the primary-secondary distinction, there are large individual differences that should not be overlooked in the planning of treatment.
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  • Sociopathy, Evolution, and the Brain.Ernest S. Barratt & Russell Gardner - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):544-544.
    We propose that Mealey's model is limited in its description of sociopathy because it does not provide an adequate role for the main organ mediating genes and behavior, namely, the brain. Further, on the basis of our research, we question the view of sociopaths as a homogeneous group.
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  • Testing Mealey's Model: The Need to Demonstrate an ESS and to Establish the Role of Testosterone.John Archer - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):541-542.
    Two specific aspects of Mealey's model are questioned: (1) the application of the concept of Evolutionarily Stable Strategy to all alternative strategies, including those that involve reduced lifetime reproductive success; and (2) the evidence for the dual role of testosterone, which is based mainly on studies of a modulating effect on aggression.
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  • A Latent Profile Analysis of Affective Triggers for Risky and Impulsive Behavior.Emily Kemp, Naomi Sadeh & Arielle Baskin-Sommers - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Emotions and Sociopathy.Robert Plutchik - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):570-571.
    Questions are raised about several issues discussed by Mealey: (1) the nature of the distinction between primary and secondary sociopaths, (2) some difficulties with a general arousal theory of criminality, and (3) the possible role of countervailing forces in the development of sociopathy. An important area that calls for attention is the patterning of different specific emotions in the lives of sociopaths as compared to other groups.
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  • An Evaluation of Early and Late Stage Attentional Processing of Positive and Negative Information in Dysphoria.Matthew S. Shane & Jordan B. Peterson - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):789-815.
  • Affect-Congruent Approach and Withdrawal Movements of Happy and Angry Faces Facilitate Affective Categorisation.Jacobien M. van Peer, Mark Rotteveel, Philip Spinhoven, Marieke S. Tollenaar & Karin Roelofs - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (5):863-875.
  • Thriving and Surviving: Approach and Avoidance Motivation and Lateralization.Helena J. V. Rutherford & Annukka K. Lindell - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):333-343.
    Two core motivational systems have been conceptualized as underlying emotion and behavior. The approach system drives the organism toward stimuli or events in the environment, and the avoidance system instead deters the organism away from these stimuli or events. This approach—avoidance dichotomy has been central to theories of emotion. Advances in neuroscience complementing well-designed behavioral experiments have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying approach—avoidance motivation, suggesting that these two systems exist in parallel and are lateralized in the brain. This (...)
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  • The Epigenesis of Sociopathy.Aurelio José Figueredo - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):556-557.
    Mealey distinguishes two types of sociopathy: (1) or obligate, and (2) or facultative. Either sociopathy evolved twice, or one form is derived from the other, e.g., through: (1) genetic assimilation generating polymorphism in the relative strength of biases favoring the development of otherwise facultative strategies, or (2) independently heritable but strategically relevant characteristics biasing the optimal selection of facultative strategies.
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  • Tracing the Self-Regulatory Bases of Moral Emotions.Sana Sheikh & Ronnie Janoff-Bulman - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (4):386-396.
    In this article we explore a self-regulatory perspective on the self-evaluative moral emotions, shame and guilt. Broadly conceived, self-regulation distinguishes between two types of motivation: approach/activation and avoidance/inhibition. We use this distinction to conceptually understand the socialization dimensions (parental restrictiveness versus nurturance), associated emotions (anxiety versus empathy), and forms of morality (proscriptive versus prescriptive) that serve as precursors to each self-evaluative moral emotion. We then examine the components of shame and guilt experiences in greater detail and conclude with more general (...)
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  • Secondary Sociopathy and Opportunistic Reproductive Strategy.Jay Belsky - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):545-546.
    Mealey's analysis of secondary sociopathy has much in common with Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization. Both draw attention to the potential influence of early rearing in the promotion of a cold, detached, manipulative, and opportunistic style of relating to others and, in so doing, raise the question of whether secondary sociopathy represents a facultative reproductive strategy.
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  • The Sociopath: Cheater or Warrior Hawk?Kent G. Bailey - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):542-543.
    Mealey's excellent target article rests on several assumptions that may be questioned, including the overarching assumption that sociopathy reflects the failure of a small minority of males to cooperate with the larger group. I suggest that violent competition in ancestral bands cheatinggame was the primary evolutionary precursor of sociopathy. Today's violent sociopath is far more a than a failed cooperator.
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  • Fatherless Rearing Leads to Sociopathy.David T. Lykken - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):563-564.
    Endorsing Mealey's analysis, it is pointed out that increasing rates of crime and violence are due to increasing proportions of children being reared in circumstances radically different from the extendedfamily environment to which we are evolntionarily adapted, that is, they are reared without fathers.
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  • Al Capone, Discrete Morphs, and Complex Dynamic Systems.Douglas T. Kenrick & Stephanie Brown - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):560-561.
    We consider four mechanisms by which apparent discontinuities in the distribution of antisociality could arise: (1) executive genes or hormonal systems, (2) multiplicative interactions of predisposing factors, (3) environmental tracking into a limited number of social roles, and (4) cross-generational gene—environment interactions. A more explicit consideration of complex self-organizing dynamic systems may help us understand the maintenance of antisocial subpopulations.
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  • The Role of Emotion in Sociopathy: Contradictions and Unanswered Questions.Nancy Eisenberg - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):553-554.
    Emotion is critical in Mealey's conceptual arguments. However, several of her assertions about the role of emotion in sociopathy are problematic. Questions are raised regarding the link between lack of anxiety and low levels of secondary emotions such as love and sympathy, the argument that sociopaths are low in anxiety but high in neuroticism, and the designation of anxiety as a secondary emotion.
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  • Pathways to Sociopathy: Twin Analyses Offer Direction.Nancy L. Segal - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):574-575.
    Understanding the bases of complex behavioral phenotypes, such as sociopathy, is assisted by an evolutionary approach, in addition to other theoretical perspectives. Unraveling genetic and environmental factors underlying variant forms of sociopathy remains a key challenge for behavioral science investigators. Twin research methods (e.g., longitudinal analyses; twins reared apart) offer informative means of assessing novel hypotheses relevant to sociopathic behaviors.
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  • Touchstones of Abnormal Personality Theory.Richard W. J. Neufeld - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):567-568.
    Strengths of Mealey's target article are its implementation of results from game-theoretic analyses and its potential links with other formal developments. In recent dynamic decision/choice models, reduced salience of avoidance tendencies, said to typify primary sociopaths, has quantifiable consequences for response latencies and choices. Also, formal models of stress effects on information processing predict selected effects of hypoarousability.
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  • Psychopathology: Type or Trait?H. J. Eysenck - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):555-556.
    Mealey proposes two categorical classes of sociopath, primary and secondary. I criticize this distinction on the basis that constructs of this kind have proved unrealistic in personality taxonomy and that dimensional systems capture reality much more successfully. I suggest how such a system could work in this particular context.
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  • Continua Outperform Dichotomies.John D. Baldwin - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):543-544.
    Mealey's data do not support her dichotomous model of primary and secondary sociopathy; this data supports the view that there is a continuum of degrees of sociopathy, from zero to the maximal manifestation. There are multitudes of factors that can contribute to sociopathy and the countless different mixes of them can produce multiple degrees and variations of sociopathic behavior.
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  • Extending Arousal Theory and Reflecting on Biosocial Approaches to Social Science.Lee Ellis - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):554-554.
    This commentary extends arousal theory to suggest an explanation for the well-established inverse correlation between church attendance and involvement in crime. In addition, the results of two surveys of social scientists are reviewed to reveal just how little impact the biosocial/sociobiological perspective has had thus far on social science.
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  • The Role of Attachment in the Development and Prevention of Sociopathy.Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):576-577.
    Mealey's sociobiological model of sociopathy could profit from attachment theory, in particular, the theory and research on the basis of the Adult Attachment Interview (Main & Goldwyn 1985–1993). Findings of an adult attachment study in a forensic psychiatric setting are summarized. Three attachment-oriented strategies for families, schools, and forensic settings are proposed to help reduce or prevent secondary sociopathy and criminal recidivism.
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  • Genes, Hormones, and Gender in Sociopathy.Katharine Hoyenga - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):560-560.
    Although serotonin, testosterone, and genes contribute to sociopathy, the relationships are probably indirect and subject to modifiers (e.g., present only under certain conditions of rearing and temperament). Age at menarche may be a marker variable as well as a causal factor. Since the genders differ in all four areas, sex differences in sociopathy represent a very complex interaction of these factors.
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  • Brain Systems That Mediate Both Emotion and Cognition.Jeffrey A. Gray - 1990 - Cognition and Emotion 4 (3):269-288.
  • Arousal, Suppression, and Persistence: Frustration Theory, Attention, and its Disorders.Abram Amsel - 1990 - Cognition and Emotion 4 (3):239-268.
  • The Empirical Status of the Laws of Emotion.Nico H. Frijda - 1992 - Cognition and Emotion 6 (6):467-477.
  • The Place of Appraisal in Emotion.Nico H. Frijda - 1993 - Cognition and Emotion 7 (3-4):357-387.
  • Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Depression: A Self-Regulatory Perspective.Andrew J. Tomarkenand & Anita D. Keener - 1998 - Cognition and Emotion 12 (3):387-420.
  • Underlying Motivation in the Approach and Avoidance Goals of Depressed and Non-Depressed Individuals.Katherine A. L. Sherratt & Andrew K. MacLeod - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (8):1432-1440.
  • Diathesis Stress Model or “Just So” Story?Richard M. McFall, James T. Townsend & Richard J. Viken - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):565-566.
    Mealey's sociopathy model is an exemplar of popular diathesis-stress models. Although such models, when presented in descriptive language, offer the illusion of integrative explanation, their actual scientific value is very limited because they fail to make specific, quantitative, falsifiable predictions. Conceptual and quantitative weaknesses of such diathesis-stress models are discussed and the requirements for useful models are outlined.
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  • Cognitive Sources of Evidence for Neuroticism's Link to Punishment-Reactivity Processes.Sara K. Moeller & Michael D. Robinson - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (5):741-759.
  • Unique Association of Approach Motivation and Mania Vulnerability.Björn Meyer, Christopher G. Beevers, Sheri L. Johnson & Evette Simmons - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (8):1647-1668.