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  1. El olvido del organismo: un análisis de las concepciones acerca de lo vivo y su valor en la biología actual.Constanza Rendón & Gabriela Klier - 2018 - Scientiae Studia 15 (2):459.
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  • Detecting Evolving Patterns of Self‐Organizing Networks by Flow Hierarchy Measurement.Jianxi Luo & Christopher L. Magee - 2011 - Complexity 16 (6):53-61.
    Hierarchies occur widely in evolving self‐organizing ecological, biological, technological, and social networks, but detecting and comparing hierarchies is difficult. Here we present a metric and technique to quantitatively assess the extent to which self‐organizing directed networks exhibit a flow hierarchy. Flow hierarchy is a commonly observed but theoretically overlooked form of hierarchy in networks. We show that the ecological, neurobiological, economic, and information processing networks are generally more hierarchical than their comparable random networks. We further discovered that hierarchy degree has (...)
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  • Recursive Ontology: A Systemic Theory of Reality.Valerio Velardo - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (1):89-114.
    The article introduces recursive ontology, a general ontology which aims to describe how being is organized and what are the processes that drive it. In order to answer those questions, I use a multidisciplinary approach that combines the theory of levels, philosophy and systems theory. The main claim of recursive ontology is that being is the product of a single recursive process of generation that builds up all of reality in a hierarchical fashion from fundamental physical particles to human societies. (...)
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  • Theory-Testing, Generalization, and the Problem of External Validity.Jeffrey W. Lucas - 2003 - Sociological Theory 21 (3):236-253.
    External validity refers to the generalization of research findings, either from a sample to a larger population or to settings and populations other than those studied. While definitions vary, discussions generally agree that experiments are lower in external validity than other methodological approaches. Further, external validity is widely treated as an issue to be addressed through methodological procedures. When testing theories, all measures are indirect indicators of theoretical constructs, and no methodological procedures taken alone can produce external validity. External validity (...)
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  • Function in Ecology: An Organizational Approach.Nei Nunes-Neto, Alvaro Moreno & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):123-141.
    Functional language is ubiquitous in ecology, mainly in the researches about biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, it has not been adequately investigated by ecologists or philosophers of ecology. In the contemporary philosophy of ecology we can recognize a kind of implicit consensus about this issue: while the etiological approaches cannot offer a good concept of function in ecology, Cummins’ systemic approach can. Here we propose to go beyond this implicit consensus, because we think these approaches are not adequate for ecology. (...)
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  • Upper-Directed Systems: A New Approach to Teleology in Biology.Daniel W. McShea - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):663-684.
  • Hierarchical Structures.Stanley N. Salthe - 2012 - Axiomathes 22 (3):355 - 383.
    This paper compares the two known logical forms of hierarchy, both of which have been used in models of natural phenomena, including the biological. I contrast their general properties, internal formal relations, modes of growth (emergence) in applications to the natural world, criteria for applying them, the complexities that they embody, their dynamical relations in applied models, and their informational relations and semiotic aspects.
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