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  1. CSR and the Debate on Business and Human Rights: Bridging the Great Divide.Florian Wettstein - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (4):739-770.
    Human rights have not played an overwhelmingly prominent role in CSR in the past. Similarly, CSR has had relatively little influence on what is now called the “business and human rights debate.” This contribution uncovers some of the reasons for the rather peculiar disconnect between these two debates and, based on it, presents some apparent synergies and complementarities between the two. A closer integration of the two debates, as it argues, would allow for the formulation of an expansive and demanding (...)
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  • [Disability] Justice Dictated by the Surfeit of Love: Simone Weil in Nigeria.Oche Onazi - 2017 - Law and Critique 28 (1):1-22.
    How is Nigeria’s failure to fulfil its obligations as a signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to be appreciated or even resolved? Answers to this are sought through a seminal criticism of human rights, namely, Simone Weil’s 1942 essay Human Personality. Weil questioned the ability of human rights concepts to cause the powerful to develop the emotional dispositions of empathy for those who suffer. Weil’s insights provide a convincing explanation that the indifference of (...)
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  • Health and Human Rights: Epistemological Status and Perspectives of Development.Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga, Leslie London & Philippe Chastonay - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (3):237-247.
    The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement’s epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence (...)
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  • A Perspective of Objectivity in International Human Rights Treaties.Jingjing Wu - forthcoming - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique:1-22.
    In this paper I argue that there is objectivity in international human rights law, against which the justifiability of arguments can be determined, and which could advance the universality versus relativity of human rights debate. Revisiting the three schools of treaty interpretation and applying the three elements of Radbruch’s rule of law, I discuss how the interpreter’s job of balancing those schools has limited room for manoeuvre. I further propose an approach to help jurists detect unjustifiable arguments in treaty interpretation, (...)
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  • Liberalism and the Moral Basis for Human Rights.Jon Mahoney - 2008 - Law and Philosophy 27 (2):151 - 191.
  • Law as a System of Rights: A Critical Perspective.Azadeh Chalabi - 2014 - Human Rights Review 15 (2):117-138.
    The “rhetorical incorporation of human rights terminology” into domestic law is the central concern of this article. Over the last 20 years or so, countries have faced international pressure to conform to human rights standards in order to enjoy legitimacy. However, there is a huge gap between what is legalized as “human rights” in domestic laws and what is set forth as “human rights” in international human rights instruments. Based on this presupposition that a proper incorporation of human rights on (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility, Utilitarianism, and the Capabilities Approach.Cecile Renouard - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):85 - 97.
    This article explores the possible convergence between the capabilities approach and utilitarianism to specify CSR. It defends the idea that this key issue is related to the anthropological perspective that underpins both theories and demonstrates that a relational conception of individual freedoms and rights present in both traditions gives adequate criteria for CSR toward the company's stakeholders. I therefore defend "relational capability" as a means of providing a common paradigm, a shared vision of a core component of human development. This (...)
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  • Doing Justice to Rights and Values: Teleological Reasoning and Proportionality. [REVIEW]Giovanni Sartor - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (2):175-215.
    This paper studies how legal choices, and in particular legislative determinations, need to consider multiple rights and values, and can be assessed accordingly. First it is argued that legal norms (and in particular constitutional right-norms) often prescribe the pursuit of goals, which may be in conflict one with another. Then a model of teleological reasoning is brought to bear on choices affecting different goals, among which those prescribed by constitutional norms. An analytical framework is provided for evaluating such choices with (...)
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  • Unlocking the Beauty of the Imperfect Duty to Aid: Sen's Idea of the Duty of Assistance.Susan Murphy - 2014 - Journal of Global Ethics 10 (3):369-383.
    This paper examines the links between acting upon a duty to assist, responsibility for these actions, and how such actions link with incremental moral duties that can amass as a consequence of such action. More specifically, this paper is concerned with practices of international aid and assistance, whereby public and privately funded donations enable the actions of parties outside of the territorial and jurisdictional boundaries of a community and state to directly influence the functioning of that community, and the incremental (...)
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  • Critical Realism, Human Rights, and Emotion: How an Emotive Ontology Can Resolve the Tensions Between Universalism and Relativism.Ben Luongo - 2021 - Human Rights Review 22 (2):217-238.
    This article demonstrates how critical realism can resolve persistent theoretical debates in the human rights literature. Critical realism is a philosophy of science that proposes a complex ontological framework to study causal relations. Methodological and theoretical decisions in research are always premised on some ontological presumption whether they are explicitly stated or not. However, much of the social sciences follow the discipline’s empiricist orthodoxy which often dismisses ontological inquiry. As a consequence, theoretical and methodological debates persist without scholars recognizing how (...)
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  • Transnational Corporations and the Duty to Respect Basic Human Rights.Denis G. Arnold - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (3):371-399.
    In a series of reports the United Nations Special Representative on the issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations has emphasized a tripartite framework regarding business and human rights that includes the state “duty to protect,” the TNC “responsibility to respect,” and “appropriate remedies” for human rights violations. This article examines the recent history of UN initiatives regarding business and human rights and places the tripartite framework in historical context. Three approaches to human rights are distinguished: moral, political, and legal. (...)
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  • Cosmopolitan Feminism and Human Rights.Niamh Reilly - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (4):180-198.
    Reilly offers an account of cosmopolitan feminism as emancipatory political practice in an age of globalization. This entails a critical engagement with international human rights law; a global feminist consciousness that contests patriarchal, capitalist, and racist power dynamics in a context of neoliberal globalization; cross-boundaries dialogue that recognizes the intersectionality of forms of oppression; collaborative transnational strategizing on concrete issues; and the utilization of global forums as sites of cosmopolitan solidarity and citizen action.
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  • Business and Human Rights, From Theory to Practice and Law to Morality: Taking a Philosophical Look at the Proposed UN Treaty.Ana-Maria Pascal - 2021 - Philosophy of Management 20 (2):167-200.
    This paper considers the UN efforts to introduce a legally binding Treaty on corporate accountability for human rights impacts in the context of other proposed legislation at country level, on the one hand, and existing voluntary initiatives like the UN Guiding Principles, on the other. What we are interested in is whether the proposed Treaty signals a transition from voluntary initiatives to law, and the extent to which it might stimulate or hinder links between judicial and non-judicial initiatives. The scholars (...)
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  • Human Rights, Personal Responsibility, and Human Dignity: What Are Our Moral Duties to Promote the Universal Realization of Human Rights?Julio Montero - 2017 - Human Rights Review 18 (1):67-85.
    According to the orthodox or humanist conception of human rights, individuals have a moral duty to promote the universal realization of human rights. However, advocates of this account express the implications of this duty in extremely vague terms. What does it mean when we say that we must promote human rights satisfaction? Does it mean that we must devote a considerable amount of our time and resources to this task? Does it mean, instead, that we must make occasional donations to (...)
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  • Extracting Legitimacy: An Analysis of Corporate Responses to Accusations of Human Rights Abuses.Rajiv Maher, Moritz Neumann & Mette Slot Lykke - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    We ask what type of neutralization techniques corporations apply to allegations of human rights abuses. We proceed by undertaking a Qualitative Content Analysis of 162 responses by ten extractives-sector firms over a period of 14 years. The firms were responding to accusations of human rights impacts documented by the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. We use Garrett et al.’s :507–520, 1989) framework of neutralization techniques consisting of denial, justification, concession and excuse to examine the responses. During our QCA, we (...)
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  • Towards Understanding the Nature of Conflict of Interest and its Application to the Discipline of Nursing.Nancy J. Crigger - 2009 - Nursing Philosophy 10 (4):253-262.
    Most incidences of dishonesty in research, financial investments that promote personal financial gain, and kickback scandals begin as conflicts of interest (COI). Research indicates that healthcare professionals who maintain COI relationships make less optimal and more expensive patient care choices. The discovery of COI relationships also negatively impact patient and public trust. Many disciplines are addressing this professional issue, but little work has been done towards understanding and applying this moral category within a nursing context. Do COIs occur in nursing (...)
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  • Human Rights and the Requirement for International Medical Aid.Benjamin Tolchin - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (2):151-158.
    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances (...)
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  • Raz on Rights: Human Rights, Fundamental Rights, and Balancing.Aleardo Zanghellini - 2017 - Ratio Juris 30 (1):25-40.
    After clarifying the outlines of Raz's interest theory of rights and its relationship to aspects of the principles theory of rights, I consider how his recent observations on human rights manage to fit into the interest theory. I then address two questions. First, I elaborate on Raz's definition of morally fundamental rights, arguing that he is right in claiming that there are no such rights. I then show that the interest theory accommodates the notion that rights may take qualitative precedence (...)
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  • The Concept of Rights in Contemporary Human Rights Discourse.Christine Chwaszcza - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (3):333-364.
    In a variety of disciplines, there exists a consensus that human rights are individual claim rights that all human beings possess simply as a consequence of being human. That consensus seems to me to obscure the real character of the concept and hinder the progress of discussion. I contend that rather than thinking of human rights in the first instance as “claim rights” possessed by individuals, we should regard human rights as higher order norms that articulate standards of legitimacy for (...)
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  • Exploring the Link Between Human Rights, the Capability Approach and Corporate Responsibility.César González-Cantón, Sonia Boulos & Pablo Sánchez-Garrido - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (4):865-879.
    The capability approach is gaining momentum as a theory of corporate responsibility and business ethics at a time when the UN Guiding Principles have become a most important framework. A novel approach is now emerging that seeks to understand and specify human rights obligations of businesses within the framework provided by the capability approach. This article partially examines the triad corporate responsibility–human rights–capability approach by exploring the relationship between human rights and capabilities. Thus, it offers conceptual and practical implications for (...)
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  • Approaching Human Rights Law Philosophically: Reflections on Allen Buchanan, The Heart of Human Rights.Mathias Risse - 2017 - Law and Philosophy 36 (2):169-190.
    I begin by summarizing some of the main features of Buchanan’s account. I argue next that his account gets no support from defeating his envisaged opponent, the Mirroring View of human rights. Then I discuss some general ideas about the concept and different conceptions of human rights before introducing my own conception and explaining why I think it has certain advantages over Buchanan’s. In particular, my account is better suited for the intellectual engagement with China that philosophers should contribute to (...)
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  • Human Rights Enjoyment in Theory and Activism.Brooke Ackerly - 2011 - Human Rights Review 12 (2):221-239.
    Despite being a seemingly straightforward moral concept (that all humans have certain rights by virtue of their humanity), human rights is a contested concept in theory and practice. Theorists debate (among other things) the meaning of “rights,” the priority of rights, whether collective rights are universal, the foundations of rights, and whether there are universal human rights at all. These debates are of relatively greater interest to theorists; however, a given meaning of “human rights” implies a corresponding theory of change (...)
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  • A Human Rights Debate on Physical Security, Political Liberty, and the Confucian Tradition.Benedict S. B. Chan - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (4):567-588.
    There are many East and West debates on human rights. One of them is whether all civil and political rights are human rights. On one hand, scholars generally agree that rights to physical security are human rights. On the other hand, some scholars argue that rights to political liberty are only Western rights but not human rights because political liberty conflicts with some East Asian cultural factors, especially the Confucian tradition. I argue that physical security also conflicts with some parts (...)
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  • Let’s Talk Rights: Messages for the Just Corporation–Transforming the Economy Through the Language of Rights. [REVIEW]Florian Wettstein - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):247 - 263.
    Neoliberal globalization has not yielded the results it promised; global inequality has risen, poverty and hunger are still prevailing in large parts of this world. If this devastating situation shall be improved, economists must talk less about economic growth and more about people’s rights. The use of the language of rights will be key for making the economy work more in favor of the least advantaged in this world. Not only will it provide us with the vocabulary necessary to reframe (...)
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  • Helmuth Plessner's Social and Political Thought in Light of His Philosophy of Life.Karol Chrobak - 2021 - Diametros 18 (67):38-53.
    The essay contains an analysis of selected socio-political ideas of Helmuth Plessner. The basic assumption of this study is the existence of a close categorial relationship between Plessner’s reflections in The Limits of Community and in Die Stufen des Organischen. As the interpretative key, the author uses one of the pivotal concepts of Plessner’s philosophy of life, namely the category of “border.” Showing the adequacy of this category in relation to Plessner’s social and political concepts, the essay addresses the issue (...)
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  • Rights, Goals, and Capabilities.Martin van Hees - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (3):247-259.
    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a definition leaves the relationship between capabilities and rights to a great extent underspecified since nothing is said about the nature of those rights. Hence, it is not precluded that they are mere negative liberties, something that (...)
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  • Amartya Sen on Human Rights in The Idea of Justice.Alistair M. Macleod - 2015 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 41 (1):11-19.
    In section I, I identify several mini-theses embedded in Amartya Sen’s theory of human rights – such theses as that human rights are moral, not legal, rights, that nevertheless they are not rights that are awaiting transformation into legal rights, that an expansive doctrine of human rights can incorporate a broad swath of rights without merely mimicking the catalogues in post-Second World War declarations and covenants, and that not all the obligations generated by human rights are ‘perfect’ obligations. In section (...)
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  • Girls Rising for Human Rights: Not Magic, Politics.Brooke A. Ackerly - 2016 - Journal of International Political Theory 12 (1):26-41.
    “Girls rising” offers a grounded, critical, and human rights theory of political responsibility for global injustice. This theory of human rights tells us not just what rights are but how to take responsibility for bringing about their enjoyment for all. It grounds a theory of human rights in the political view of human beings as fundamentally relational and human rights as fundamentally collectively enjoyed. Using girls’ education activism as an illustrative issue area, it outlines five political practices and what they (...)
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  • Beyond Sweatshops: Positive Deviancy and Global Labour Practices.Denis G. Arnold & Laura P. Hartman - 2005 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 14 (3):206–222.
  • Common Ownership of the Earth as a Non‐Parochial Standpoint: A Contingent Derivation of Human Rights.Mathias Risse - 2009 - European Journal of Philosophy 17 (2):277-304.
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  • Big Business and Fascism: A Dangerous Collusion.Prabhir Vishnu Poruthiyil - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 168 (1):121-135.
    Anxieties stemming from rising inequalities have led significant sections of the world’s population to reject democratic practices and place their trust in politicians with fascist tendencies who promise to wrest control of their destinies from elites. Ironically, elite interests, far from being threatened, are bolstered by the rise of fascism, as discredited democratic institutions can be dismantled with impunity. The emerging alliance between the neoliberal project and fascist politics is a phenomenon that the business and society scholarship is ill-equipped to (...)
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  • Protecting the Entrepreneurial Poor: A Human Rights Approach.Jahel Queralt - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 18 (4):336-357.
    Half of the working poor in developing countries are informal entrepreneurs – they make a living by engaging in commercial activities in the shadow economy. A series of government and market failur...
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  • Patents and Human Rights: A Heterodox Analysis.E. Richard Gold - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):185-198.
    Much international debate over access to medicines focuses on whether patent law accords with international human rights law. This article argues that this is the wrong question to ask. Following an analysis of both patent and human rights law, this article suggests that the better approach is to focus on national debates over the best calibration of patent law to achieve national objectives.
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  • Patents and Human Rights: A Heterodox Analysis.E. Richard Gold - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):185-198.
    Patents and free trade make strange bedfellows. For most of their history, patents have been instruments deployed to resist trade with other countries, not to enhance it. Whether one looks at Venetian laws that punished citizens who practiced local crafts outside the city, the Mercantilist uses to which patents were put in Elizabethan England, or the cartels of the 19th and 20th centuries created on a foundation of interlocking patent rights, patents have had a distinctly protectionist function. It is thus (...)
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  • The Acceptability and the Tolerability of Societal Risks: A Capabilities-Based Approach.Colleen Murphy & Paolo Gardoni - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (1):77-92.
    In this paper, we present a Capabilities -based Approach to the acceptability and the tolerability of risks posed by natural and man-made hazards. We argue that judgments about the acceptability and/or tolerability of such risks should be based on an evaluation of the likely societal impact of potential hazards, defined in terms of the expected changes in the capabilities of individuals. Capabilities refer to the functionings, or valuable doings and beings, individuals are able to achieve given available personal, material, and (...)
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  • Transnational Corporations and Human Rights Duties: Perfect and Imperfect.Jilles L. J. Hazenberg - 2016 - Human Rights Review 17 (4):479-500.
    This paper aims, firstly, to bridge debates on human rights and Transnational Corporations within practical philosophy and those within the business and human rights literature and, secondly, to determine the extent to which human rights duties can be assigned to TNCs. To justifiably assign human rights duties to TNCs, it is argued that these duties need to be grounded in moral theory. Through assessment of two approaches from practical philosophy, it is argued that positive duties cannot be assigned to TNCs (...)
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  • The Claims and Duties of Socioeconomic Human Rights.Stephanie Collins - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (265):701-722.
    A standard objection to socioeconomic human rights is that they are not claimable as human rights: their correlative duties are not owed to each human, independently of specific institutional arrangements, in an enforceable manner. I consider recent responses to this ‘claimability objection,’ and argue that none succeeds. There are no human rights to socioeconomic goods. But all is not lost: there are, I suggest, human rights to ‘socioeconomic consideration’. I propose a detailed structure for these rights and their correlative duties, (...)
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  • Public Regulators and CSR: The ‘Social Licence to Operate’ in Recent United Nations Instruments on Business and Human Rights and the Juridification of CSR.Karin Buhmann - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4):699-714.
    The social licence to operate concept is little developed in the academic literature so far. Deployment of the term was made by the United National Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the UN ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework, which apply SLO as an argument for responsible business conduct, connecting to social expectations and bridging to public regulation. This UN guidance has had a significant bearing on how public regulators seek to influence business conduct beyond Human Rights to broader (...)
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  • Cosmopolitan Feminism and Human Rights.Niamh Reilly - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (4):180-198.
    : Reilly offers an account of cosmopolitan feminism as emancipatory political practice in an age of globalization. This entails a critical engagement with international human rights law; a global feminist consciousness that contests patriarchal, capitalist, and racist power dynamics in a context of neoliberal globalization; cross-boundaries dialogue that recognizes the intersectionality of forms of oppression; collaborative transnational strategizing on concrete issues; and the utilization of global forums as sites of cosmopolitan solidarity and citizen action.
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  • Cosmopolitan Feminism and Human Rights.Niamh Reilly - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (4):180-198.
    Reilly offers an account of cosmopolitan feminism as emancipatory political practice in an age of globalization. This entails a critical engagement with international human rights law; a global feminist consciousness that contests patriarchal, capitalist, and racist power dynamics in a context of neoliberal globalization; cross-boundaries dialogue that recognizes the intersectionality of forms of oppression; collaborative transnational strategizing on concrete issues; and the utilization of global forums as sites of cosmopolitan solidarity and citizen action.
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  • Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy.B. M. Meier, K. N. Brugh & Y. Halima - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (3):263-282.
    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health (...)
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  • Long-Term Urgent Interests and Human Rights Practice: A Challenge to the Political Conception.Andre Santos Campos - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-22.
  • The Limits of Social Justice as an Aspect of Medical Professionalism.Thomas S. Huddle - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):369-387.
    Contemporary accounts of medical ethics and professionalism emphasize the importance of social justice as an ideal for physicians. This ideal is often specified as a commitment to attaining the universal availability of some level of health care, if not of other elements of a “decent minimum” standard of living. I observe that physicians, in general, have not accepted the importance of social justice for professional ethics, and I further argue that social justice does not belong among professional norms. Social justice (...)
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  • A Royal Road to Consequentialism?Martin Peterson - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (2):153-169.
    To consequentialise a moral theory means to account for moral phenomena usually described in nonconsequentialist terms, such as rights, duties, and virtues, in a consequentialist framework. This paper seeks to show that all moral theories can be consequentialised. The paper distinguishes between different interpretations of the consequentialiser’s thesis, and emphasises the need for a cardinal ranking of acts. The paper also offers a new answer as to why consequentialising moral theories is important: This yields crucial methodological insights about how to (...)
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  • Human Rights as Rights.Rowan Cruft - unknown
    This essay makes three suggestions: first, that it is attractive to conceive individualistic justification as one of the hallmarks - maybe even the one hallmark - of human rights; secondly, that combining this conception of human rights with standard worries about socioeconomic rights can tempt one to take the phrase "human rights" to refer to any individualistically justified weighty normative consideration (including considerations that are not rights); and thirdly, that reflections on the individuation of rights and rights' dynamic quality give (...)
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  • How Well Do We Understand Social Inclusion in Education?George Koutsouris, Hannah Anglin-Jaffe & Lauren Stentiford - 2020 - British Journal of Educational Studies 68 (2):179-196.
  • Human Rights as Demands for Communicative Action.Varun Gauri & Daniel M. Brinks - 2012 - Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (4):407-431.
  • Should Access to Credit Be a Right?Marek Hudon - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):17-28.
    Discussion on financial ethics increasingly includes the problem of exclusion of the poorer segments of society from the financial system and access to credit. This paper explores the ethical dimensions surrounding the concept of a human right to credit. If access to credit is directly instrumental to economic development, poverty reduction and the improved welfare of all citizens, then one can proclaim, as Nobel Prize Laureate M. Yunus has done, that it is a moral necessity to establish credit as a (...)
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  • The Failure of Instrumental Arguments for a Human Right to Democracy.Ryan Pevnick - 2020 - Journal of Political Philosophy 28 (1):27-50.
    Journal of Political Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  • Human Rights and Assigned Duties: Implications for Corporations. [REVIEW]Ivar Kolstad - 2008 - Human Rights Review 10 (4):569-582.
    Human rights imply duties. The question is, duties for whom? Without a well-defined scheme for assigning duties correlative to human rights, these rights remain illusory. This paper develops core elements of a general scheme of duty assignment and studies the implications for corporations. A key distinction in such an assignment is between unconditional and conditional duties. Unconditional duties apply to every agent regardless of the conduct of others. Conditional duties reflect a division of moral labour where different tasks are assigned (...)
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