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  1. The Measurement of Consciousness: A Framework for the Scientific Study of Consciousness.David Gamez - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Toward Studying Cognition in a Dish.Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J. Murugan & David L. Kaplan - 2021 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 25 (4):294-304.
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  • Meta-Criteria to Formulate Criteria of Consciousness.Boris Kotchoubey - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Any neurobiological model claiming explanation of a complex human phenomenon should start with an explicit definition of the explanandum. If a classical intensional definition is impossible, we can use a descriptive definition by listing necessary criteria. This commentary suggests four meta-criteria that different proposed criteria of consciousness should fulfill: phenomenological consensus, empirical evidence, domain specificity, and non-circularity.
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  • Implicit Learning and Acquisition of Music.Martin Rohrmeier & Patrick Rebuschat - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):525-553.
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  • Dynamic Development of Intuitions and Explicit Knowledge During Implicit Learning.Adam B. Weinberger & Adam E. Green - 2022 - Cognition 222:105008.
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  • A Tentative I/O Curve with Consciousness: Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Ambiguous Figures Presentation on Perceptual Reversals and Time Estimation.Anita D'Anselmo, Angelo Pisani & Alfredo Brancucci - 2022 - Consciousness and Cognition 99:103300.
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  • Consciousness: Individuated Information in Action.Jakub Jonkisz - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (...)
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  • Connecting Conscious and Unconscious Processing.Axel Cleeremans - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1286-1315.
    Consciousness remains a mystery—“a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about—yet” (Dennett, , p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing differ. I begin by delineating the conceptual challenges associated with classical approaches to cognition insofar as understanding unconscious information processing is concerned, and to highlight several contrasting computational principles that are constitutive of the connectionist (...)
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  • Measures of Consciousness.Elizabeth Irvine - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (3):285-297.
    Consciousness is now a hot topic in both philosophy and the cognitive sciences, yet there is much controversy over how to measure it. First, it is not clear whether biased subjective reports should be taken as adequate for measuring consciousness, or if more objective measures are required. Ways to benefit from the advantages of both these measures in the form of ‘Type 2’ metacognitive measures are under development, but face criticism. Research into neurophysiological measures of consciousness is potentially very valuable, (...)
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  • Developing Dark Pessimism Towards the Justificatory Role of Introspective Reports.Elizabeth Irvine - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-26.
    This paper argues for a position of ‘dark pessimism’ towards introspective reports playing a strong justificatory role in consciousness science, based on the application of frameworks and concepts of measurement. I first show that treating introspective reports as measurements fits well within current discussions of the reliability of introspection, and argue that introspective reports must satisfy at least a minimal definition of measurement in order to play a justificatory role in consciousness science. I then show how treating introspective reports as (...)
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  • Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness.Jakub Jonkisz, Michał Wierzchoń & Marek Binder - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • Optimizing Subjective Measures of Consciousness.Morten Overgaard, Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):682-684.
    Dienes and Seth (2010) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology and conclusions put forward by Dienes and Seth, and why we think the two experiments end up with so different recommendations.
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  • Working Memory and Consciousness: The Current State of Play.Marjan Persuh, Eric LaRock & Jacob Berger - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
    Working memory, an important posit in cognitive science, allows one to temporarily store and manipulate information in the service of ongoing tasks. Working memory has been traditionally classified as an explicit memory system – that is, as operating on and maintaining only consciously perceived information. Recently, however, several studies have questioned this assumption, purporting to provide evidence for unconscious working memory. In this paper, we focus on visual working memory and critically examine these studies as well as studies of unconscious (...)
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  • Visibility Is Not Equivalent to Confidence in a Low Contrast Orientation Discrimination Task.Manuel Rausch & Michael Zehetleitner - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  • Strategies for Measuring Machine Consciousness.Raúl Arrabales, Agapito Ledezma & Araceli Sanchis - 2009 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (2):193-201.
  • Consciousness Is More Complicated Than That: Theoretical Limitations of Interactive Capacity.Michal Klincewicz - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):38-39.
  • How Rich is Consciousness? The Partial Awareness Hypothesis.Sid Kouider, Vincent de Gardelle, Jérôme Sackur & Emmanuel Dupoux - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (7):301-307.
  • Measuring Strategic Control in Implicit Learning: How and Why?Elisabeth Norman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • On the Use of Continuous Flash Suppression for the Study of Visual Processing Outside of Awareness.Eunice Yang, Jan Brascamp, Min-Suk Kang & Randolph Blake - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • How Best to Study the Function of Consciousness?Jason Samaha - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Measuring Perceptual Consciousness.Marjan Persuh - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • Unraveling the Mysteries of Motivation.Randall C. O’Reilly - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (6):425-434.
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  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • Subjective Report of Eye Fixations During Serial Search.Sébastien Marti, Laurie Bayet & Stanislas Dehaene - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:1-15.
  • Cognitive Control Outside of Conscious Awareness.Adriano Linzarini, Olivier Houdé & Grégoire Borst - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 53:185-193.
  • The Effect of Subjective Awareness Measures on Performance in Artificial Grammar Learning Task.Ivan I. Ivanchei & Nadezhda V. Moroshkina - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 57:116-133.
  • Explaining What?Elizabeth Irvine - 2014 - Topoi 36 (1):95-106.
    The Hard Problem is surrounded by a vast literature, to which it is increasingly hard to contribute to in any meaningful way. Accordingly, the strategy here is not to offer any new metaphysical or ‘in principle’ arguments in favour of the success of materialism, but to assume a Type Q approach and look to contemporary consciousness science to see how the concept of consciousness fares there, and what kind of explanations we can hope to offer of it. It is suggested (...)
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  • An Old Problem: How Can We Distinguish Between Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge Acquired in an Implicit Learning Task?Hilde Haider, Alexandra Eichler & Thorsten Lange - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):658-672.
    A long lasting debate in the field of implicit learning is whether participants can learn without acquiring conscious knowledge. One crucial problem is that no clear criterion exists allowing to identify participants who possess explicit knowledge. Here, we propose a method to diagnose during a serial reaction time task those participants who acquire conscious knowledge. We first validated this method by using Stroop-like material during training. Then we assessed participants’ knowledge with the Inclusion/Exclusion task and the wagering task . Both (...)
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  • Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other?Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
    What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale , through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings , through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering , in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of (...)
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  • The Strength of Weak Artificial Consciousness.Anil Seth - 2009 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (1):71-82.
  • Brain Signals Do Not Demonstrate Unconscious Decision Making: An Interpretation Based on Graded Conscious Awareness.Jeff Miller & Wolf Schwarz - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 24:12-21.
    Neuroscientific studies have shown that brain activity correlated with a decision to move can be observed before a person reports being consciously aware of having made that decision . Given that a later event cannot cause an earlier one , such results have been interpreted as evidence that decisions are made unconsciously . We argue that this interpretation depends upon an all-or-none view of consciousness, and we offer an alternative interpretation of the early decision-related brain activity based on models in (...)
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  • Machine Consciousness: A Manifesto for Robotics.Antonio Chella & Riccardo Manzotti - 2009 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (1):33-51.
  • Absence of Advantageous Wagering Does Not Mean That Awareness is Fully Abolished.Remigiusz Szczepanowski - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):426-431.
    Post-decision wagering has been proposed as a method of demonstrating that perception can occur without conscious awareness. When wagering is independent from above-chance performance there is evidence of a lack of awareness of the correctness of the first-order discriminations. However, there are reasons to believe that the contingency analysis conducted by Persaud and colleagues failed to measure “the zero accuracy-wagering criterion”. The author shows that a Pearson chi-square test employed by Persaud and colleagues is unable to accommodate the hypothesis of (...)
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  • Is There a “Special Relationship” Between Unconscious Emotions and Visual Imagery? Evidence From a Mental Rotation Test.Nicola Mammarella - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):444-448.
    There is an increasing interest in the relationship between imagery and emotion . The present research examined whether unconscious emotions affect visual imagery. In particular, participants were invited to perform a mental rotation test following subliminal presentation of happy, sad and neutral expressions. This study revealed an increase in mental rotation abilities after unconscious visual processing of emotional expressions. Altogether, these findings support the hypothesis of a bidirectional relationship between imagery and emotions.
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  • Implicit Visual Learning and the Expression of Learning.Hilde Haider, Katharina Eberhardt, Alexander Kunde & Michael Rose - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):82-98.
    Although the existence of implicit motor learning is now widely accepted, the findings concerning perceptual implicit learning are ambiguous. Some researchers have observed perceptual learning whereas other authors have not. The review of the literature provides different reasons to explain this ambiguous picture, such as differences in the underlying learning processes, selective attention, or differences in the difficulty to express this knowledge. In three experiments, we investigated implicit visual learning within the original serial reaction time task. We used different response (...)
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