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An Introduction to Plato's Republic

Oxford University Press (1981)

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  1. Compulsion to Rule in Plato’s Republic.Christopher Buckels - 2013 - Apeiron 46 (1):63-84.
    Three problems threaten any account of philosophical rule in the Republic. First, Socrates is supposed to show that acting justly is always beneficial, but instead he extols the benefits of having a just soul. He leaves little reason to believe practical justice and psychic justice are connected and thus to believe that philosophers will act justly. In response to this problem, I show that just acts produce just souls. Since philosophers want to have just souls, they will act justly. Second, (...)
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  • Epinomia: Plato and the First Legal Theory.Eric Heinze - 2007 - Ratio Juris 20 (1):97-135.
    In comparison to Aristotle, Plato's general understanding of law receives little attention in legal theory, due in part to ongoing perceptions of him as a mystic or a totalitarian. However, some of the critical or communitarian themes that have guided theorists since Aristotle find strong expression in Plato's work. More than any thinker until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Plato rejects the rank individualism and self-interest which, in his view, emerge from democratic legal culture. He rejects schisms between legal norms (...)
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  • Towards a Critique of Cartographical Reason.Gunnar Olsson - 1998 - Ethics, Place and Environment 1 (2):145-155.
    This paper asks how we find our way in the hitherto unknown. In search of an answer, the author returns to the three Critiques of Immanuel Kant, noting especially their grounding in the geometric mode of presentation and the thingification processes connected therewith. It is argued that Kant's choice of metaphors in effect makes him more of a geographer than of a philosopher. To understand the taken-for-granted of thought-and-action, the time has therefore come for the writing of a fourth volume (...)
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  • Truth as a Value in Plato's Republic.Raphael Woolf - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (1):9-39.
    To what extent is possession of truth considered a good thing in the Republic? Certain passages of the dialogue appear to regard truth as a universal good, but others are more circumspect about its value, recommending that truth be withheld on occasion and falsehood disseminated. I seek to resolve this tension by distinguishing two kinds of truths, which I label 'philosophical' and 'non-philosophical'. Philosophical truths, I argue, are considered unqualifiedly good to possess, whereas non-philosophical truths are regarded as worth possessing (...)
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  • Different Ways of Seeing: The Language Games of Mothering.Elizabeth Gay Mitchell - unknown
    My thesis is original in placing together Wittgenstein's ideas of how language works, and arguments for the philosophical significance of the embodied and relational figure of the mother. I both use and resist a Wittgensteinian therapy to overcome the problem of the forgetting of the mother in philosophy. I begin with the problem of essentialism, important to Wittgenstein and to feminist philosophy. My reading of Wittgenstein finds an ignored lacuna between language and experience. I add in to the debate the (...)
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  • The First City and First Soul in Plato’s Republic.Jerry Green - 2021 - Rhizomata 9 (1):50-83.
    One puzzling feature of Plato’s Republic is the First City or ‘city of pigs’. Socrates praises the First City as a “true”, “healthy” city, yet Plato abandons it with little explanation. I argue that the problem is not a political failing, as most previous readings have proposed: the First City is a viable political arrangement, where one can live a deeply Socratic lifestyle. But the First City has a psychological corollary, that the soul is simple rather than tripartite. Plato sees (...)
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  • Themes in Plato, Aristotle, and Hellenistic Philosophy, Keeling Lectures 2011-2018, OPEN ACCESS.Fiona Leigh (ed.) - 2021 - University of Chicago Press.
  • Aristóteles historiador: El examen crítico de la teoría platónica de las Ideas.Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo - 2012 - Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Universidad de Buenos Aires.
    La exposición y crítica de las doctrinas antiguas tiene un lugar importante en los escritos de Aristóteles. Sin embargo, ciertas dudas se han vuelto corrientes acerca de la confiabilidad de sus descripciones. Más aún, se ha sostenido que Aristóteles deforma la comprensión histórica a través de la introducción de conceptos y términos propios. En este libro se aborda el problema a través de un análisis de las críticas que Aristóteles dirige a la teoría platónica de las Ideas, que permite explicar (...)
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  • Pleasure and Illusion in Plato.Jessica Moss - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (3):503 - 535.
    Plato links pleasure with illusion, and this link explains his rejection of the view that all desires are rational desires for the good. The Protagoras and Gorgias show connections between pleasure and illusion; the Republic develops these into a psychological theory. One part of the soul is not only prone to illusions, but also incapable of the kind of reasoning that can dispel them. Pleasure appears good; therefore this part of the soul (the appetitive part) desires pleasures qua good but (...)
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  • Knowledge, Virtue, and Method in Republic 471c-502c.Hugh H. Benson - 2008 - Philosophical Inquiry 30 (3-4):87-114.
  • Eros and Necessity in the Ascent From the Cave.Rachel Barney - 2008 - Ancient Philosophy 28 (2):357-72.
    A generally ignored feature of Plato’s celebrated image of the cave in Republic VII is that the ascent from the cave is, in its initial stages, said to be brought about by force. What kind of ‘force’ is this, and why is it necessary? This paper considers three possible interpretations, and argues that each may have a role to play.
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  • Clitophon and Socrates in the Platonic Clitophon.Christopher Moore - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (2):257-278.
  • The Supremacy of Dialectic in Plato’s Philebus.George Harvey - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (2):279-301.
  • Is Alex Redeemable? "A Clockwork Orange" as a Philosophical-Literary Platonic Fable.Jones Irwin - 2021 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 4.
    This essay explores the philosophical significance of Anthony Burgess’s 1960s novel "A Clockwork Orange." Specific themes in this novel are developed through character and situation, in a way which takes cognisance of important problems in the history of philosophy. The essay looks at two particular themes in this context. The first relates to the epistemological question of the distinction between truth and illusion. The novel thematizes the demarcation between truth and illusion, or truth and appearance, and raises the issue of (...)
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  • The Paradox of Public Service Jefferson, Education, and the Problem of Plato’s Cave.M. Andrew Holowchak - 2013 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 32 (1):73-86.
    Plato noticed a sizeable problem apropos of establishing his republic—that there was always a ready pool of zealous potential rulers, lying in wait for a suitable opportunity to rule on their own tyrannical terms. He also recognized that those persons best suited to rule, those persons with foursquare and unimpeachable virtue, would be least motivated to govern. Ruling a polis meant that those persons, fully educated and in complete realization that the most complete happiness comprises solitary study of things unchanging, (...)
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  • Plato on Kinds of Animals.David B. Kitts - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):315-328.
    Some biologists and philosophers of biology have seen in Plato an especially objectionable version of essentialism or topology. Although kinds of animals are mentioned in almost all of Plato's dialogues, in none of them is there an explicity stated doctrine of animal kinds. An examination of the dialogues has, moreover, failed to reveal some implicit but consistent and unambiguous view of kinds that Plato might have held.
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  • Normativity and Interpersonal Reasons.Ken O'Day - 1998 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (1):61-87.
    What is one who takes normativity seriously to do if normativity can neither be discovered lurking out there in the world independently of us nor can it be sufficiently grasped from a merely explanatory perspective? One option is to accept that the normative challenge cannot be met and to retreat to some form of moral skepticism. Another possibility has recently been proposed by Christine Korsgaard in The Sources of Normativity where she aims to develop an account of normativity which is (...)
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  • Minding the Gap in Plato's Republic.Eric Brown - 2004 - Philosophical Studies 117 (1-2):275-302.
    At least since Sachs' well-known essay, readers of Plato's Republic have worried that there is a gap between the challenge posed to Socrates--to show that it is always in one's interest to act justly--and his response--to show that it is always in one's interest to have a just soul. The most popular response has been that Socrates fills this gap in Books Five through Seven by supposing that knowledge of the Forms motivates those with just souls to act justly. I (...)
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  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: The Maker of Modern India.Desh Raj Sirswal (ed.) - 2016 - Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra).
    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is one of the most eminent intellectual figures of modern India. The present year is being celebrated as 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. Educationist and humanist from all over the world are celebrating 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar by organizing various events and programmes. In this regard the Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdiscipinary Studies (CPPIS) Pehowa (Kurukshetra) took an initiative to be a part of this mega event by organizing (...)
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  • Virtue Ethics and the Interests of Others.Mark Lebar - 1999 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    In recent decades "virtue ethics" has become an accepted theoretical structure for thinking about normative ethical principles. However, few contemporary virtue ethicists endorse the commitments of the first virtue theorists---the ancient Greeks, who developed their virtue theories within a commitment to eudaimonism. Why? I believe the objections of modern theorists boil down to concerns that eudaimonist theories cannot properly account for two prominent moral requirements on our treatment of others. ;First, we think that the interests and welfare of at least (...)
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  • A Horse is a Horse, of Course, of Course, but What About Horseness?Necip Fikri Alican - 2015 - In Debra Nails & Harold Tarrant (eds.), Second Sailing: Alternative Perspectives on Plato. Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica. pp. 307–324.
    Plato is commonly considered a metaphysical dualist conceiving of a world of Forms separate from the world of particulars in which we live. This paper explores the motivation for postulating that second world as opposed to making do with the one we have. The main objective is to demonstrate that and how everything, Forms and all, can instead fit into the same world. The approach is exploratory, as there can be no proof in the standard sense. The debate between explaining (...)
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  • On the Value of Drunkenness in the Laws.Nicholas Baima - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):65-81.
    Plato’s attitude towards drunkenness (μέθη) is surprisingly positive in the Laws, especially as compared to his negative treatment of intoxication in the Republic. In the Republic, Plato maintains that intoxication causes cowardice and intemperance (3.398e-399e, 3.403e, and 9.571c-573b), while in the Laws, Plato holds that it can produce courage and temperance (1.635b, 1.645d-650a, and 2.665c-672d). This raises the question: Did Plato change his mind, and if he did, why? Ultimately, this paper answers affirmatively and argues that this marks a substantive (...)
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  • Ordinary Language, Cephalus and a Deflationary Account of the Forms.Joshua Anderson - 2020 - Humanities Bulletin 3 (1):17-29.
    In this article I seek to come to some understanding of the interlocutors in the first book of Plato’s Republic, particularly Cephalus. A more complete view of Cephalus not only provides some interesting ways to think about Plato and the Republic, but also suggests an interesting alternative to Plato’s view of justice. The article will progress as follows: First, I discuss Plato’s allegory of the cave. I, then, critique the cave allegory by applying the same kind of reasoning that O. (...)
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  • Beyond Mind III: Further Steps to a Metatranspersonal Philosophy and Psychology.Elías Capriles - 2009 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 28 (2):1-145.
    This paper gives continuity to the criticism, undertaken in two papers previously published in this journal, of transpersonal systems that fail to discriminate between nirvanic, samsaric, and neithernirvanic-nor-samsaric transpersonal states, and which present the absolute sanity of Awakening as a dualistic, conceptually-tainted condition. It also gives continuity to the denunciation of the false disjunction between ontogenically ascending and descending paths, while showing the truly significant disjunction to be between existentially ascending and metaexistentially descending paths. However, whereas in the preceding paper (...)
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  • Departed Souls? Tripartition at the Close of Plato’s Republic.Nathan Bauer - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):139-157.
    Plato’s tripartite soul plays a central role in his account of justice in the Republic. It thus comes as a surprise to find him apparently abandoning this model at the end of the work, when he suggests that the soul, as immortal, must be simple. I propose a way of reconciling these claims, appealing to neglected features of the city-soul analogy and the argument for the soul’s division. The original true soul, I argue, is partitioned, but in a finer manner (...)
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  • Platonic Justice and What We Mean by 'Justice'.Terry Penner - 2005 - Plato Journal 5.
  • « L’eudaimonia Des Gardiens Philosophes ».Aikaterini Lefka - 2011 - Plato Journal 11.
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  • The One Over Many Principle of Republic 596a.José Edgar González-Varela - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):339-361.
    Republic 596a introduces a One over Many principle that has traditionally been considered as an argument for the existence of Forms, according to which, one Form should be posited for each like-named plurality. This interpretation was challenged by (Smith, J. A. 1917. “General Relative Clauses in Greek.” Classical Review 31: 69–71.), who interpreted it rather as a statement that each Form is unique and correlated to a plurality of things that have the same name as it. (Sedley, D. 2013. “Plato (...)
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  • Plato on Well-Being.Eric Brown - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. London, UK: pp. 9-19.
    Plato's dialogues use several terms for the concept of well-being, which concept plays a central ethical role as the ultimate goal for action and a central political role as the proper aim for states. But the dialogues also reveal sharp debate about what human well-being is. I argue that they endorse a Socratic conception of well-being as virtuous activity, by considering and rejecting several alternatives, including an ordinary conception that lists a variety of goods, a Protagorean conception that identifies one's (...)
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  • Misunderstanding the Myth in the Gorgias.Daniel C. Russel - 2001 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):557-573.
  • Socrates and Plato on the Possibility of Akrasia.Thomas Gardner - 2002 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (2):191-210.
  • Plato on the Rule of Reason.Fred D. Miller - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (S1):50-83.
  • Varieties of Moral Experience: Cephalic Erlebnis and Odyssean Erfahrung.Alan Kim - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (Supplement):41-49.
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  • Mirar Y escuchar en la ciudad: Aspectos políticos de la visión Y la audición en república VIII Y IX.Maria Cecilia Fernández Rivero - 2017 - Argos 40 (2):26-46.
    La concepción platónica de las experiencias visual y auditiva en un doble nivel repercute en su propuesta educativa y política, expresada, entre otros diálogos, en República. Un estudio filológico de estos campos semánticos en el Libro VIII e inicio del Libro IX de República permite postular que, para el ateniense, los cambios en las formas de la polis están ligados a cambios en los modos de ver y oír humanos. Así, el desplazamiento puede producirse desde una mirada y audición profundas (...)
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  • On Socrates' Project of Philosophical Conversion.Jacob Stump - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (32):1-19.
    There is a wide consensus among scholars that Plato’s Socrates is wrong to trust in reason and argument as capable of converting people to the life of philosophy. In this paper, I argue for the opposite. I show that Socrates employs a more sophisticated strategy than is typically supposed. Its key component is the use of philosophical argument not to lead an interlocutor to rationally conclude that he must change his way of life but rather to cause a certain affective (...)
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  • The Form of Soul in the Phaedo.Brian D. Prince - 2011 - Plato Journal 11.
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  • Words of Desire : Poetry and Non-Rational Motivation in Plato’s Republic.Olof Pettersson - 2017 - Filosofiska Notiser 4 (59-80).
    Although it is often acknowledged that poetry can only influence the non-rational part of the soul, this is rarely thought to be decisive for Plato’s argument. Poetry, instead, is taken to be psychologically corrupting because it is third removed from reality. By a closer look at Plato’s account of the address of poetry in the Republic, this paper argues that Plato takes poetry to be morally corrupting, not because of bad imitation, but because it represents and strengthens the illusory sentiments (...)
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  • The Analogies of Justice and Health inRepublic IV.Jorge Torres - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (4):556-587.
    This paper provides a new interpretation of Plato’s account of justice as psychic health in Republic IV. It argues that what has traditionally been considered to be one single analogy is actually a more complex line of reasoning that contains various medical analogies. These medical analogies are not only different in number but also in kind. I discuss each of them separately, while providing a response to various objections.
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  • Knowledge and Truth in the Greatest Difficulty Argument: Parmenides 133b4–134b5.Gail Fine - 2020 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 10 (3-4):209-234.
    One of Plato’s central tenets is that we can know forms. In Parmenides 133b4–134b5, Plato presents an argument whose sceptical conclusion is that we can’t know forms. Although he indicates that the argument doesn’t succeed, he also says it’s difficult to explain how it fails. Commentators have suggested a variety of flaws. I argue that the argument can be defended against some, though not all, of the alleged flaws. But I also argue that Plato hints at a crucial distinction that (...)
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  • Political Theory as Utopia.Lassman Peter - 2003 - History of the Human Sciences 16 (1):49-62.
    Political theory has been described as an `enterprise of discovery' that carries within it the danger of utopianism. This article explores one aspect of that danger: the question of the paradoxical or circular nature of much political thinking. This seems to be both a necessary and an impossible feature of such theorizing. Political theory itself seems to require an idea of utopia that is, by definition, impossible to achieve.
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  • O Problema da Classificação Dos Bens Na República de Platão.Luiz Maurício Bentim da Rocha Menezes - 2020 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):99-129.
    Plato’s division of goods performed by Glaucon in the Republic involves three kinds of goods: the first kind would be desirable for their own sake; the second, desirable in themselves and in their consequences, and the third kind, only desirable in their consequences. The problem to understand it is thus presented: in which of these kinds is justice observed, and which one provides happiness to men. According to Socrates, justice should be placed on the second kind of good if men (...)
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  • Thrasymachus on Justice, Rulers, and Laws in Republic I.Stephen Everson - 2020 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):76-98.
    One issue of contention amongst scholars of the Republic is whether Thrasymachus initially espouses a conventionalist account of justice, according to which just actions are merely those which are lawful; required, or at least allowed, by the laws passed by the ruler of the state. A further question is then whether his initial conceptions of rulers and laws are positivist ones, such that to be a ruler or law of a state is simply determined by the state’s constitution. At 340c (...)
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  • A Consistência Das Teses de Trasímaco Sobre a Justiça No Livro I da República de Platão.Luiz Maurício Bentim da Rocha Menezes - 2020 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 30:e03001.
    A discussão entre Trasímaco e Sócrates no Livro I da República de Platão dá vigor à questão da justiça iniciada com Céfalo. Trasímaco é um personagem importante da obra, pois vai relacionar a justiça ao governo da cidade. Isso faz com que a justiça saia da esfera individual e entre na esfera pública. Em nosso artigo, pretendemos verificar as teses de Trasímaco sobre a justiça e se estas são consistentes entre si. O problema da consistência das teses é antigo entre (...)
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  • Spartan Literacy Revisited.Ellen G. Millender - 2001 - Classical Antiquity 20 (1):121-164.
    According to several fourth-century Athenian sources, the Spartans were a boorish and uneducated people, who were either hostile toward the written word or simply illiterate. Building upon such Athenian claims of Spartan illiteracy, modern scholars have repeatedly portrayed Sparta as a backward state whose supposedly secretive and reactionary oligarchic political system led to an extremely low level of literacy on the part of the common Spartiate. This article reassesses both ancient and modern constructions of Spartan illiteracy and examines the ideological (...)
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  • Die Gespannte Seele: Tonos Bei Galen.Julia Trompeter - 2016 - Phronesis 61 (1):82-109.
    _ Source: _Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 82 - 109 Galen talks about tension, _tonos_, in a physiological sense, which seems to be related to either the innate heat of the living being, the good mixture of its humors, or the body’s _pneuma_. This paper shows that Galen, with some important distinctions concerning the substance of the soul, derives this use of _tonos_ from the Stoics. But beyond that, it shows that Galen uses _tonos_ in a strict psychological sense derived (...)
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  • Plato's Republic in Its Athenian Context.Debra Nails - 2012 - History of Political Thought 33 (1):1-23.
    Plato's Republic critiques Athenian democracy as practised during the Peloponnesian War years. The diseased city Socrates attempts to purge mirrors Athens in crucial particulars, and his proposals should be evaluated as counter-weights to existing institutions and practices, not as absolutes to be instantiated. Plato's assessment of the Athenian polity incorporates two strategies -- one rhetorical, the other argumentative -- both of which I address. Failure to consider Athens a catalyst for Socrates' arguments has led to the misconception that Plato was (...)
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  • Thrasymachus’ Unerring Skill and the Arguments of Republic 1.Tamer Nawar - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (4):359-391.
    In defending the view that justice is the advantage of the stronger, Thrasymachus puzzlingly claims that rulers never err and that any practitioner of a skill or expertise (τέχνη) is infallible. In what follows, Socrates offers a number of arguments directed against Thrasymachus’ views concerning the nature of skill, ruling, and justice. Commentators typically take a dim view of both Thrasymachus’ claims about skill (which are dismissed as an ungrounded and purely ad hoc response to Socrates’ initial criticisms) and Socrates’ (...)
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  • Plato on Hunger and Thirst.Katja Maria Vogt - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):103-119.
    I argue that Plato’s account of hunger and thirst in Republic IV, 437d–439a uncovers a general feature of desire: desire has an unqualified and a qualified dimension. This proposal, which I call Two Dimensions, captures recognizable motivational phenomena: being hungry and aiming to determine what one is hungry for, or wanting to study and still figuring out what field it is that one wants to study. Two Dimensions is a fundamental contribution to the theory of desire. It is compatible, I (...)
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  • An Unexplained Overlap Between Sophist 232b1-236d4 and Republic X.Nicholas Zucchetti - 2020 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 30:e03014.
    Although most scholars agree that the lexicon of Sophist 232b1-236d4 is similar to that of Republic X, they leave undetermined whether they are theoretically compatible. Notably, both dialogues elucidate the art of imitation through the metaphor of the painter who deceives his pupils through φαντάσματα. I argue that Plato’s conception of imitation of the Republic is not only consistent with that presented in the Sophist, but also importantly integrates it.
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  • Aristotle and the Origins of Evil.Jozef Müller - 2020 - Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy 65 (2):179-223.
    The paper addresses the following question: why do human beings, on Aristotle’s view, have an innate tendency to badness, that is, to developing desires that go beyond, and often against, their natural needs? Given Aristotle’s teleological assumptions (including the thesis that nature does nothing in vain), such tendency should not be present. I argue that the culprit is to be found in the workings of rationality. In particular, it is the presence of theoretical reason that necessitates the limitless nature of (...)
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