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An Introduction to Plato's Republic

Oxford University Press (1981)

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  1. Epinomia: Plato and the First Legal Theory.Eric Heinze - 2007 - Ratio Juris 20 (1):97-135.
    In comparison to Aristotle, Plato's general understanding of law receives little attention in legal theory, due in part to ongoing perceptions of him as a mystic or a totalitarian. However, some of the critical or communitarian themes that have guided theorists since Aristotle find strong expression in Plato's work. More than any thinker until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Plato rejects the rank individualism and self-interest which, in his view, emerge from democratic legal culture. He rejects schisms between legal norms (...)
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  • Plato on Kinds of Animals.David B. Kitts - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):315-328.
    Some biologists and philosophers of biology have seen in Plato an especially objectionable version of essentialism or topology. Although kinds of animals are mentioned in almost all of Plato's dialogues, in none of them is there an explicity stated doctrine of animal kinds. An examination of the dialogues has, moreover, failed to reveal some implicit but consistent and unambiguous view of kinds that Plato might have held.
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  • L'ètica de Plató.Nicholas White - 2014 - Quaderns de Filosofia 1 (2).
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  • Pleasure and Truth in Republic 9.David Wolfsdorf - 2013 - Classical Quarterly 63 (1):110-138.
    At Republic 9, 583b1–587a2, Socrates argues that the pleasure of the philosophical life is the truest pleasure. I will call this the ‘true pleasure argument’. The true pleasure argument is divisible into two parts: 583b1–585a7 and 585a8–587a2. Each part contains a sub-argument, which I will call ‘the misperception argument’ and ‘the true filling argument’ respectively. In the misperception argument Socrates argues that it is characteristic of irrational men to misperceive as pleasant what in fact is a condition of neither having (...)
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  • The Spirited Part of the Soul in Plato's Timaeus.Josh Wilburn - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (4):627-652.
    in the tripartite psychology of the Republic, Plato characterizes the “spirited” part of the soul as the “ally of reason”: like the auxiliaries of the just city, whose distinctive job is to support the policies and judgments passed down by the rulers, spirit’s distinctive “job” in the soul is to support and defend the practical decisions and commands of the reasoning part. This is to include not only defense against external enemies who might interfere with those commands, but also, and (...)
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  • Is Appetite Ever 'Persuaded'?: An Alternative Reading of Republic 554c-D.Joshua Wilburn - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (3).
    Republic 554c-d—where the oligarchic individual is said to restrain his appetites ‘by compulsion and fear’, rather than by persuasion or by taming them with speech—is often cited as evidence that the appetitive part of the soul can be ‘persuaded’. I argue that the passage does not actually support that conclusion. I offer an alternative reading and suggest that appetite, on Plato’s view, is not open to persuasion.
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  • Tyrannized Souls: Plato's Depiction of the ‘Tyrannical Man’.Mark A. Johnstone - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):423-437.
    In book 9 of Plato's Republic, Socrates describes the nature and origins of the ‘tyrannical man’, whose soul is said to be ‘like’ a tyrannical city. In this paper, I examine the nature of the ‘government’ that exists within the tyrannical man's soul. I begin by demonstrating the inadequacy of three potentially attractive views sometimes found in the literature on Plato: the view that the tyrannical man's soul is ruled by his ‘lawless’ unnecessary appetites, the view that it is ruled (...)
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  • Plato on Well-Being.Eric Brown - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. London, UK: pp. 9-19.
    Plato's dialogues use several terms for the concept of well-being, which concept plays a central ethical role as the ultimate goal for action and a central political role as the proper aim for states. But the dialogues also reveal sharp debate about what human well-being is. I argue that they endorse a Socratic conception of well-being as virtuous activity, by considering and rejecting several alternatives, including an ordinary conception that lists a variety of goods, a Protagorean conception that identifies one's (...)
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  • Thrasymachus’ Unerring Skill and the Arguments of Republic 1.Tamer Nawar - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (4):359-391.
    In defending the view that justice is the advantage of the stronger, Thrasymachus puzzlingly claims that rulers never err and that any practitioner of a skill or expertise (τέχνη) is infallible. In what follows, Socrates offers a number of arguments directed against Thrasymachus’ views concerning the nature of skill, ruling, and justice. Commentators typically take a dim view of both Thrasymachus’ claims about skill (which are dismissed as an ungrounded and purely ad hoc response to Socrates’ initial criticisms) and Socrates’ (...)
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  • On Interpreting Plato's Ion.Suzanne Stern-Gillet - 2004 - Phronesis 49 (2):169-201.
    Plato's "Ion," despite its frail frame and traditionally modest status in the corpus, has given rise to large exegetical claims. Thus some historians of aesthetics, reading it alongside page 205 of the Symposium, have sought to identify in it the seeds of the post-Kantian notion of 'art' as non-technical making, and to trace to it the Romantic conception of the poet as a creative genius. Others have argued that, in the "Ion," Plato has Socrates assume the existence of a technē (...)
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  • The Supremacy of Dialectic in Plato’s Philebus.George Harvey - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (2):279-301.
  • Truth as a Value in Plato's Republic.Raphael Woolf - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (1):9-39.
    To what extent is possession of truth considered a good thing in the Republic? Certain passages of the dialogue appear to regard truth as a universal good, but others are more circumspect about its value, recommending that truth be withheld on occasion and falsehood disseminated. I seek to resolve this tension by distinguishing two kinds of truths, which I label 'philosophical' and 'non-philosophical'. Philosophical truths, I argue, are considered unqualifiedly good to possess, whereas non-philosophical truths are regarded as worth possessing (...)
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  • Anarchic Souls: Plato’s Depiction of the ‘Democratic Man’.Mark Johnstone - 2013 - Phronesis 58 (2):139-59.
    In books 8 and 9 of Plato’s Republic, Socrates provides a detailed account of the nature and origins of four main kinds of vice found in political constitutions and in the kinds of people that correspond to them. The third of the four corrupt kinds of person he describes is the ‘democratic man’. In this paper, I ask what ‘rules’ in the democratic man’s soul. It is commonly thought that his soul is ruled in some way by its appetitive part, (...)
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  • The Role of Money in Plato’s Republic, Book I.Thomas Noutsopoulos - 2015 - Historical Materialism 23 (2):131-156.
  • Educating Irrationality: On the Place of Philosophy in the Classroom.Andrea Lozano - 2012 - Pensamiento y Cultura 15 (2):152-158.
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  • Die Gespannte Seele: Tonos Bei Galen.Julia Trompeter - 2016 - Phronesis 61 (1):82-109.
    _ Source: _Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 82 - 109 Galen talks about tension, _tonos_, in a physiological sense, which seems to be related to either the innate heat of the living being, the good mixture of its humors, or the body’s _pneuma_. This paper shows that Galen, with some important distinctions concerning the substance of the soul, derives this use of _tonos_ from the Stoics. But beyond that, it shows that Galen uses _tonos_ in a strict psychological sense derived (...)
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  • Commentary on Frede.Nickolas Pappas - 1996 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 12 (1):277-284.
  • Commentary on Gill.Christopher A. Dustin - 1996 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 12 (1):226-246.
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  • Misunderstanding the Myth in the Gorgias.Daniel C. Russell - 2001 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):557-573.
  • Plato on the Philosophical Benefits of Musical Education.Naly Thaler - 2015 - Phronesis 60 (4):410-435.
  • El argumento de" Lo Uno sobre lo múltiple" en el Tratado sobre las Ideas de Aristóteles.Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo - 2010 - Synthesis (la Plata) 17:47-63.
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  • Plato on the Rule of Reason.Fred D. Miller - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (S1):50-83.
  • Varieties of Moral Experience: Cephalic Erlebnis and Odyssean Erfahrung.Alan Kim - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (Supplement):41-49.
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  • Eros Tyrannos: Alcibiades as the Model of the Tyrant in Book IX of the Republic.Annie Larivée - 2012 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 6 (1):1-26.
    Abstract The aim of this article is to make use of recent research on `political eros ' in order to clarify the connection that Plato establishes between eros and tyranny in Republic IX, specifically by elucidating the intertextuality between Plato's work and the various historical accounts of Alcibiades. An examination of the lexicon used in these accounts will allow us to resolve certain interpretive difficulties that, to my knowledge, no other commentator has elucidated: why does Socrates blame eros for the (...)
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  • Colloquium 7.William Wians - 1992 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 8 (1):268-279.
  • Plato and Analytical Philosophy.Marcel Van Ackeren - 2005 - Erkenntnis 62 (2):263-275.
  • The Paradox of Public Service Jefferson, Education, and the Problem of Plato’s Cave.M. Andrew Holowchak - 2013 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 32 (1):73-86.
    Plato noticed a sizeable problem apropos of establishing his republic—that there was always a ready pool of zealous potential rulers, lying in wait for a suitable opportunity to rule on their own tyrannical terms. He also recognized that those persons best suited to rule, those persons with foursquare and unimpeachable virtue, would be least motivated to govern. Ruling a polis meant that those persons, fully educated and in complete realization that the most complete happiness comprises solitary study of things unchanging, (...)
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  • Early Education in Plato's Republic.Michelle Jenkins - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (5):843-863.
    In this paper, I reconsider the commonly held position that the early moral education of the Republic is arational since the youths of the Kallipolis do not yet have the capacity for reason. I argue that, because they receive an extensive mathematical education alongside their moral education, the youths not only have a capacity for reason but that capacity is being developed in their early education. If this is so, though, then we must rethink why the early moral education is (...)
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  • Wisdom.Stephen R. Grimm - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (1):1-16.
    What is it that makes someone wise, or one person wiser than another? I argue that wisdom consists in knowledge of how to live well, and that this knowledge of how to live well is constituted by various further kinds of knowledge. One concern for this view is that knowledge is not needed for wisdom but rather some state short of knowledge, such as having rational or justified beliefs about various topics. Another concern is that the emphasis on knowing how (...)
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  • Who May Live the Examined Life? Plato's Rejection of Socratic Practices in Republic VII.Sarah Lublink - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (1):3-18.
    In Republic VII Plato has Socrates make a curious argument: dialectic as currently practiced causes lawlessness, and thus the practice of dialectic should be restricted to those of a certain age who have been properly trained and selected (537e-539e). I argue that the warning in Republic VII points to a disagreement between the views expressed by the character `Socrates' in the Republic, and the views expressed by the character `Socrates' in the Apology. I do so by showing that Republic's description (...)
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  • “Standing Apart in the Shelter of the City Wall”: The Contemplative Ideal Vs. The Politically Engaged Philosopher in Plato's Political Theory.Catherine McKeen - 2010 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (2):197-216.
    Natural philosophers seem to have good reasons to prefer that the kallipolis, the maximally just community of the Republic, is never realized. If such a community is realized, philosophers are under the obligation of a just demand that they govern. However, a life that contains governance as a significant part is not the happiest life a philosopher can live. The happiest life for a philosopher is one consisting entirely or largely in philosophical contemplation. I confront this puzzle by arguing that (...)
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  • Different Ways of Seeing: The Language Games of Mothering.Elizabeth Gay Mitchell - unknown
    My thesis is original in placing together Wittgenstein's ideas of how language works, and arguments for the philosophical significance of the embodied and relational figure of the mother. I both use and resist a Wittgensteinian therapy to overcome the problem of the forgetting of the mother in philosophy. I begin with the problem of essentialism, important to Wittgenstein and to feminist philosophy. My reading of Wittgenstein finds an ignored lacuna between language and experience. I add in to the debate the (...)
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  • XIII- From Painters to Poets: Plato's Methods in Republic X.Dominic Scott - 2016 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 116 (3):289-309.
    Throughout much of the critique of poetry in Republic X, Socrates exploits a parallel between painting and poetry. I argue there are two distinct methods at work here, the ‘similarity’ and ‘heuristic’ methods. The first uses painting to discover the general definition of mimesis, which is then swiftly applied to poetry. The second describes certain features of painting before using independent arguments to show that these also apply to poetry. That Socrates sometimes uses the parallel in this heuristic way is (...)
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  • Two Kinds of Belief in Plato.Gösta Grönroos - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):1-19.
    In thesophist (263e10–264b4), Plato distinguishes between two kinds of belief. On the one hand, there is a kind of belief that occurs “according to thinking” (κατὰ διάνοιαν), being “the completion of thinking” (διανοίας ἀποτελεύτησις). This kind is called ‘doxa.’ On the other hand, there is another kind of belief that occurs “through sense perception” (δι᾽ αἰσθήσεως). This kind is called ‘phantasia,’ perhaps best rendered as “appearing.”1 The purpose of this paper is to uncover the distinction between these two different kinds (...)
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  • Deseos y Valores. El intelectualismo socrático y la tripartición del alma en la "República".Álvaro Vallejo Campos - 2015 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 40 (2):23-43.
    En la República Platón parece romper con el intelectualismo socrático al aceptar deseos independientes del bien. Sin embargo, esto no le impide seguir afirmando que el alma hace todo lo que hace en virtud del bien. Para resolver esta aparente contradicción en el presente artículo se insiste en la distinción entre deseos y valores. Los deseos, generados en las partes del alma, están apegados a sus objetos propios, pero los valores revisten estos deseos de imágenes del bien y otros elementos (...)
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  • The Tripartite Theory of Motivation in Plato’s Republic.Rachel Singpurwalla - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (11):880-892.
  • Interpreting Plato’s Republic: Knowledge and Belief.David C. Lee - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (10):854-864.
    A distinction between knowledge and belief is set out and justified at the end of Book V of Plato’s Republic. The justification is intended to establish the claim of the philosophers to rule in an ideal state. I set out the argument and explain why considerable disagreement remains about the nature of the distinction and the assumptions on which it rests. I discuss the main options for interpreting the justification, briefly assessing their strengths and weaknesses. I conclude with comments on (...)
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  • The History of Educational Ideas and the Credibility of Philosophy of Education.James R. Muir - 1998 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (1):7–26.
  • Platonic Virtue: An Alternative Approach.Iakovos Vasiliou - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (9):605-614.
    I begin by describing certain central features of a prominent Anglophone approach to Platonic virtue over the last few decades. I then present an alternative way of thinking about virtue in Plato that shifts central concern away from moral psychology and questions about virtue's relationship to happiness. The approach I defend focuses on virtue, both as a supreme aim of a person's actions and as something whose nature needs to be determined.
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  • The Scope of Knowledge in Republic V.F. C. White - 1984 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):339 – 354.
  • Why Women Must Guard and Rule in Plato's Kallipolis.Catherine Mckeen - 2006 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):527–548.
    Plato's discussion of women in the Republic is problematic. For one, arguments in Book V which purport to establish that women should guard and rule alongside men do not deliver the advertised conclusion. In addition, Plato asserts that women are "weaker in all pursuits" than men. Given this assumption, having women guard and rule seems inimical to the health, security, and goodness of the kallipolis. I argue that we best understand the inclusion of women by seeing how women's inclusion contributes (...)
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  • How Should I Be? A Defense of Platonic Rational Egoism.Jyl Gentzler - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):39-67.
    There has been a long tradition of interpreting Plato as a rational egoist. Over the past few decades, however, some scholars have challenged this reading. While Rational Egoism appeals to many ordinary folk, in sophisticated philosophical circles it has fallen out of favor as a general and complete account of the nature of reasons for action. I argue that while the theory of practical rationality that is often equated with rational egoism—a view that I call ‘Simple-Minded Rational Egoism'—is neither plausible (...)
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  • Towards a Critique of Cartographical Reason.Gunnar Olsson - 1998 - Ethics, Place and Environment 1 (2):145-155.
    This paper asks how we find our way in the hitherto unknown. In search of an answer, the author returns to the three Critiques of Immanuel Kant, noting especially their grounding in the geometric mode of presentation and the thingification processes connected therewith. It is argued that Kant's choice of metaphors in effect makes him more of a geographer than of a philosopher. To understand the taken-for-granted of thought-and-action, the time has therefore come for the writing of a fourth volume (...)
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  • Plato and the Virtues of Military Units.Jim Robinson - 2014 - Journal of Military Ethics 13 (2):190-202.
    In this article, I use Plato's functional account of justice and temperance in the Republic to contend that military units have at least two virtues that are not reducible to the virtues of the individuals in the units. Specifically, I use Plato's discussion of justice and temperance in the city-state to focus on the nature of these virtues in military units. I support my thesis by pointing out the value of attributing them to military units and by indicating some of (...)
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  • Towards a Critique of Cartographical Reason.Gunnar Olsson - 1998 - Philosophy and Geography 1 (2):145 – 155.
    This paper asks how we find our way in the hitherto unknown. In search of an answer, the author returns to the three Critiques of Immanuel Kant, noting especially their grounding in the geometric mode of (re)presentation and the thingification processes connected therewith. It is argued that Kant's choice of metaphors in effect makes him more of a geographer than of a philosopher. To understand the taken-for-granted of thought-and-action, the time has therefore come for the writing of a fourth volume (...)
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  • The University as Microcosm.Byron Kaldis - 2009 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (5):553-574.
    This paper puts forward the model of 'microcosm-macrocosm' isomorphism encapsulated in certain philosophical views on the form of university education. The human being as a 'microcosm' should reflect internally the external 'macrocosm'. Higher Education is a socially instituted attempt to guide human beings into forming themselves as microcosms of the whole world in its diversity. By getting to know the surrounding world, they re-enact it intellectually. Such a re-enacting is a guiding theme in certain philosophies of education studied here. It (...)
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  • Spartan Literacy Revisited.Ellen G. Millender - 2001 - Classical Antiquity 20 (1):121-164.
    According to several fourth-century Athenian sources, the Spartans were a boorish and uneducated people, who were either hostile toward the written word or simply illiterate. Building upon such Athenian claims of Spartan illiteracy, modern scholars have repeatedly portrayed Sparta as a backward state whose supposedly secretive and reactionary oligarchic political system led to an extremely low level of literacy on the part of the common Spartiate. This article reassesses both ancient and modern constructions of Spartan illiteracy and examines the ideological (...)
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  • Pleasure and Illusion in Plato.Jessica Moss - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (3):503 - 535.
    Plato links pleasure with illusion, and this link explains his rejection of the view that all desires are rational desires for the good. The Protagoras and Gorgias show connections between pleasure and illusion; the Republic develops these into a psychological theory. One part of the soul is not only prone to illusions, but also incapable of the kind of reasoning that can dispel them. Pleasure appears good; therefore this part of the soul (the appetitive part) desires pleasures qua good but (...)
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  • Education and Essential Contestability Revisited.Michael Naish - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (2):141–153.
  • Socrates and Plato on the Possibility of Akrasia.Thomas Gardner - 2002 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (2):191-210.