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Intelligent Virtue

Oxford University Press (2011)

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  1. Trait Self-Control, Inhibition, and Executive Functions: Rethinking some Traditional Assumptions.Matthew C. Haug - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (2):303-314.
    This paper draws on work in the sciences of the mind to cast doubt on some assumptions that have often been made in the study of self-control. Contra a long, Aristotelian tradition, recent evidence suggests that highly self-controlled individuals do not have a trait very similar to continence: they experience relatively few desires that conflict with their evaluative judgments and are not especially good at directly and effortfully inhibiting such desires. Similarly, several recent studies have failed to support the view (...)
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  • The Unity of the Virtues Reconsidered. Competing Accounts in Philosophy and Positive Psychology.Maria Vaccarezza - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (3):637-651.
    In this paper, I show that the conception of a virtue in positive psychology is a mishmash of two competing accounts of what virtues are: a Common Sense View and an Aristotelian View. Distinguishing the strengths and weaknesses of these two frameworks leads also to a reconsideration of an old debate, namely, that concerning the Unity of the Virtues thesis. Such thesis is rejected by positive psychologist, as well as by some philosophers among the virtue-ethical field, on the basis, I (...)
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  • Moral Self-Determination: The Nature, Existence, and Formation of Moral Motivation.Randall Curren & Richard M. Ryan - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (3):295-315.
    This paper addresses three basic questions about moral motivation. Concerning the nature of moral motivation, it argues that it involves responsiveness to both reasons of morality and the value of persons and everything else of value. Moral motivation is thus identified as reason-responsive appropriate valuing. Regarding whether it is possible for people to be morally motivated, the paper relies on self-determination theory (SDT) to show how moral motivation is a likely product of socialization that is need-supportive in modeling appropriate valuing (...)
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  • Can We Measure Practical Wisdom?Jason Swartwood - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (1):71-97.
    ABSTRACTWisdom, long a topic of interest to moral philosophers, is increasingly the focus of social science research. Philosophers have historically been concerned to develop a rationally defensible account of the nature of wisdom and its role in the moral life, often inspired in various ways by virtue theoretical accounts of practical wisdom. Wisdom scientists seek to, among other things, define wisdom and its components so that we can measure them. Are the measures used by wisdom scientists actually measuring what philosophers (...)
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  • Cultivating Virtue in Postgraduates: An Empirical Study of the Oxford Global Leadership Initiative.Jonathan Brant, Michael Lamb, Emily Burdett & Edward Brooks - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (4):415-435.
    ABSTRACT Although virtue ethics has emerged as an influential ethical theory within the academy, universities have not generally taken up the practical task of virtue cultivation. Some academics even resist the effort altogether. In response, this article presents an early-stage evaluation of one effort to cultivate virtue in postgraduate students, a theoretically derived and empirically measured character development programme at the University of Oxford. The study uses a pre- and post-test experimental design to assess whether participation results in measurable growth (...)
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  • Exemplarist Moral Theory – Some Pros and Cons.Natasza Szutta - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (3):280-290.
    ABSTRACTThe article makes a number of critical remarks concerning Linda Zagzebski’s exemplarism. On the positive side, I argue that one of its strengths is the focus on motivation as an important factor in moral education whilst, on the negative, I draw attention to two issues. The first is that Zagzebski’s notion of moral exemplars is insufficient since it is too narrow, merely focusing as it does on high standard moral heroes while neglecting more usual moral agents who at least in (...)
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  • The Significance in Using Role Models to Influence Primary School Children’s Moral Development: Pilot Study.Yousra Osman - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (3):316-331.
    ABSTRACTThis article reports on a pilot study aiming to examine a role-modelling character education project through an Aristotelian framework, by adopting a virtue-led approach. Aristotle famously believed virtues should be taught to children at a young age through habituation, which gradually develops into phronesis-guided virtuosity, and he considered what nowadays is referred to as ‘role modelling’ as having a large influence on children through the emotion of emulation. Therefore, the pilot study aims to answer the question to what extent a (...)
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  • When Life Gets in the Way: Generativity and the Development of Non-Idealized Virtues in Women’s Life Stories.Jack J. Bauer & Peggy DesAutels - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (1):126-145.
    ABSTRACTThe road to a virtuous life is typically met with roadblocks and detours. Life stories reveal the courses people chart around those roadblocks in their attempts to cultivate virtuous lives in non-idealized circumstances. Life stories feature difficult choices that challenge individuals’ attempts to live out the virtues they most value. In this article we focus on the life stories of two women for whom the virtues of generativity and caring for others serve as deeply personal motives that came at a (...)
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  • Scrooge and Significant Moral Change.Angela Knobel - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (2):147-164.
    ABSTRACTVirtue theorists commonly assert that significant moral change, such as the cultivation of a virtue or the elimination of a vice, can only occur over a prolonged period of time. Many scholars who make this claim also accept the comparison between virtues and skills. In this article I argue that if one accepts the comparison between virtues and skills, there should be instances in which significant moral change can occur relatively quickly.
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  • Does Aristotle Believe That Habituation is Only for Children?Wouter Sanderse - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (1):98-110.
    ABSTRACTFull virtue and practical wisdom comprise the end of neo-Aristotelian moral development, but wisdom cannot be cultivated straight away through arguments and teaching. Wisdom is integrated with, and builds upon, habituation: the acquisition of virtuous character traits through the repeated practice of corresponding virtuous actions. Habit formation equips people with a taste for, and commitment to, the good life; furthermore it provides one with discriminatory and reflective capacities to know how to act in particular circumstances. Unfortunately, habituation is often understood (...)
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  • A Developmental Theory for Aristotelian Practical Intelligence.Matt Ferkany - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (1):111-128.
    In Aristotelian virtue theories, phronesis is foundational to being good, but to date accounts of how this particularly important virtue can emerge are sketchy. This article plumbs recent thinking in Aristotelian virtue ethics and developmental theorizing to explore how far its emergence can be understood developmentally, i.e., in terms of the growth in ordinary conditions of underlying psychological capacities, dispositions, and the like. The purpose is not to explicate Aristotle, nor to assimilate Aristotelian ideas to cognitive developmental moral theorizing, but (...)
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  • A Systems Perspective on the Role Mentors Play in the Cultivation of Virtue.Jeanne Nakamura & Michael Condren - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):316-332.
    Mentoring during training and the early career is one possible means of cultivating virtue in the practice of science. To examine its perceived impact, we approached virtue and its cultivation using a conceptual framework compatible with virtue ethics: the systems model of good work. We discuss two studies which show that many leading scientists report a wide range of ethical responsibilities and that scientists mentored by moral exemplars absorb ethical commitments from their mentors. A third study found that early-career scientists’ (...)
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  • A Positive Role for Failure in Virtue Education.Nafsika Athanassoulis - 2017 - Journal of Moral Education 46 (4):347-362.
    Discussions of moral education tend to focus either on how the virtuous succeed, or on how the vicious fail on the road to virtue. Stories of success focus, for example, on the role of the virtuous agent, on how to make productive use of literature and on the influential position occupied by peers and family. Accounts of failure, on the other hand, try to, for example, understand the phenomenon of weakness of will, analyse the concept of 'vice' and investigate the (...)
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  • Aristotelian Character Education: A Précis of the 2015 Book.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (4):481-489.
    This article provides a précis of Kristján Kristjánsson’s 2015 book, Aristotelian Character Education, under discussion in the present issue.
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  • Aristotelian Versus Virtue Ethical Character Education.Randall Curren - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (4):516-526.
    This review essay examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson’s book, Aristotelian Character Education, beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what defines virtue ethics, and suggests that virtue ethical moral theory has steered character educators away from important aspects of Aristotle’s views on character education. It goes on to suggest a broadening of attention to psychology beyond personality and the psychological status (...)
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  • On the Prospects for Aristotelian Character Education.Daniel Lapsley - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (4):502-515.
    The prospects for Aristotelian character education is considered. Seven important claims that should win wide acceptance are reviewed; and also two challenges that are impediments. I argue many of the assumptions of ACE turn out not to be distinctive. The conflation of realism and naturalism is ill-considered, and the account of phronesis will need additional clarification to be helpful to educators, as will the specific recommendations on offer. I conclude with a suggestion that Dewey offers a powerful, empirically grounded, educationally (...)
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  • Virtue Acquisition: The Paradox of Striving.Nancy Snow - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (2):179-191.
    Aristotelian-inspired accounts of virtue acquisition stress guided practice and habituated action to develop virtue. This emphasis on action can lead to the ‘paradox of striving’. The paradox occurs when we try too hard to act well and thereby spoil our efforts. I identify four forms of striving—forcing, impulsivity, overthinking, and holding oneself to too high a standard—and explain how they can cause our actions to miss the virtuous mark. Though neo-Aristotelians can offer remedies for these ills, I turn in the (...)
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  • Metaphysics and Methods in Moral Enquiry and Education: Some Old Philosophical Wine for New Theoretical Bottles.David Carr - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):500-515.
    If we reject sentimentalist accounts of the nature of moral motivation and education, then we may regard some form of reason as intrinsic to any genuine moral response. The large question for moral education is therefore that of the nature of such reason—perhaps more especially of its status as knowledge. In this regard, there is evidence of some recent drift in both ethics and theory of moral educational theory towards more instrumental pro-social skill acquisition conceptions of moral reason as more (...)
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  • Motivational Aspects of Moral Learning and Progress.Randall Curren - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):484-499.
    This paper addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably limit moral motivation, perceptiveness, and progress? It addresses the relationships between habituation and moral reasoning in Aristotelian moral education, and assesses Julia Annas’s attempt to defend the possibility of moral progress within a virtue ethical framework. Focusing on the motivational core of the puzzle, the (...)
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  • The Future of Research in Moral Development and Education.Darcia Narvaez - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (1):1-11.
    (2013). The future of research in moral development and education. Journal of Moral Education: Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2012.757102.
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  • The Meaning of Role Modelling in Moral and Character Education.Wouter Sanderse - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (1):28-42.
    Character education considers teachers to be role models, but it is unclear what this means in practice. Do teachers model admirable character traits? And do they do so effectively? In this article the relevant pedagogical and psychological literature is reviewed in order to shed light on these questions. First, the use of role modelling as a teaching method in secondary education is assessed. Second, adolescents? role models and their moral qualities are identified. Third, the psychology of moral learners is critically (...)
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  • Śrīharṣa on Knowledge and Justification.Sthaneshwar Timalsina - 2017 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 45 (2):313-329.
    In this paper I explore the extent to which the dialectical approach of Śrīharṣa can be identified as skeptical, and whether or how his approach resembles that of the first century Mādhyamika philosopher Nāgārjuna. In so doing, I will be primarily reading the first argument found in Śrīharṣa’s masterpiece, the Khaṇḍanakhaṇḍa-khādya. This argument grounds the position that the system of justification that validates our cognition to be true is not outside of inquiry. Closely adopting Śrīharṣa’s polemical style, I am neither (...)
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  • نقش شانس در سعادت آدمی با نظر به دیدگاه جولیا آناس.نغمه پروان & محسن جوادی - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 20 (76):1-20.
    وارد کردن شانس به حوزۀ اخلاق به این معناست کهعواملی خارج از کنترل شخص‌ در سعادت‌مندی او دخیل‌ و دارای تأثیر‌اند. از آن‌جا که ارسطو نیل به سعادت را به داشتن فضایل و بهره‌مندی از خواسته‌های بیرونی منوط کرده و «خوش‌بخت بودنِ طبیعی انسان‌ها» را نیز مسئله‌ای اخلاقی انگاشته است، به‌ نظر می‌رسد به‌نوعی شانسِ محیطی و نهادینه را به سعادت آدمی راه داده است، اما با این همه، شانس را در ارزیابی مسئولیت و شأن اخلاقی فرد مؤثر ندانسته است. (...)
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  • The Virtuous Troll: Argumentative Virtues in the Age of (Technologically Enhanced) Argumentative Pluralism.Daniel H. Cohen - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (2):179-189.
    Technology has made argumentation rampant. We can argue whenever we want. With social media venues for every interest, we can also argue about whatever we want. To some extent, we can select our opponents and audiences to argue with whomever we want. And we can argue however we want, whether in carefully reasoned, article-length expositions, real-time exchanges, or 140-character polemics. The concepts of arguing, arguing well, and even being an arguer have evolved with this new multiplicity and diversity; theory needs (...)
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  • Pollard on Habits of Action.Christos Douskos - 2017 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 25 (4):504-524.
    Bill Pollard has recently developed an account of habits of action, endeavoring to rehabilitate the traditional notion of habit in a way that can be used to address current philosophical concerns. I argue that Pollard’s account has important shortcomings. The account is intended to apply indiscriminately to both habitual and skilled acts, but this overlooks crucial distinctions. Moreover, Pollard’s account fails to do justice to the various ways in which the idea of habit figures in the explanation and assessment of (...)
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  • Spielraum, Phenomenology, and the Art of Virtue: Hints of an ‘Embodied’ Ethics in Kant.Donald A. Landes - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (2):234-251.
    Although the suggestion that Kant offers a significant contribution to Virtue Ethics might be a surprising one, in The Metaphysics of Morals Kant makes virtue central to his ethics. In this paper, I introduce a Merleau-Pontian phenomenological perspective into the ongoing study of the convergence between Kant and Virtue Ethics, and argue that such a perspective promises to illuminate the continuity of Kant’s thought through an emphasis on the implicit structure of moral experience, revealing the insights his perspective contains for (...)
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  • Neonatology in Austria: Ethics to Improve Practice.Michal Stanak - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):361-369.
    In the world of Austrian neonatal intensive care units, the role of ethics is recognized only partially. The normatively tense cases that are at the backdrop of this essay concern the situations around the limit of viability, which is the point in the development of an extremely preterm infant at which there are chances of extra-uterine survival. This essay first outlines the key explicit ethical challenges that are mainly concerned with notions of uncertainty and best interest. Then, it attempts to (...)
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  • Expert Moral Intuition and Its Development: A Guide to the Debate.Michael Lacewing - 2015 - Topoi 34 (2):1-17.
    In this article, I provide a guide to some current thinking in empirical moral psychology on the nature of moral intuitions, focusing on the theories of Haidt and Narvaez. Their debate connects to philosophical discussions of virtue theory and the role of emotions in moral epistemology. After identifying difficulties attending the current debate around the relation between intuitions and reasoning, I focus on the question of the development of intuitions. I discuss how intuitions could be shaped into moral expertise, outlining (...)
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  • Virtues and Ethics Within Watsuji Tetsurō’s Rinrigaku.Kyle Michael James Shuttleworth - 2020 - Asian Philosophy 30 (1):57-70.
    In the second volume of Rinrigaku, Watsuji Tetsurō focuses on developing his notion of betweenness through the ethical organisations of family, local commun...
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  • Vicious Minds: Virtue Epistemology, Cognition, and Skepticism.Lauren Olin & John M. Doris - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (3):665-692.
    While there is now considerable anxiety about whether the psychological theory presupposed by virtue ethics is empirically sustainable, analogous issues have received little attention in the virtue epistemology literature. This paper argues that virtue epistemology encounters challenges reminiscent of those recently encountered by virtue ethics: just as seemingly trivial variation in context provokes unsettling variation in patterns of moral behavior, trivial variation in context elicits unsettling variation in patterns of cognitive functioning. Insofar as reliability is a condition on epistemic virtue, (...)
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  • Who’s Afraid of a Final End? The Role of Practical Rationality in Contemporary Accounts of Virtue.Jennifer Baker - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):85-98.
    In this paper I argue that excising a final end from accounts of virtue does them more harm than good. I attempt to establish that the justification of contemporary virtue ethics suffers if moved this one step too far from the resources in traditional accounts. This is because virtue, as we tend to describe it, rests on an account of practical rationality wherein the role of the final end is integral. I highlight the puzzles that are generated by the ellipsis (...)
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  • Judging Athletes’ Moral Actions: Some Critical Reflections.Carwyn Jones - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (1):1-13.
    ABSTRACTApproving or disapproving of athletes’ moral conduct and character is commonplace. In this essay I explore to what extent such judgements are valid and reliable moral judgements. I identify some methodological problems associated with making moral judgements particularly, but not exclusively, from a virtue perspective. I argue that we have no reliable access to states of mind needed to make informed evaluations. Moreover, even if such access was available, the validity of our judgements would be compromised or limited by our (...)
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  • Searching for Character and the Role of Schools.Joan F. Goodman - 2018 - Ethics and Education 14 (1):15-35.
    ABSTRACTDespite a resurgence of interest in character education, just what ‘character’ means is contested. Two strands, while overlapping, diverge on several questions: Is character centrally about moral qualities or more inclusive? Does it consist of one or multiple traits? Does it regard virtue as independently or instrumentally good? Is character a set of dispositions or behaviors? Is it a matter of reflection and reason or habits and skills? Those aligned with the first part of each dichotomy I label purists, the (...)
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  • An Anscombean Perspective on Habitual Action.Annemarie Kalis & Dawa Ometto - 2019 - Topoi 1:1-12.
    Much of the time, human beings seem to rely on habits. Habits are learned behaviours directly elicited by context cues, and insensitive to short-term changes in goals: therefore they are sometimes irrational. But even where habitual responses are rational, it can seem as if they are nevertheless not done for reasons. For, on a common understanding of habitual behaviour, agents’ intentions do not play any role in the coming about of such responses. This paper discusses under what conditions we can (...)
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  • Diagnosis by Documentary: Professional Responsibilities in Informal Encounters.Alistair Wardrope & Markus Reuber - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):40-50.
    Most work addressing clinical workers' professional responsibilities concerns the norms of conduct within established professional–patient relationships, but such responsibilities may extend beyond the clinical context. We explore health workers' professional responsibilities in such “informal” encounters through the example of a doctor witnessing the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of a serious long-term condition in a television documentary, arguing that neither internalist approaches to professional responsibility nor externalist ones provide sufficiently clear guidance in such situations. We propose that a mix of both approaches, (...)
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  • DE NATURA RERUM - Scripta in Honorem Professoris Olli Koistinen Sexagesimum Annum Complentis.Hemmo Laiho & Arto Repo (eds.) - 2016 - Turku: University of Turku.
  • Practical Skills and Practical Wisdom in Virtue.Matt Stichter - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (3):435-448.
    ABSTRACTThis paper challenges a frequent objection to conceptualizing virtues as skills, which is that skills are merely capacities to act well, while virtues additionally require being properly motivated to act well. I discuss several cases that purport to show the supposed motivational difference by drawing our attention to the differing intuitions we have about virtues and skills. However, this putative difference between virtue and skill disappears when we switch our focus in the skill examples from the performance to the performer. (...)
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  • Practical Wisdom, Well-Being, and Success.Cheng-Hung Tsai - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research:1-17.
    What is practical wisdom? What does a practically wise person know? It is widely held that a person is practically wise if and only if the person knows how to live well, and that a person knows how to live well only if the person knows what is good or important for well‐being. The question is: What is it that contributes to or constitutes well‐being known by a wise person? A theory of wisdom without a substantive answer to this question (...)
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  • Collective Action and Social Ontology in Thomas Aquinas.Joshua Harris - 2021 - Journal of Social Ontology 7 (1):119-141.
    In this paper I argue that there are resources in the work of Thomas Aquinas that amount to a unique approach to what David P. Schweikard and Hans Bernhard Schmid’s call the “Central Problem” facing theorists of collective intentionality and action. That is to say, Aquinas can be said to affirm both the “Individual Ownership Claim” and the “Irreducibility Claim,” coherently and compellingly. Regarding the Individual Ownership Claim, I argue that Aquinas’s concept of “general virtue” buttresses an account of the (...)
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  • Moral Lessons From Psychology: Contemporary Themes in Psychological Research and Their Relevance for Ethical Theory.Henrik Ahlenius - 2020 - Stockholm: Stockholm University.
    The thesis investigates the implications for moral philosophy of research in psychology. In addition to an introduction and concluding remarks, the thesis consists of four chapters, each exploring various more specific challenges or inputs to moral philosophy from cognitive, social, personality, developmental, and evolutionary psychology. Chapter 1 explores and clarifies the issue of whether or not morality is innate. The chapter’s general conclusion is that evolution has equipped us with a basic suite of emotions that shape our moral judgments in (...)
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  • The Proper Pursuit of Happiness.Daniel M. Haybron - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (3):387-411.
    What are the norms governing the pursuit of happiness? Presumably not just anything goes. But are the rules any more interesting than platitudes like “do whatworks, as long as you don’t hurt anyone”? Such questions have become especially salient in light of the development of positive psychology. Yet so far these matters have received relatively little attention, most of it from skeptics who doubt that the pursuit of happiness is an important, or even legitimate, enterprise. This paper examines the normative (...)
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  • The Moral Dimensions of Boredom: A Call for Research.Andreas Elpidorou - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21 (1):30-48.
    Despite the impressive progress that has been made on both the empirical and conceptual fronts of boredom research, there is one facet of boredom that has received remarkably little attention. This is boredom's relationship to morality. The aim of this article is to explore the moral dimensions of boredom and to argue that boredom is a morally relevant personality trait. The presence of trait boredom hinders our capacity to flourish and in doing so hurts our prospects for a moral life. (...)
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  • The Unity of Virtue and Goodness.Amichai Amit - 2021 - Journal of Value Inquiry 55 (2):339-354.
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  • Pride, Achievement, and Purpose.Antti Kauppinen - 2017 - In J. Adam Carter & Emma C. Gordon (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Pride. London: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Pride in our own actions tells a story: we faced a challenge, overcame it, and achieved something praiseworthy. In this paper, I draw on recent psychological literature to distinguish to between two varieties of pride, 'authentic' pride that focuses on particular efforts (like guilt) and 'hubristic' pride that focuses on the whole self (like shame). Achievement pride is fitting when either efforts or traits explain our success in meeting contextually relevant, authoritative, and challenging standards without excessive opportunity cost. When it (...)
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  • Radical Virtue and Climate Action.Benjamin Hole - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics.
    Radical virtue serves two distinct purposes: consolation in unfavorable circumstances, and prescription to achieve better ones. This paper maps out the theoretical nuances important for practical guidance. For a Stoic, radical virtue is a way to live well through environmental tragedy. For a consequentialist, it is an instrument to motivate us to combat climate change. For an Aristotelian, it is both. I argue that an Aristotelian approach fares the best, balancing the aim of external success with the aim of living (...)
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  • Leadership After Virtue: MacIntyre’s Critique of Management Reconsidered.Matthew Sinnicks - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (4):735-746.
    MacIntyre argues that management embodies emotivism, and thus is inherently amoral and manipulative. His claim that management is necessarily Weberian is, at best, outdated, and the notion that management aims to be neutral and value free is incorrect. However, new forms of management, and in particular the increased emphasis on leadership which emerged after MacIntyre’s critique was published, tend to support his central charge. Indeed, charismatic and transformational forms of leadership seem to embody emotivism to a greater degree than do (...)
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  • Implicit Biases in Visually Guided Action.Berit Brogaard - 2020 - Synthese (Suppl 17):1-25.
    For almost half a century dual-stream advocates have vigorously defended the view that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in the primary visual cortex: a ventral, perception-related ‘conscious’ stream and a dorsal, action-related ‘unconscious’ stream. They furthermore maintain that the perceptual and memory systems in the ventral stream are relatively shielded from the action system in the dorsal stream. In recent years, this view has come under scrutiny. Evidence points to two overlapping action pathways: a (...)
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  • Unity of the intellectual virtues.Alan T. Wilson - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    The idea that moral virtues form some sort of “unity” has received considerable attention from virtue theorists. In this paper, I argue that the possibility of unity among intellectual virtues has been wrongly overlooked. My approach has two main components. First, I work to distinguish the variety of different views that are available under the description of a unity thesis. I suggest that these views can be categorised depending on whether they are versions of standard unity or of strong unity. (...)
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  • Making Sense of Akrasia.Matthew Burch - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (5):939-971.
    There are two extreme poles in the literature on akrasia. Internalists hold that it's impossible to act intentionally against your better judgment, because there's a necessary internal relation between judgment and intentional action. To the contrary, externalists maintain that we can act intentionally against our better judgment, because the will operates independently of judgment. Critics of internalism argue that it fails a realism test—most people seem to think that we can and do act intentionally against our better judgment. And critics (...)
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  • Why Machines Cannot Be Moral.Robert Sparrow - 2021 - AI and Society:1-9.
    The fact that real-world decisions made by artificial intelligences are often ethically loaded has led a number of authorities to advocate the development of “moral machines”. I argue that the project of building “ethics” “into” machines presupposes a flawed understanding of the nature of ethics. Drawing on the work of the Australian philosopher, Raimond Gaita, I argue that ethical dilemmas are problems for particular people and not problems for everyone who faces a similar situation. Moreover, the force of an ethical (...)
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