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Being Human: The Problem of Agency

Cambridge University Press (2000)

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  1. Health, Illness and Neoliberalism: An Example of Critical Realism as a Research Resource.Priscilla Alderson - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (5):542-556.
    Neoliberalism, health and illness are all vast topics that range from global to local, personal to political. Critical realism offers valuable concepts, which help to extend and deepen analysis of...
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  • Time, Self, and the Curiously Abstract Concept of Agency.Steven Hitlin & Glen H. Elder - 2007 - Sociological Theory 25 (2):170-191.
    The term " agency " is quite slippery and is used differently depending on the epistemological roots and goals of scholars who employ it. Distressingly, the sociological literature on the concept rarely addresses relevant social psychological research. We take a social behaviorist approach to agency by suggesting that individual temporal orientations are underutilized in conceptualizing this core sociological concept. Different temporal foci--the actor's engaged response to situational circumstances--implicate different forms of agency. This article offers a theoretical model involving four analytical (...)
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  • Phenomenological Additions to the Bourdieusian Toolbox: Two Problems for Bourdieu, Two Solutions From Schutz.Will Atkinson - 2010 - Sociological Theory 28 (1):1-19.
    In constructing his renowned theory of practice, Pierre Bourdieu claimed to have integrated the key insights from phenomenology and successfully melded them with objectivist analysis. The contention here, however, is that while his vision of the social world may indeed be generally laudable, he did not take enough from phenomenology. More specifically, there are two concepts in Alfred Schutz 's body of work, which, if properly defined, disentangled from phenomenology, and appropriated, allow two frequently forwarded criticisms of Bourdieu's perspective to (...)
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  • Identity Constructs: A Shift From Critical Anthropology to Applied Angelology.Piotr Mazurkiewicz - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (4):396-412.
    Paradoxically, in contemporary human and social sciences, dominated by materialist philosophy, the bodily dimension of the human person is often underestimated. Hence, for example, the idea for pro...
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  • The Fundamental Issue in Education and the Problem of Responsibility.Pavol Dancák - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (4):381-395.
    The human being is a dynamic and open creature, and therefore he always changes. However, not only an individual but also the whole society is in such a state. The article briefly explains the urge...
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  • Person, Subjectivity and Agency – From the Perspective of Critical Realism.Krzysztof Wielecki - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (4):368-380.
    The perspective of critical realism in the reflection on a ‘human being' excludes any constructivist or subjectivist concepts of the ‘black hole' of language. This seems essential, in philosophy an...
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  • The Mess We Are In: How the Morphogenetic Approach Helps to Explain It: IACR 2020 Warsaw.Margaret S. Archer - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (4):330-348.
    David Lockwood's distinction between System Integration and Social Integration is brought together with the Morphogenetic Approach to account for the current societal fragmentation experience...
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  • Historical Materialism as Mediation Between the Physical and the Meaningful.Jeff Noonan - 2020 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 47 (9):1043-1059.
    The article argues that historical materialism is not only a theory of historical change but more generally a mediation between the natural foundations of human life and its meaningful symbolic expressions. The article begins with an interpretation of the general philosophical significance of the basic premises of historical materialism as they are sketched in the German Ideology. I argue that these premises point us in two different directions: down, towards a scientific understanding of the natural world, and up, towards interpretations (...)
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  • Reclaiming Metaphysical Truth for Educational Research.Robert Archer - 2002 - British Journal of Educational Studies 50 (3):339 - 362.
    It is not uncommon in educational research and social science in general either to eschew the word truth or to put it in scare quotes in order to signify scepticism about it. After the initial wave of relativism in the philosophy of natural science, a second wave has developed in social science with the rise of postmodernism and poststructuralism. The tendency here is to relativise truth or to bracket out questions of truth. In contradistinction, this paper revindicates the metaphysical nature (...)
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  • The Socio-Materiality of Dirty Work: A Critical Realist Perspective.Anna Galazka & Joseph O'Mahoney - unknown
    New materialist applications in ‘dirty work’ studies have rightly emphasised the importance of materiality alongside symbolism. However, these approaches have neglected important themes irreducible to the material world, such as temporality, reflexivity and social structure. This article develops an alternative critical realist perspective on socio-materiality in dirty work which emphasises these themes. It draws on 2016-2017 ethnographic data on the work of clinical photographers of wounds in a UK specialist outpatient wound healing clinic. First, it shows how photographers’ reflexivity mediates (...)
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  • Care-Ful Work: An Ethics of Care Approach to Contingent Labour in the Creative Industries.Ana Alacovska & Joëlle Bissonnette - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 169 (1):135-151.
    Studies of creative industries typically contend that creative work is profoundly precarious, taking place on a freelance basis in highly competitive, individualized and contingent labour markets. Such studies depict creative workers as correspondingly self-enterprising, self-reliant, self-interested and calculative agents who valorise care-free independence. In contrast, we adopt the ‘ethics of care’ approach to explore, recognize and appreciate the communitarian, relational and moral considerations as well as interpersonal connectedness and interdependencies that underpin creative work. Drawing on in-depth interviews with creative workers (...)
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  • The ICC and the Prevention of Atrocities: Criminological Perspectives.Tom Buitelaar - 2016 - Human Rights Review 17 (3):285-302.
    One of the founding principles of the International Criminal Court is the prevention of atrocities by punishing those most responsible for them. This paper builds on the literature that has both hailed and critiqued the prospects of the ICC’s ability to deter future atrocities, adding insights from criminology and psychology to enhance the understanding of the ICC’s deterrent capabilities. This will allow for a more careful analysis of how the deterrence process exactly works. The paper then uses these insights to (...)
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  • Self-Stigma, Bad Faith and the Experiential Self.Karl Eriksson - 2019 - Human Studies 42 (3):391-405.
    The concept of self-stigmatization is guided by a representational account of selfhood that fails to accommodate for resilience against, and recovery from, stigma. Mainstream research on self-stigma has portrayed it only as a reified self, that is, as collectively shared stereotypes representing individuals’ identity. Self-stigma viewed phenomenologically, however, elucidates what facilitates a stigmatized self. A phenomenological analysis discloses the lived phenomenon of stigma as an act of self-objectification, as related to the experiential self, and therefore an achievement of subjectivity. Following (...)
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  • A Reflection on Critical Realism and Ethics.Douglas V. Porpora - 2019 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (3):274-284.
    ABSTRACTDrawing on my own work and experience, this paper brings together the various connections between critical realism and ethics. It argues that, against both determinism and physicalist...
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  • Normativity and Naturalism as If Nature Mattered.Andrew Sayer - 2019 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (3):258-273.
    The usual way of discussing normativity and naturalism is by running through a standard range of issues: the relations of fact and value, objectivity, reason and emotion, is and ought, and the so-called ‘naturalistic fallacy’. This is a naturalism that is virtually silent on nature. I outline an alternative approach that relates normativity to our nature as living beings, for whom specific things are good or bad for us. Our nature as evaluative beings is shown to be rooted in and (...)
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  • Critical Realism and Concrete Utopias.Margaret S. Archer - 2019 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (3):239-257.
    ABSTRACTThe role of Concrete Utopias in the works of Roy Bhaskar are contrasted with the ‘Real Utopias’ of Erik Olin Wright. Critical Realism treats them as ‘possibilities’ that are real because re...
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  • Confucius’ Junzi : The Conceptions of Self in Confucian.Jinhua Song & Xiaomin Jiao - 2017 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (13):1171-1179.
    Confucius reinvented the concept of Junzi (君子), an idea of personhood which invites continual assessment whether the concerns people were once devoted to are worthy of ongoing devotion, and how they make a place in the world—a place where they hope they can exercise some governance in their lives. Junzi (君子)is a agent, and has the properties and powers to monitor their lives, and to contribute to societal transformation. Cultivating a person is centrally involved in the politics of subjectivity, in (...)
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  • Are Neighbourhoods Real?William Weston - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (1):34-45.
    ABSTRACTCritical realism needs to explain how neighbourhoods – a middle-level social structure that people really use in everyday life – can emerge as real, with the causal power to promote individual and collective flourishing. Using distinctive neighbourhoods of Louisville, Kentucky, as a case study, we can see how neighbourhoods can emerge, develop distinctive projects which use the affordances of local social networks, and exercise downward causation on who comes to live there and how they live. This applies equally to such (...)
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  • Turning Inward: Tocqueville and the Structuring of Reflexivity.Lawrence H. Williams - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (5):483-498.
    In this paper, I argue that the dominant view of reflexivity in contemporary social science is overly decontextualized, despite the value that reflexivity scholars have placed on the dynamic and active nature of individual thought and action. While this problem has been highlighted before, in terms of how habitual actions shape the way that individuals engage in reflexive thought, little attention has been given to the ways in which non-internalized elements of the environment condition this process. I illustrate my argument (...)
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  • Critical Realism, Psychology and the Legacies of Psychoanalysis.David Pilgrim - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (5):468-482.
    The discipline of psychology has been poorly represented in critical realist texts to date. This is despite Bhaskar’s use of psychoanalytical concepts to underpin his concept of the dialectic. By comparison, other aspects of social science, such as sociology and economics, have a well-established body of critical realist texts. The original approach to psychoanalysis was analogous to the critical realist ontological-axiological chain. It moved from an ontological problem to an axiological solution. Freud’s eagerness to reframe psychoanalysis within a scientistic, objective (...)
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  • Critical Realism and Economic Anthropology.John Harvey, Andrew Smith & David Golightly - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (5):431-450.
    This paper discusses basic critical realism within the context of economic anthropology and develops an approach to studying material relations between people. A diachronic form of analysis, following the work of Bhaskar and Archer, is described as a practical means of analysing property rights. This new approach emphasises epistemic relativism and ontological realism in order to compare disparate forms of human interaction across cultures. The aim of doing this is to develop a philosophical framework that allows for the comparison of (...)
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  • Reconsidering Real-Actual-Empirical Stratification: Can Bourdieu’s Habitus Be Introduced Into a Realist Social Ontology?Vefa Saygin Öğütle - 2013 - Journal of Critical Realism 12 (4):479-506.
    In the last couple of years there have been some attempts to introduce Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts into the critical realist conception of social science. But these attempts either limit themselves to the constitution of a philosophical connection between Bourdieu and critical realism or confine Bourdieu’s theoretical contributions to analyses of human agency, whereas Bourdieu’s habitus can provide a deepening of the critical realist conception of what the ‘social’ is. We can establish a socio-ontological connection between the concept of habitus and (...)
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  • Embodied Collective Reflexivity: Peircean Performatives.Tobin Nellhaus - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (1):43-69.
    Most work on reflexivity has focused on individuals exercising their reflexivity through discourse. However, agents have three major aspects (intentionality, causal efficacy and embodiment) and they are fundamentally social. This article examines the possibility of collective reflexivity conducted not just by saying, but also by doing—that is, through their embodiment. By expanding the concept of ‘performatives’ to encompass not just speech acts but also acts that speak (i.e. embodied activities as socially meaningful) and applying the work of Charles S. Peirce (...)
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  • The Flourishing and Dehumanization of Students in Higher Education.Peter E. Kahn - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (4):368-382.
    An economic agenda, characterized by the mastery of subject knowledge or expertise, increasingly dominates higher education. In this article, I argue that this agenda fails to satisfy the full range of students’ aspirations, responsibilities and needs. Neither does it meet the needs of society. Rather, the overall purpose of higher education should be the morphogenesis of the agency of students, considered on an individual and on a collective basis. The article builds on recent critical realist theorizing to trace the generative (...)
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  • Critical Realism's Potential Contribution to Critical Pedagogy and Youth and Community Work: Human Nature, Agency and Praxis Revisited.Mike Seal - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (3):263-276.
    In the light of late modern, postmodern and post-critical debates the difficulty of establishing a coherent theoretical framework for both critical pedagogy and youth and community work has been noted by several authors. In this article I will make the claim that critical realism, as a stance within the ontological, epistemological and aetiological paradigms, offers a way to ameliorate a number of tensions in critical pedagogy and youth and community work. Margaret Archer's theories around morphogenesis are particularly useful in re-examining (...)
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  • The Feminine Subject.Alison Assiter - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (5):547-549.
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  • Agency and Ontology Within Intersectional Analysis: A Critical Realist Contribution.Sue Clegg - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (5):494-510.
    The article analyses the historical roots of intersectional theory and argues that the ambiguities and elisions that mark intersectional analysis are a weakness not a strength. It makes an argument for why Archer's morphogenetic approach provides a more secure basis for analysing the overlapping oppressions that intersectional theory highlights. It avoids conflating experience with structural and cultural conditions and their elaboration, and provides an analytical framework for the development of explanatory accounts of how intersections between gender, race, class and other (...)
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  • Theorizing Agency and Domination Through a Critical Realist Perspective on Gender Positionality.Dimitri Mader - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (5):440-457.
    Feminist theory continues to struggle with the recurrence of the twin-problem of agency and domination: how can gender be conceptualized as a structure of domination that constitutes and restricts agency, without obscuring the possibilities for change and transformation through agency? To address this problem, I draw on the concept of agency developed by Margaret Archer. By elaborating on her notion of the structural shaping of the situation and combining it with elements of Thomas Wartenberg's work, in this article I outline (...)
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  • Management Accounting Research and Structuration Theory: A Critical Realist Critique.Junaid Ashraf & Shahzad Uddin - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (5):485-507.
    The article extends the critique of structuration theory from a critical realist perspective, in particular by demonstrating how its theoretical shortcomings are manifest in management accounting research. Examining of one of the most cited structuration-based accounting studies and other more recent structuration-based accounting studies, the article highlights what accounting researchers who have embraced a structuration lens may have ignored. It also demonstrates why accounting researchers could not get a better theoretical purchase out of structuration. We find that a critical realist (...)
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  • The Indispensability of Reflexivity to Practice: The Case of Home Energy Efficiency.Oliver Bonnington - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (5):461-484.
    This article offers new theoretical and empirical insights into decision-making with regard to the domestication and incorporation of home energy efficiency artefacts. These items, such as insulation and heating systems, are currently of high social, political and environmental importance. Researchers investigating energy consumption and related topics have recently turned to theories of practice — especially that proposed by Shove and colleagues — which treat humans as ‘carriers’. In contrast, this article uses realist social theory to afford a pivotal role to (...)
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  • The Contribution of Systemic Thought to Critical Realism.John Mingers - 2011 - Journal of Critical Realism 10 (3):303-330.
    Critical realism, especially as developed by Roy Bhaskar, embodies at its heart systemic and holistic concepts such as totality, emergence, open systems, stratification, autopoiesis and holistic causality. These concepts have their own long history of development in disciplines such as systems thinking and cybernetics, but there is an absence in Bhaskar’s writings, and that absence is a lack of any reference to the corresponding systems literature. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (i) to demonstrate the extent of this correspondence; (...)
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  • Requiem for Relativism in Anthropology.Derek Brereton - 2011 - Journal of Critical Realism 10 (3):358-391.
    Cultural relativism was the subject of a panel presentation at the 2005 meetings of the American Anthropological Association. In 2007, three of the four presentations were published in Anthropological Quarterly. The present article comprises what was presented in the fourth panel presentation, my own, plus a critical realist critique of the other three papers and the discussant's introduction of them. The critical realist method of immanent critique, applied here, reveals the gaps, contradictions and non-sequiturs of cultural relativism, and suggests that (...)
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  • Critical Realism in the Personal Domain: Spinoza and Explanatory Critique of the Emotions.Martin Evenden - 2012 - Journal of Critical Realism 11 (2):163-187.
    Within critical realist circles, the development of knowledge in the natural and social domains has thus far been much stronger by comparison with its respective development within the personal domain. What I want to explore here is how knowledge can be positively used to have emancipatory effects at the level of the individual. The way in which we are able to achieve this is by coming to have what Spinoza calls more adequate ideas of ourselves, other beings, and our place (...)
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  • The ‘Two Marxisms’ Revisited: Humanism, Structuralism and Realism in Marxist Social Theory.Sean Creaven - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (1):7-53.
    The ontological and analytical status of Marxian social theory has been a matter of fierce controversy since Marx’s death, both within and without Marxist circles. A particular source of contention has been over whether Marxism should be construed as an objective science of the capitalist mode of production or as an ethico-philosophical critique of bourgeois society. This is paralleled by the dispute over whether Marxism ought to be considered a humanism or a structuralism. This article addresses both sides of this (...)
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  • From the Anatomy of the Global Crisis to the Ontology of Human Flourishing.Mervyn Hartwig - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (3):227-237.
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  • Human Needs: A Realist Perspective.Alison Assiter & Jeff Noonan - 2007 - Journal of Critical Realism 6 (2):173-198.
    This article argues for a realist conception of human needs. By ‘realist’ we mean that certain fundamental needs are categorically distinct from consumer wants, holding independently of people's subjective beliefs as objective life requirements. These basic needs, we contend, are baseline measures of social justice in the sense that no society that does not prioritise their satisfaction can be legitimate. The paper concludes with a comprehensive response to seven core objections to our position.
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  • Editor's Introduction: Realist Methodology : A Review.W. K. Olsen - unknown
    Critical realists offer a set of philosophical underpinnings for social research. Critical realists also engage constructively with social theory, but they are more than just theorists. In this chapter I list and describe various innovative methodological contributions made in recent years by realists. I point out ways in which research methods (i.e. techniques) fit with particular methodological assertions. There is a historical legacy of empiricism which critical realists often use as a foil to make their own position more clear. However, (...)
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  • What Knowers Know Well: Women, Work, and the Academy.Alison Wylie - 2011 - In Heidi E. Grasswick (ed.), Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. pp. 157-179.
    Research on the status and experience of women in academia in the last 30 years has challenged conventional explanations of persistent gender inequality, bringing into sharp focus the cumulative impact of small scale, often unintentional differences in recognition and response: the patterns of 'post-civil rights era' dis­crimination made famous by the 1999 report on the status of women in the MIT School of Science. I argue that feminist standpoint theory is a useful resource for understanding how this sea change in (...)
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  • Dehumanization in Theory: Anti-Humanism, Non-Humanism, Post-Humanism, and Trans-Humanism.Douglas V. Porpora - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (4):353-367.
    This paper examines the challenges to critical realism posed by the ways in which the original postmodern sensibility has transformed into various forms of anti-humanism, trans-humanism, and post-humanism. These transformations, largely growing out of poststructuralism, are reinforced by developments in psychology and computer science but also incorporate a new turn toward ontology in alternate forms of realism such as Object-Oriented-Ontology. This paper identifies what is new and what is old in these trends and argues that, while there is something to (...)
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  • Reflexivity and Women’s Agency: A Critical Realist Morphogenetic Exploration of the Life Experience of Sri Lankan Women.Lakshman Wimalasena - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (4):383-401.
    While the vital contribution of feminist scholarship is acknowledged, it has been criticized for overly relying on the influence of society upon women’s lives. In this paper, I demonstrate the usefulness of also considering the influence of agency upon women’s lives, specifically agential reflexivity. Using the work and life histories of a group of Sri Lankan women, I use Margaret Archer’s morphogenetic approach to show how investigating reflexivity can provide greater insights into the subtleties associated with women’s agency in relation (...)
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  • MacIntyre, Managerialism, and Metatheory: Organizational Theory as an Ideology of Control.Andrew Lynn - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (2):143-162.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, I trace out Alasdair MacIntyre’s assessment of managerial capitalism as a uniquely positioned critique occupying an intersection between the sociology of knowledge, ideology critique, and social science metatheory. The first part of this paper outlines MacIntyre’s historical claim that social science principles diffused into an ‘industrial social science’ in the first half of the twentieth century. Tracing out this history allows us to identify four major categories of critique levelled against managerialism, spanning managerialism’s practices to its social (...)
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  • Change and a Changing World? Theorizing Morphogenic Society.Jamie Morgan - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (3):277-295.
    In the following review essay I provide some background in order to place Margaret Archer's edited Volume 3 text, Generative Mechanisms, in context of the series from which it derives. In doing so I provide some sense of the significance of the series. Thereafter, I provide an overview of the key substantive claims of the essays, with some comment on how they may be linked together in terms of the theme of the series.
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  • Pursuing Intersectionality, Unsettling Dominant Imaginaries.Angela Martinez Dy - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (5):543-547.
  • The ‘Relational Subject’ According to a Critical Realist Relational Sociology.Pierpaolo Donati - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (4):352-375.
    The article aims at clarifying the viewpoint of a critical realist relational sociology when dealing with the notion of ‘relational subject’. The term ‘relational subject’, as developed by Donati and Archer, The Relational Subject, indicates individual and social subjects as ‘relationally constituted’, i.e. in as much as they acquire qualities and powers through their internal and external social relations. The validity of the relational perspective can be seen on different levels in social ‘collective’ subjects: on the micro level, on the (...)
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  • The Recent Methods Debate in American Sociology and How Critical Realism Fits Into It.Douglas V. Porpora - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (4):342-351.
    This article concerns a recent methodological debate in American sociology that generated widespread attention in the United States. It was a debate that spanned at least four journals: American Journal of Sociology, Sociological Methods & Research, Qualitative Sociology and American Journal of Cultural Sociology. As the debate was not just about methods per se but about the ‘theory of reality’ underlying each method and its ‘social ontology’, critical realism has much to say about it. Although at the end everyone comes (...)
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  • Critical Realism and the Self.Joe O'Mahoney - 2011 - Journal of Critical Realism 10 (1):122-129.
    This piece outlines the opportunities and obstacles to the appli- cation of critical realism to the study of the self. Based on a recent seminar on the subject, the paper discusses a number of diverse approaches to the application of critical realism to selfhood, identity and psychology. It is argued that for the social sciences, the political dangers of essentialism in studying the self require clear explication of how critical realist approaches do not necessarily lead to reductionism or determinism.
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  • The Poiesis of 'Human Nature' : An Exploration of the Concept of an Ethical Self.Leticia Worley - unknown
    This thesis inquires into our ‘human nature’ through an interdisciplinary approach that considers some of the radical changes in intellectual thought at those key points in Western culture in which this concept has been centrally deployed. The broad historical sweep that this study covers finds the preoccupation with defining who we are and what we are capable of inextricably linked with the focus, at most of the pivotal moments examined, on a dominant impulse to conceive human beings as moral creatures.
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  • Necessary and Sufficient in Different Domains of Argument: McWherter on Bhaskar on Kant.Jamie Morgan - 2016 - Journal of Critical Realism 15 (1):92-106.
    In the following essay I set out the substantive content of Dustin McWherter's recent book The Problem of Critical Ontology, and I then consider the significance of this work as a form of constructive critique of Bhaskar in relation to Kant. This allows us to then make some general comments on the way constructive critique can be read in different ways, indicating different forms of ultimately reconcilable necessity and sufficiency in different domains of argument. In so doing, I also consider (...)
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  • Education for Loneliness as a Consequence of Moral Decision-Making: An Issue of Moral Virtues.Jarosław Horowski - 2020 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 39 (6):591-605.
    The direct reference point for these analyses is the process of making moral decisions, but a particular point of interest is the difficulty associated with making decisions when acting subjects are aware that their choice of moral good can lead to the breakdown of relationships with those close to them or to their exclusion from the group that have been most important to them so far in their lives, consequently causing them to experience loneliness. This difficulty is a challenge for (...)
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  • People Engaging with Justice: Petitions to the Scottish Parliament.Ruth Breeze - forthcoming - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique.
    When the new Scottish Parliament was established through the Scotland Act of 1998, various innovative steps were taken to guarantee greater public participation in political processes. One of these measures, the Scottish e-petitioning system, provides a vehicle for interested citizens to petition the parliament directly on matters of public interest. This article examines all the e-petitions submitted since September 2011 in the area of Justice and Law, establishing how petitioners convey their own motivation for taking this step, and how Scottish (...)
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