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  1. Why is Democracy Desirable? Neo-Aristotelian, Critical Realist, and Psychodynamic Approaches.Carl Auerbach - 2020 - Journal of Critical Realism 19 (4):362-379.
    This paper addresses the question of why democracy is desirable in terms of a relational theory of democracy. The theory draws on concepts from Aristotelian, critical realist, and psychoanalytic th...
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  • Does Aristotle Believe That Habituation is Only for Children?Wouter Sanderse - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (1):98-110.
    ABSTRACTFull virtue and practical wisdom comprise the end of neo-Aristotelian moral development, but wisdom cannot be cultivated straight away through arguments and teaching. Wisdom is integrated with, and builds upon, habituation: the acquisition of virtuous character traits through the repeated practice of corresponding virtuous actions. Habit formation equips people with a taste for, and commitment to, the good life; furthermore it provides one with discriminatory and reflective capacities to know how to act in particular circumstances. Unfortunately, habituation is often understood (...)
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  • Undoing Bad Upbringing Through Contemplation: An Aristotelian Reconstruction.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):468-483.
    The aim of this article is to reconstruct two counter-intuitive Aristotelian theses—about contemplation as the culmination of the good life and about the impossibility of undoing bad upbringing—to bring them into line with current empirical research, as well as with the essentials of an overall Aristotelian approach to moral education. I start by rehearsing those essentials. I then illustrate the two theses and their counter-intuitive ramifications by dint of three life stories of imaginary persons. Subsequently, I offer a reconstruction of (...)
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  • Politics Versus Economics Philosophical Reflections on the Nature of Corporate Governance.Vincent Blok - 2020 - Philosophy of Management 19 (1):69-87.
    In this article, we philosophically reflect on the nature of corporate governance. We raise the question whether control is still a feasible ideal of corporate governance and reflect on the implications of the epistemic insufficiency of economic institutions with regard to grand challenges like of global warming for our conceptualization of corporate governance. We first introduce the concept of corporate governance from the perspective of economics and politics. We then trace the genealogy of the concept of governance based on a (...)
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  • How Would Confucian Virtue Ethics for Business Differ From Aristotelian Virtue Ethics?Daryl Koehn - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 165 (2):205-219.
    Confucianism is potentially relevant to business ethics and business practice in many ways. Although some scholars have seen Confucian thought as applicable to corporate social responsibility :433–451, 2009) and to corporate governance :30–43, 2013), only a few business ethicists :415–431, 2001b; Journal of Business Ethics 116:703–715, 2013; Romar in Journal of Business Ethics 38:119–131, 2002; Lam in The Analects, Penguin Classics, London, 2003; Chan in Journal of Business Ethics 77:347–360, 2008; Woods and Lamond in Journal of Business Ethics 102:669–683, 2011) (...)
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  • Science is Not Always “Self-Correcting” : Fact–Value Conflation and the Study of Intelligence.Nathan Cofnas - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (3):477-492.
    Some prominent scientists and philosophers have stated openly that moral and political considerations should influence whether we accept or promulgate scientific theories. This widespread view has significantly influenced the development, and public perception, of intelligence research. Theories related to group differences in intelligence are often rejected a priori on explicitly moral grounds. Thus the idea, frequently expressed by commentators on science, that science is “self-correcting”—that hypotheses are simply abandoned when they are undermined by empirical evidence—may not be correct in all (...)
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  • City in Code: The Politics of Urban Modeling in the Age of Big Data.Madeline G. Johnson - 2020 - Open Philosophy 3 (1):429-445.
    A model is “any representation or concept that helps us to understand the world whenever common sense or direct observations are inadequate.” Common sense and direct observation often prove inadequate to the complexities of the twenty-first-century cities. Thus, models abound in urban life and governance. However, a model is not only a tool for control but a way of defining a situation. Framing the city so as to render it susceptible to interpretation and intervention is an exercise not merely with (...)
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  • Deliberative Epistemic Instrumentalism, or Something Near Enough.Ivan Mladenovic - 2020 - Filozofija I Društvo 31 (1):3-11.
    In her book Democracy and Truth: The Conflict between Political and Epistemic Virtues, Snjezana Prijic Samarzija advocates a stance that not only political, but also epistemic values are necessary for justification of democracy. Specifically, she mounts defense for one particular type of public deliberation on epistemic grounds. In this paper, I will discuss the following issue: What connects this type of public deliberation to the wider context of justification of democracy? I will attempt to explain why Prijic Samarzija?s stance can (...)
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  • Can Public Virtues Be Global?Warren J. Von Eschenbach - 2020 - Journal of Global Ethics 16 (1):45-57.
    An important issue within the field of global ethics is the extent or scope of moral obligation or duties. Cosmopolitanism argues that we have duties to all human beings by virtue of some common property. Communitarian ethics argue that one’s scope of obligation is circumscribed by one’s community or some other defining property. Public virtues, understood to be either a property that communities possess to function well or a moral excellence constitutive of that community, offer an interesting challenge to this (...)
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  • Assessing Virtue: Measurement in Moral Education at Home and Abroad.Hanan A. Alexander - 2016 - Ethics and Education 11 (3):310-325.
    How should we assess programs dedicated to education in virtue? One influential answer draws on quantitative research designs. By measuring the inputs and processes that produce the highest levels of virtue among participants according to some reasonable criterion, in this view, we can determine which programs engender the most desired results. Although many outcomes of character education can undoubtedly be assessed in this way, taken on its own, this approach may support favorable judgments about programs that indoctrinate rather than educate, (...)
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  • Technics and Agency: The Pluralism and Diversity of Technē.Jason Tuckwell - 2020 - Angelaki 25 (4):81-96.
    One of the orienting claims in Yuk Hui’s The Question Concerning Technology in China is that an adequate accounting for the pluralism of technicity remains forthcoming. Hui brings this to our atten...
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  • Ends, Principles, and Causal Explanation in Educational Justice.Jenn Dum - 2017 - Ethics and Education 12 (2):184-200.
    Many principles characterize educational justice in terms of the relationship between educational inputs, outputs and distributive standards. Such principles depend upon the causal pathway view of education. It is implicit in this view that the causally effective aspects of education can be understood as separate from the normative aspects of education. Yet this view relies on an impossible division of labor between empirical and normative work in educational research: it treats the causal roles that are understood and explained objectively through (...)
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  • The Ethics of the Living Wage: A Review and Research Agenda.Andrea Werner & Ming Lim - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (3):433-447.
    To date, business ethicists, corporate social responsibility scholars as well as management theorists have been slow to provide a comprehensive and critical scrutiny of the Living Wage concept. The aim of this article, therefore, is to conceptualize the living wage in its philosophical as well as practical dimensions in order to open up the ethical implications of its introduction and implementation by companies. We set out the legal, socio-institutional and economic contexts for the debates around the LW and review arguments (...)
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  • Philosophical Bases of African Freedom Beyond Black and White.Maduabuchi Dukor - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):628-639.
  • Some Remarks on the First Book of Aristotle’s Politics.Alexander Mishurin - 2018 - Wisdom 10 (1):114-125.
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  • Is There a Trade-Off Between Freedom and Safety? A Philosophical Contribution to a Covid-19 Related Discussion.Robert Simon - 2020 - Philosophy Study 10 (7).
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  • Doctors That “Doctor” Sickness Certificates: Cunning Intelligence as an Ability and Possibly a Virtue Among Swedish GPs.Mani Shutzberg - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):445-456.
    The relations of power between healthcare-related institutions and the professionals that interact with them are changing. Generally, the institutions are gaining the upper hand. Consequently, the intellectual abilities necessary for professionals to pursue the internal goods of healthcare are changing as well. A concrete case is the struggle over sickness benefits in Sweden, in which the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and physicians are important stakeholders. The SSIA has recently consolidated its power over the sickness certificates that doctors issue for their (...)
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  • Does Neo-Aristotelian Character Education Maintain the Educational Status Quo? Lessons From the 19th-Century Bildung Tradition.Wouter Sanderse - 2019 - Ethics and Education 14 (4):399-414.
    ABSTRACTAs neo-Aristotelian character education approaches have become more popular, the list of objections has increased too. This paper focuses on the objection that while character education proponents claim to be ‘progressive’ and ‘reformative’ they seem to maintain the educational status quo. This paper examines what happens to neo-Aristotelian character education approaches when they are implemented in schools. First, a range of authors is consulted that has critically followed character education approaches, in particular the one advocated by the Jubilee Centre for (...)
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  • Communism as Eudaimonia.Sabeen Ahmed - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophy and Social Values 1 (2):31-48.
    Karl Marx states in Capital that “man, if not as Aristotle thought a political animal, is at all events a social animal” (Marx, 1992, 444). That Marx draws from Aristotle’s work has been long-recognized, but one could argue that Marx’s very conception of man—what he calls “species-being”—is a derivative of Aristotle’s theory of the good life. This article explores the Aristotelian underpinnings of Marx’s political philosophy and argues that Marx’s theory of species-being and human emancipation supervenes upon Aristotle’s theory of (...)
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  • To Live is to Die: A Virtue Account of Arguments for the Right to Die.Franlu Vulliermet - 2020 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 10 (1-2):20-29.
    In recent years, debates about euthanasia and assisted suicide have increased to the point that now, many people defend the recognition of the right to die, the right for people to decide upon the end of their life. Consistently, advocates fight to legalise practices such as euthanasia to guarantee patients’ possibility to die when they request it. In this paper, I review two of the strongest arguments invoked by proponents of physician-assisted suicide: the argument for compassion and the argument for (...)
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  • Between Hierarchy of Oppression and Style of Nourishment: Defending the Confucian Way of Civil Order.Huaiyu Wang - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (2):559-596.
    Despite a growing interest in and sympathy with Confucianism, there remains a stereotyped conception of Confucian civil order as a form of authoritarian hierarchy that is responsible for various oppressions in ancient China and is reprehensible from a modern egalitarian perspective. One central target of this modern criticism is the Confucian maxim of sangang 三綱, whose underlying idea is essential for regulating the relationship between sovereign and subject, father and son, and husband and wife in traditional Confucian society. Tu Wei-ming (...)
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  • Risk, Health, and Physical Enhancement: The Dangers of Health Care as Risk Reduction for Christian Bioethics.Paul Scherz - 2020 - Christian Bioethics 26 (2):145-162.
    Medicine increasingly envisions health promotion in terms of reducing risk as determined by quantitative risk factors, such as blood pressure, blood lipids, or genetic variants. This essay argues that this vision of health care as risk reduction is dangerous for Christian bioethics, since risk can be infinitely reduced leading to a self-defeating spiral of iatrogenic effects. Moreover, it endangers character because this vision of health is connected to a reductionist vision of the body and an understanding of individual risk that (...)
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  • Medicine and the Common Good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic Tradition.Kyle E. Karches - 2020 - Christian Bioethics 26 (2):124-144.
    Whereas bioethicists generally consider medicine a practice aimed at the individual good of each patient, in this paper I present an alternative conception of the goods of medicine. I first explain how modern liberal political theory gives rise to the predominant view of the medical good and then contrast this understanding of politics with that of Thomas Aquinas, informed by Aristotle. I then show how this Christian politics is implicit in certain aspects of contemporary medical practice and argue that Christians (...)
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  • The Just World Fallacy as a Challenge to the Business-As-Community Thesis.Matthew Sinnicks - 2020 - Business and Society 59 (6):1269-1292.
    The notion that business organizations are akin to Aristotelian political communities has been a central feature of research into virtue ethics in business. In this article, I begin by outlining this “community thesis” and go on to argue that psychological research into the “just world fallacy” presents it with a significant challenge. The just world fallacy undermines our ability to implement an Aristotelian conception of justice, to each as he or she is due, and imperils the relational equality required for (...)
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  • Steve Biko: Black Consciousness and the African Other – the Struggle for the Political.Michael Cloete - 2019 - Angelaki 24 (2):104-115.
    The legacy of Steve Biko remains to this day a “contested” legacy, not only on account of his reputation as a political activist but also because of a profound scepticism regarding the philosophical status and integrity of his thought. This article seeks to engage with Steve Biko, the philosopher, not only to debunk the position that seeks to reduce his thinking to the level of mere political activism, given his identification with the Black Consciousness Movement and the radicalism of black (...)
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  • On the Compatibility of Epistocracy and Public Reason.Thomas Mulligan - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (3):458-476.
    In "epistocratic" forms of government, political power is wielded by those who possess the knowledge relevant to good policymaking. Some democrats--notably, David Estlund--concede that epistocracy might produce better political outcomes than democracy but argue that epistocracy cannot be justified under public reason. These objections to epistocracy are unsound because they violate a viability constraint: they are also fatal to democracy and all other plausible political arrangements. Moreover, there is a problem with the public reason framework itself--a problem that can only (...)
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  • There’s Some Fetish in Your Ethics: A Limited Defense of Purity Reasoning in Moral Discourse.Dan Demetriou - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Research 38:377-404.
    Call the ethos understanding rightness in terms of spiritual purity and piety, and wrongness in terms of corruption and sacrilege, the “fetish ethic.” Jonathan Haidt and his colleagues suggest that this ethos is particularly salient to political conservatives and non-liberal cultures around the globe. In this essay, I point to numerous examples of moral fetishism in mainstream academic ethics. Once we see how deeply “infected” our ethical reasoning is by fetishistic intuitions, we can respond by 1) repudiating the fetishistic impulse, (...)
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  • Biopolitical Subjectification.Ott Puumeister - 2019 - Sign Systems Studies 47 (1/2):105-125.
    The article proposes a semiotic interpretation of the concept of biopolitics. Instead of a politics that takes “life itself ” as its object and, as a result, separates life as an object from subjects, biopolitics is read as subjectification – a governmental rationality that constructs social ways of being and forms of life, that is, social subjectivities. The article articulates this position on the basis of two concepts: Jakob von Uexküll’s umwelt and Michel Foucault’s dispositive. While the former makes it (...)
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  • Humans and Hybrids: A Critique of the Western Moral Framework.Angela Ballantyne - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):3.
    This paper uses the advent of human-animal hybrids, created though somatic cell nuclear transfer experiments in America and Australia, as a tool to deconstruct and challenge the dualistic belief that humans are morally distinct and superior to animals. The view that moral value corresponds to species membership creates a scientific and cultural environment that prohibits or restricts human embryo experimentation whilst permitting the extensive use of animals for research. The dualistic premise therefore motivates the creation of human-animal hybrids for research (...)
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  • Tanrı-Din Ve Siyaset İlişkisinin Thomas Hobbes’Un Leviathan Ve De Cive Kitapları Işığında İncelenmesi.Pervin Yiğit - forthcoming - Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi:1375-1387.
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  • The Middle Included - Logos in Aristotle.Ömer Aygün - 2017 - Evanston, Illinois, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri: Northwestern University Press.
    The Middle Included is a systematic exploration of the meanings of logos throughout Aristotle’s work. It claims that the basic meaning is “gathering,” a relation that holds its terms together without isolating them or collapsing one to the other. This meaning also applies to logos in the sense of human language. Aristotle describes how some animals are capable of understanding non-firsthand experience without being able to relay it, while others relay it without understanding. Aygün argues that what distinguishes human language, (...)
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  • Recognizing Argument Types and Adding Missing Reasons.Christoph Lumer - 2019 - In Bart J. Garssen, David Godden, Gordon Mitchell & Jean Wagemans (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (ISSA). [Amsterdam, July 3-6, 2018.]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): pp. 769-777.
    The article develops and justifies, on the basis of the epistemological argumentation theory, two central pieces of the theory of evaluative argumentation interpretation: 1. criteria for recognizing argument types and 2. rules for adding reasons to create ideal arguments. Ad 1: The criteria for identifying argument types are a selection of essential elements from the definitions of the respective argument types. Ad 2: After presenting the general principles for adding reasons (benevolence, authenticity, immanence, optimization), heuristics are proposed for finding missing (...)
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  • An-Arché as the Voice of the People: Jacques Rancière and the Politics of Disagreement.Žarko Paić - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):1.
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  • Two Forms of Domination by Reason.Matteo Falomi - 2019 - Nordic Wittgenstein Review 8.
    In his paper "The Problem of Domination by Reason and its Non-Relativist Solution" Oskari Kuusela describes a problem about our conception of rationality, which he labels the problem of “domination by reason”. This problem has contributed to generate, Kuusela notes, a widespread dissatisfaction with reason, which has resulted in a tendency to discard ideals of rationality altogether. Kuusela, in his paper, provides a response to this dissatisfaction. He argues that Wittgenstein, if we read him correctly, exemplifies a conception of reason (...)
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  • Superhero Movies and Politics: The Moral Obligations of Film Makers According to Virtue Ethics.Russell Hendrickson - unknown
    Superhero films have rarely included political messages within their central narratives, but the filmmakers developing them have a moral obligation to do so. This obligation stems from virtue ethics, which demands that moral actors work to cultivate virtuous qualities within themselves, such as self-reflection and honesty. Developing a superhero film then becomes a process of moral reflection for filmmakers as they consider what are the virtues a truly moral person would need to embody. Because superheroes have the capacity to serve (...)
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  • Marsilius of Padova as a Democratic Theorist.Filimon Peonidis - 2016 - Roda da Fortuna 5 (1):106-124.
    In this essay I focus on the form of government defended by Marsilius of Padua in the first Discourse of Defensor pacis (1324). The interpretation of his overall account depends heavily on our understanding of the “major and valentior part” of the citizenry upon which all legislative and elective powers are bestowed. I argue that there is sufficient textual evidence to believe that the above term refers not to some small elite group but to the totality of citizens or the (...)
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  • Americanism Versus Communism: The Institutionalization of an Ideology.Jeremy Horne - 1988 - Dissertation, University of Florida
    In order to graduate, Florida's high school students by law must learn that Communism is evil, dangerous, and fallacious. All students must learn that the U.S. produces the highest standard of living and more freedom than any other economic system on earth. State universities in Florida are creating a curriculum to implement the Americanism versus Communism Act of 1961 and the Free Enterprise and Consumer Education Act of 1975. ;The Florida Department of Education says that ideology, noncritical thinking, is superior (...)
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  • Socrates, Dialogue, and Us: Ignorance as Learning Paradigm.J. Gregory Keller & Deborah Biss Keller - 2011 - In Erik Malewski & Nathalia Jaramillo (eds.), Epistemologies of Ignorance and Studies of Limits in Education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
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  • Direct Democracy and Representative Democracy.Paolo Bellini - forthcoming - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  • Citizen Skeptic: Cicero’s Academic Republicanism.Scott Aikin - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (3):275–285.
    The skeptical challenge to politics is that if knowledge is in short supply and it is a condition for the proper use of political power, then there is very little just politics. Cicero’s Republicanism is posed as a program for political legitimacy wherein both citizens and their states are far from ideal. The result is a form of what is termed negative conservatism, which shows political gridlock in a more positive light.
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  • Mental Illness, Human Function, and Values.Christopher Megone - 2000 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 7 (1):45-65.
    The present paper constitutes a development of the position that illness, whether bodily or mental, should be analyzed as an incapacitating failure of bodily or mental capacities, respectively, to realize their functions. The paper undertakes this development by responding to two critics. It addresses first Szasz’s continued claims that (1) physical illness is the paradigm concept of illness and (2) a philosophical analysis of mental illness does not shed any light on the social and legal role of the idea. Then, (...)
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  • Model Selection and Multiple Research Goals: The Case of Rational Addiction.Andrew M. Yuengert - 2006 - Journal of Economic Methodology 13 (1):77-96.
    A comparison of rational addiction and time inconsistency models of addiction highlights the complexities of model selection when researchers have goals in addition to empirical fit. Although currently the two models of addiction are underdetermined by data, each offers a different understanding of addiction; moreover, the two models offer starkly different policy implications. When the goals of understanding and policy usefulness are added to the goal of empirical fit, a more complex account of model selection is needed. First, the principle (...)
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  • Cultivating Practical Wisdom as Education.Aaron Marshall & Malcolm Thorburn - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (14):1-13.
    This article argues, from a critical realist perspective, that it would be beneficial to extend thinking on how personal and social education could become more central to students’ learning. We explore how constructive-informed arrangements which emphasize cognitive skills and affective qualities could be realized through experiential approaches to learning. Our theorizing is informed by neo-Aristotelian thinking on the importance of identifying mutually acceptable value commitments which can cultivate practical wisdom as well as generally benefit society. Thereafter, we outline how the (...)
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  • Researching Corporate Social Responsibility: An Agenda for the 21st Century. [REVIEW]Paul C. Godfrey & Nile W. Hatch - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (1):87-98.
    Corporate social responsibility is a tortured concept. We review the current state of the art across a number of academic disciplines, from accounting to management to theology. In a world that is increasingly global and pluralistic, progress in our understanding of CSR must include theorizing around the micro-level processes practicing managers engage in when allocating resources toward social initiatives, as well as refined measurement of the outcomes of those initiatives on stakeholder and shareholder interests. Scholarship must also account for the (...)
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  • Aristotle's Psychology, Emotion's Rationality, and Cognition of Being: A Critical Note on Ogren's Position.Greg Sadler - 2007 - Minerva - An Internet Journal of Philosophy 11 (1).
    Ogren advances a hermeneutic interpretation of Aristotle that brings to light several important and overlooked points about Aristotle, emotion, and cognition. In my article, I argue that his interpretation is on certain points correct, particularly in stressing that the distinctively human, irrational, emotional and desiring part of the soul is rational to a certain extent, and through its own forms of cognition, revelatory of being. His interpretation errs, however, by construing the fully rational part of the soul in a fundamentally (...)
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  • Leo Strauss, Political Science, and the Trouble with a “Great Books” Approach to the Study of Politics.Jason Blakely - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 12 (1):27-47.
  • The Reemergence of Spinoza’s Conatus in the Political Sphere.Evan Roane - 2011 - Southwest Philosophical Studies 33.
    Spinoza’s metaphysical concept of striving (conatus) entails that all particular things without exception partake in the similar goal of self-preservation. From this position, he derives psychological principles for humans that account for social behavior in terms of one’s effort to preserve one’s community. His position stands in opposition to common sense descriptions of ‘unselfish’ behaviors such as altruism and Michael Della Rocca’s formulation of “other directed striving.” Spinoza accounts for humans acting in the interest of others via community, without compromising (...)
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  • The Ethics of the Ecology of Fear Against the Nonspeciesist Paradigm: A Shift in the Aims of Intervention in Nature.Oscar Horta - 2010 - Between the Species 13 (10):163-187.
    Humans often intervene in the wild for anthropocentric or environmental reasons. An example of such interventions is the reintroduction of wolves in places where they no longer live in order to create what has been called an “ecology of fear”, which is being currently discussed in places such as Scotland. In the first part of this paper I discuss the reasons for this measure and argue that they are not compatible with a nonspeciesist approach. Then, I claim that if we (...)
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  • Climate Economics and Normative Expertise.Kian Mintz-Woo - unknown
    I discuss three families of methodologies that could be used to assign values to the normative parameters relevant to social discounting in welfare economics generally, and climate economics more specifically. First, I argue that in particular circumstances, there cannot be philosophical argumentation for normative questions; specifically, this occurs when the particular values being sought are both non-critical and from a quantitative range. Second, I argue that social preferences are insufficient if we take the problem to be normative and that proposals (...)
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  • Desire and Cognition in Aristotle’s Theory of the Voluntary Movements of Animal Locomotion.Daniel Simão Nascimento - 2017 - Filosofia Unisinos 18 (2).
    Duas das principais controvérsias que têm ocupado aqueles que se dedicam à teoria aris- totélica do movimento animal são a controvérsia acerca da forma da cognição através da qual um animal irracional apreende um objeto como um objeto de desejo e a controvérsia acerca da função desempenhada pela cognição na explicação aristotélica dos movimentos voluntários de locomoção animal. Neste artigo, eu apresento uma teoria acerca das formas como o desejo e a cognição se articulam na teoria aristotélica segundo a qual (...)
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