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  1. Three Proposed Perspectives of Attitude Toward Business’ Ethical Responsibilities and Their Implications for Cultural Comparison.Donald H. Schepers - 2006 - Business and Society Review 111 (1):15-36.
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  • Exporting an Inherently Harmful Product: The Marketing of Virginia Slims Cigarettes in the United States, Japan, and Korea.Timothy Dewhirst, Wonkyong B. Lee, Geoffrey T. Fong & Pamela M. Ling - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (1):161-181.
    Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women’s cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the (...)
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  • Attitudes of Management Students Towards Workplace Ethics: A Comparative Study Between South Africa and Cyprus.Adele Thomas, Maria Krambia-Kapardis & Anastasios Zopiatis - 2008 - African Journal of Business Ethics 3 (1):1.
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  • The Effect of Home and Host Country Cultures on the Manager's Individual Decision Making Related to Ethical Issues in a MNC.Virginija Kliukinskaite Vigil - 2011 - International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 6 (1):1.
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  • Ethical Perception: Are Differences Between Ethnic Groups Situation Dependent?Jo Ann Ho - 2010 - Business Ethics 19 (2):154-182.
    This study was conducted to determine how culture influences the ethical perception of managers. Most studies conducted so far have only stated similarities and differences in ethical perception between cultural or ethnic groups and little attention has been paid towards understanding how cultural values influence the ethnic groups' ethical perception. Moreover, most empirical research in this area has focused on moral judgement, moral decision making and action, with limited empirical work in the area of ethical perception. A total of 22 (...)
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  • The Relationship Between Social Cynicism Belief, Social Dominance Orientation, and the Perception of Unethical Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Examination in Russia, Portugal, and the United States.Valerie Alexandra, Miguel M. Torres, Olga Kovbasyuk, Theophilus B. A. Addo & Maria Cristina Ferreira - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):545-562.
    Most studies investigating the relationship between cultural constructs and ethical perception have focused on individual- and societal-level values without much attention to other type of cultural constructs such as social beliefs. In addition, we need to better understand how social beliefs are linked to ethical perception and the level of analysis at which social beliefs may best predict ethical perceptions. This research contributes to the cross-cultural ethical perception literature by examining the relationship of individual-level social cynicism belief, one of five (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375 - 413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996-2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable - awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • Impact of Customer Orientation, Inducements and Ethics on Loyalty to the Firm: Customers' Perspective. [REVIEW]Leslier M. Valenzuela, Jay P. Mulki & Jorge Fernando Jaramillo - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (2):277 - 291.
    Customer orientation (CO) and the development of long-term relationships with customers are known conditions for growth and profit sustainability. Businesses use special treatments, inducements, and personal gestures to show their appreciation to customers. However, there are concerns about whether these inducements really create the right perceptions in customer's mind. This study suggests that when customers believe that the firm is ethical, the inducements and special treatments received are seen in a positive light and can help develop loyalty. The hypotheses were (...)
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  • MNC Strategic Responses to Ethical Pressure: An Institutional Logic Perspective.Justin Tan & Liang Wang - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):373-390.
    In this study, we aim to investigate how multinational corporations (MNCs) balance ethical pressures from both the home and host countries. Drawing on theories from institutional theory, international business, and business ethics, we build a theoretical framework to explain the ethical behavior of MNCs. We apply the institutional logic concept to examine how MNCs with established logics and principles that have grown in the home country respond to local ethical expectations in the host country. We differentiate the core values from (...)
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  • Ethical Judgments: What Do We Know, Where Do We Go? [REVIEW]Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):575-597.
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions’ ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of (...)
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  • Does Religion Matter? A Comparison Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Marketing Students of Religious and Secular Universities in Japan.Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Ziad Swaidan & Jamal Al-Khatib - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):69-86.
    This study was designed to examine the determinants of and differences between the ethical beliefs of two groups of Japanese students in religious and secular universities. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students of the Japanese religious university perceived that young, male, relativistic, and opportunistic students tended to behave less ethically than did older, female, and idealistic students. Students of the Japanese secular university perceived that male, achievement-oriented, and opportunistic students tended to behave less ethically than did female and experience-oriented students. (...)
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  • The Effect of Country and Culture on Perceptions of Appropriate Ethical Actions Prescribed by Codes of Conduct: A Western European Perspective Among Accountants.Donald F. Arnold, Richard A. Bernardi, Presha E. Neidermeyer & Josef Schmee - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (4):327-340.
    Recognizing the growing interdependence of the European Union and the importance of codes of conduct in companies’ operations, this research examines the effect of a country’s culture on the implementation of a code of conduct in a European context. We examine whether the perceptions of an activity’s ethicality relates to elements found in company codes of conduct vary by country or according to Hofstede’s (1980, Culture’s Consequences (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA)) cultural constructs of: Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism, and Power (...)
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  • Paradoxical Relationships Between Cultural Norms of Particularism and Attitudes Toward Relational Favoritism: A Cultural Reflectivity Perspective.Chao C. Chen, Joseph P. Gaspar, Ray Friedman, William Newburry, Michael C. Nippa, Katherine Xin & Ronaldo Parente - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 145 (1):63-79.
    We examined how the cultural dimension of universalism–particularism influences managers’ attitudes toward relational favoritism. Paradoxically, we found in a survey study that Brazilian and Chinese managers perceived more negative consequences of relational favoritism than did American managers—even though the Brazilians and the Chinese perceived stronger particularistic cultural norms in their countries than Americans did in the United States. We attribute this pattern of results to “cultural reflexivity”—the ability of people from transforming economies to be culturally self-critical during a period of (...)
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  • International Marketing Ethics: A Literature Review and Research Agenda.Rajshekhar G. Javalgi & La Toya M. Russell - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (4):703-720.
    Globalization has changed the nature of business in the twenty-first century :481–502, 2010). With the increased internationalization of multinational corporations, the need to address international marketing ethics arises :481–493, 2005). Given the diversity of environments and cultures, ethical issues are numerous and complicated :3–24, 2001). The understanding of international marketing ethics is critical to academics as well as practitioners. This paper is a literature review of the study of ethics in international marketing. In order to develop a comprehensive review of (...)
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  • Moral Philosophy, Materialism, and Consumer Ethics: An Exploratory Study in Indonesia. [REVIEW]Long-Chuan Lu & Chia-Ju Lu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):193 - 210.
    Although the ethical judgment of consumers in the United States and other industrialized countries has received considerable attention, consumer ethics in Asian-market settings have seldom been explored. The purchase and making of counterfeit products are considered common, but disreputable, attributes of Southeast Asian consumers. According to the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Indonesia ranks third among the leading countries of counterfeit items in Asia. Retail revenue losses attributed to counterfeiting amounted to US $183 million in 2004. Therefore, elucidating the (...)
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  • Half a Century of Marketing Ethics: Shifting Perspectives and Emerging Trends.Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & Magdalena Öberseder - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1):1-19.
    Faced with an ever-growing number of ethical marketing issues and uncertainty about the impact of specialized ethics journals, researchers are struggling to keep abreast of developments in the field. In order to address these challenges, our paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on marketing ethics over almost 50 years, offers a citation analysis and develops a unique marketing ethics impact factor (MEIF). We contribute to the field in three important ways. First, we present a state-of-the-art picture of marketing (...)
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  • Bribery: Australian Managers' Experiences and Responses When Operating in International Markets. [REVIEW]Kerry L. Pedigo & Verena Marshall - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):59 - 74.
    Managers seeking to respect local norms when operating in cross-cultural settings may encounter ethical dilemmas when faced with values that potentially conflict with their own. The question of whose ethics or values should be applied or whether a set of universal eth- ical norms should be developed often confronts managers in their international business dealings. This article explores the findings from a qualitative research study that examines critical ethical dilemmas confronting Australian managers in their international business operations and their responses (...)
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  • Does Consumer Unethical Behavior Relate to Birthplace? Evidence From China.BaoChun Zhao & ShanShan Xu - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):475-488.
    This study explores the relationship between individual birthplace [rural birthplace (RB) and urban birthplace (UB)] and consumer unethical behavior (CUB). As a result, CUB is verified to closely relate to individual birthplace, and those new urban residents with RB are found to behave more ethically than the patrimonial urban residents with UB in CUB4 (“no harm/no foul”). This study also finds that the differentiation of CUB between two categories of consumers is correlated with the personal moral ideology or Machiavellianism (MA) (...)
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  • Bribery: Australian Managers’ Experiences and Responses When Operating in International Markets.Kerry L. Pedigo & Verena Marshall - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):59-74.
    Managers seeking to respect local norms when operating in cross-cultural settings may encounter ethical dilemmas when faced with values that potentially conflict with their own. The question of whose ethics or values should be applied or whether a set of universal ethical norms should be developed often confronts managers in their international business dealings. This article explores the findings from a qualitative research study that examines critical ethical dilemmas confronting Australian managers in their international business operations and their responses to (...)
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  • Impact of Customer Orientation, Inducements and Ethics on Loyalty to the Firm: Customers’ Perspective.Leslier M. Valenzuela, Jay P. Mulki & Jorge Fernando Jaramillo - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (2):277-291.
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  • Cultural Dimensions, Ethical Sensitivity, and Corporate Governance.Alex W. H. Chan & Hoi Yan Cheung - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):45-59.
    The economic globalization process has integrated different competitive markets and pushes firms in different countries to improve their managerial and operational efficiencies. Given the recent empirical evidence for the benefits to firms and stakeholders of good corporate governance (CG) practice, it is expected that good CG practice would be a common strategy for firms in different countries to meet the increasingly intense competition; however, this is not the case. This study examines the differences in CG practices in firms across different (...)
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  • Teaching Ethics to Undergraduate Business Students in Australia: Comparison of Integrated and Stand-Alone Approaches.Elizabeth Prior Jonson, Linda Mary McGuire & Deirdre O’Neill - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (2):477-491.
  • Ethical Decision-Making Differences Between American and Moroccan Managers.A. Ben Oumlil & Joseph L. Balloun - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (4):457-478.
    Our research’s aim is to assess the effect of cultural factors on business ethical decision-making process in a Western cultural context and in a non-Western cultural context. Specifically, this study investigates ethical perceptions, religiosity, personal moral philosophies, corporate ethical values, gender, and ethical intentions of U.S. and Moroccan business managers. The findings demonstrate that significant differences do exist between the two countries in idealism and relativism. Moroccan managers tend to be more idealistic than the U.S. managers. There is a strong (...)
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  • Cultural Crossvergence and Social Desirability Bias: Ethical Evaluations by Chinese and Canadian Business Students.Paul Dunn & Anamitra Shome - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (4):527-543.
    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are cross-cultural differences between Chinese and Canadian business students with respect to their assessment of the ethicality of various business behaviors. Using a sample of 147 business students, the results indicate cultural crossvergence; the Chinese (72 students) and Canadians (75 students) exhibit different ethical attitudes toward questionable business practices at the individual level but not at the corporate level. A social desirability bias (a tendency to deny socially unacceptable actions and (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375-413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996–2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable – awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • The Relationship Between Social Cynicism Belief, Social Dominance Orientation, and the Perception of Unethical Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Examination in Russia, Portugal, and the United States.Valerie Grissom, Miguel M. Torres, Olga Kovbasyuk, Theophilus B. A. Addo & Maria Cristina Ferreira - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
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  • How Ethical Are Managers’ Goodwill Impairment Decisions in Spanish-Listed Firms?Begoña Giner & Francisca Pardo - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (1):21-40.
    This article provides an analysis of the ethical behavior of managers making goodwill impairment decisions following the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standard 3 on Business Combinations. Replacing the systematic amortization of goodwill with the impairment-only approach has been a highly controversial step. Although the aim of IFRS 3 was to provide users with more value-relevant information regarding the underlying economics of the business, it has been criticized for the potential earnings management inherent in impairment testing. This study is (...)
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  • Culture, Gender, and GMAT Scores: Implications for Corporate Ethics.Raj Aggarwal, Joanne E. Goodell & John W. Goodell - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (1):125-143.
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  • Regional Cultural Differences and Ethical Perspectives Within the United States: Avoiding Pseudo‐Emic Ethics Research.Brent Macnab, Reginald Worthley & Steve Jenner - 2010 - Business and Society Review 115 (1):27-55.
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  • Culture and Consumer Ethics.Ziad Swaidan - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (2):201-213.
    Disparity in consumer ethics reflects cultural variations; these are differences in the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one culture from another. This study explores the differences in consumer ethics across cultural dimensions using Hofstede's (in Culture's consequences: international differences in work-related values, Sage, Beverly Hills, 1980) model (collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance) and Muncy and Vitell (in J Bus Res 24(4): 297-311, 1992) consumer ethics model (i.e., illegal, active, passive, and no harm). This is the first (...)
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