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  1. A Search for Standards to Monitor Labor Conditions Worldwide. Monitoring International Labor Standards: Techniques and Sources of Information National Research Council Washington: National Academies Press, Paperback, 291 Pages; ISBN: 0309091349, $43. [REVIEW]S. Prakash Sethi - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):271-287.
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  • The Power of Industry Self-Regulation to Promote Responsible Labor Standards: Insights From the Chinese Toy Industry.Nick Lin-Hi & Igor Blumberg - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (4):789-805.
    The provision of responsible labor standards along the entire value chain poses considerable challenges for corporations. In particular, management shortcomings and institutional deficits—which are partly related to cultural issues—frequently impede the realization of responsible business practices in emerging and developing countries. It is widely established in theory that industry self-regulation constitutes a particularly promising approach for overcoming these challenges. Nonetheless, it is still an open question as to whether industry initiatives effectively promote responsible standards in practice. This contribution aims to (...)
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  • Building Trust Between Consumers and Corporations: The Role of Consumer Perceptions of Transparency and Social Responsibility. [REVIEW]Jiyun Kang & Gwendolyn Hustvedt - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2):1-13.
    Developing trust in a company is a significant part of building the company-consumer relationship. Previous studies have sought to identify the positive consequences of trust such as loyalty and repurchase, but the question of what builds trust remains largely unanswered. To answer the question, we developed a model that depicts the relationships among transparency, social responsibility, trust, attitude, word-of-mouth (WOM) intention, and purchase intention. An online survey was conducted with a US nationwide sample of 303 consumers, and the data were (...)
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  • Moral Differentiation: Exploring Boundaries of the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” Perspective. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (3):379-399.
    Research in ethical decision making has consistently demonstrated a positive relationship between others’ unethical behavior and observers’ unethical behavior, providing support for the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” perspective (e.g., Robinson and O’Leary-Kelly, Acad Manage J 41:658–672, 1998 ). However, the boundaries of this relationship have received little research attention. Guided by theory and research in interpersonal distancing, we explore these boundaries by proposing and examining “moral differentiation,” the set of individual and situational characteristics that affect the degree to which one (...)
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  • Unfairness by Design? The Perceived Fairness of Digital Labor on Crowdworking Platforms.Christian Fieseler, Eliane Bucher & Christian Pieter Hoffmann - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (4):987-1005.
    Based on a qualitative survey among 203 US workers active on the microwork platform Amazon Mechanical Turk, we analyze potential biases embedded in the institutional setting provided by on-demand crowdworking platforms and their effect on perceived workplace fairness. We explore the triadic relationship between employers, workers, and platform providers, focusing on the power of platform providers to design settings and processes that affect workers’ fairness perceptions. Our focus is on workers’ awareness of the new institutional setting, frames applied to the (...)
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  • Respect for Workers in Global Supply Chains: Advancing the Debate Over Sweatshops.Denis G. Arnold & Norman E. Bowie - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (1):135-145.
    In “Sweatshops and Respect for Persons” we argued on Kantian grounds that managers of multinational enterprises have the following duties: to adhere to local labor laws, to refrain from coercion, to meet minimum health and safety standards, and to pay workers a living wage. In their commentary on our paper Sollars and Englander challenge some of our conclusions. We argue here that several of their criticisms are based on an inaccurate reading of our paper, and that none of the remaining (...)
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  • Wage Exploitation and the Nonworseness Claim: Allowing the Wrong, To Do More Good.David Faraci - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29 (2):169-188.
    Many believe that employment can be wrongfully exploitative, even if it is consensual and mutually beneficial. At the same time, it may seem third parties should not do anything to preclude or eliminate such arrangements, given these same considerations of consent and benefit. I argue that there are perfectly sensible, intuitive ethical positions that vindicate this ‘Reasonable View’. The view requires such defense because the literature often suggests that there is no theoretical space for it. I respond to arguments for (...)
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  • Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues.Jeremy Snyder - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.
    In this review, I survey theoretical accounts of exploitation in business, chiefly through the example of low wage or sweatshop labor. This labor is associated with wages that fall below a living wage standard and include long working hours. Labor of this kind is often described as self-evidently exploitative and immoral (Van Natta 1995). But for those who defend sweatshop labor as the first rung on a ladder toward greater economic development, the charge that sweatshop labor is self-evidently exploitative fails (...)
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  • The Ethics of Sweatshops and the Limits of Choice.Michael Kates - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (2):191-212.
    This article examines the “Choice Argument” for sweatshops, i.e., the claim that it is morally wrong or impermissible for third parties to interfere with the choice of sweatshop workers to work in sweatshops. The Choice Argument seeks, in other words, to shift the burden of proof onto those who wish to regulate sweatshop labor. It does so by forcing critics of sweatshops to specify the conditions under which it is morally permissible to interfere with sweatshop workers’ choice. My aim in (...)
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  • Exploiting Injustice in Mutually Beneficial Market Exchange: The Case of Sweatshop Labor.András Miklós - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):59-69.
    Mutually beneficial exchanges in markets can be exploitative because one party takes advantage of an underlying injustice. For instance, employers of sweatshop workers are often accused of exploiting the desperate conditions of their employees, although the latter accept the terms of their employment voluntarily. A weakness of this account of exploitation is its tendency for over-inclusiveness. Certainly, given the prevalence of global and domestic socioeconomic inequalities, not all exchanges that take place against background injustices should be considered exploitative. This paper (...)
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  • The Ethical and Economic Case Against Sweatshop Labor: A Critical Assessment. [REVIEW]Benjamin Powell & Matt Zwolinski - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):449-472.
    During the last decade, scholarly criticism of sweatshops has grown increasingly sophisticated. This article reviews the new moral and economic foundations of these criticisms and argues that they are flawed. It seeks to advance the debate over sweatshops by noting the extent to which the case for sweatshops does, and does not, depend on the existence of competitive markets. It attempts to more carefully distinguish between different ways in which various parties might seek to modify sweatshop behavior, and to point (...)
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  • Labour Leverage in Global Value Chains: The Role of Interdependencies and Multi-Level Dynamics.Christina Niforou - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (2):301-311.
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  • Sweatshops: Economic Analysis and Exploitation as Unfairness.Gordon G. Sollars & Fred Englander - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):15-29.
    The economic and moral defense of sweatshops given by Powell and Zwolinski has been criticized in two recent papers. Coakley and Kates focus on putative weaknesses in the logic of Powell’s and Zwolinski’s argument. Preiss :55–82, 2014) argues that, even granting the validity of their economic argument, Powell’s and Zwolinski’s defense is without force when viewed from a Kantian republican viewpoint. We are concerned that sweatshop critics have misinterpreted the economic literature and overstated the conclusions that follow from their ethical (...)
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  • Implementing Supplier Codes of Conduct in Global Supply Chains: Process Explanations From Theoretic and Empirical Perspectives.Bin Jiang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):77-92.
    Western buying companies impose Supplier Codes of Conduct (SCC) on their suppliers in developing countries; however, many suppliers cannot fully comply with SCC and some of them even cheat in SCC. In this research, we link contract characteristics - price pressure, production complexity, contract duration - to the likelihood of supplier's commitment to SCC through a mediating process: how the buying companies govern their suppliers. Our structural equation model analysis shows that the hierarchy/relational norms governance is a perfect mediator of (...)
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  • Mental Models, Moral Imagination and System Thinking in the Age of Globalization.Patricia H. Werhane - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (3):463-474.
    After experiments with various economic systems, we appear to have conceded, to misquote Winston Churchill that "free enterprise is the worst economic system, except all the others that have been tried." Affirming that conclusion, I shall argue that in today's expanding global economy, we need to revisit our mind-sets about corporate governance and leadership to fit what will be new kinds of free enterprise. The aim is to develop a values-based model for corporate governance in this age of globalization that (...)
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  • “Human Quality Treatment”: Five Organizational Levels.Domènec Melé - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (4):457-471.
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  • Global Labor Justice and the Limits of Economic Analysis.Joshua Preiss - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (1):55-83.
    This article considers the economic case for so-called sweatshop wages and working conditions. My goal is not to defend or reject the economic case for sweatshops. Instead, proceeding from a broadly pluralist understanding of value, I make and defend a number of claims concerning the ethical relevance of economic analysis for values that different agents utilize to evaluate sweatshops. My arguments give special attention to a series of recent articles by Benjamin Powell and Matt Zwolinski, which represent the latest and (...)
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  • The Role of Idealism and Relativism as Dispositional Characteristics in the Socially Responsible Decision-Making Process.Haesun Park - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (1):81-98.
    This study investigated how decision-makers differ in processing their organizational environment, depending on the levels of their idealism and relativism. Focusing on socially responsible buying/sourcing issues, responses from buying/sourcing professionals from U.S. apparel and shoe companies were analyzed, using a series of regression analyses. The results generally supported the proposition that the degrees of idealism and relativism determine involvement levels that, in turn, result in varying levels of reactions to the organizational environment and corresponding amounts of information processing. Highly idealistic (...)
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  • Stakeholder Forces of Socially Responsible Supply Chain Management Orientation.Haesun Park-Poaps & Kathleen Rees - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):305-322.
    This project investigates salient stakeholder forces of socially responsible supply chain orientation (SRSCO) in the apparel and footwear sector focusing on fair labor management issues. SRSCO was conceptualized as a composite of internal organizational direction and external partnership for a creation and continuation of fair labor conditions throughout the supply chain. Primary stakeholders identified were consumers, regulation, industry, and media. A total of 209 mail survey responses from sourcing managers of U.S. apparel and footwear companies were analyzed. Two dimensions of (...)
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  • Supererogation: Beyond Positive Deviance and Corporate Social Responsibility.Daina Mazutis - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):517-528.
  • The Ethical and Economic Case for Sweatshop Regulation.Mathew Coakley & Michael Kates - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):553-558.
    Three types of objections have been raised against sweatshops. According to their critics, sweatshops are (1) exploitative, (2) coercive, and (3) harmful to workers. In “The Ethical and Economic Case Against Sweatshop Labor: A Critical Assessment,” Powell and Zwolinski critique all three objections and thereby offer what is arguably the most powerful defense of sweatshops in the philosophical literature to date. This article demonstrates that, whether or not unregulated sweatshops are exploitative or coercive, they are, pace Powell and Zwolinski, harmful (...)
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