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An Introduction to Cybernetics

New York: J. Wiley (1956)

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  1. Three Problems of Intersubjectivity—And One Solution.Wendelin Reich - 2010 - Sociological Theory 28 (1):40-63.
    Social thinkers often use the concept of intersubjectivity to mark out a problem of theoretical sociology: If people are unable to look into each others' minds, why do they often understand each other nonetheless? This issue has been debated extensively by philosophers and sociologists in three largely disconnected discourses. The article investigates the three discourses for isolable ideas that can be fitted into a sociological answer to the problem of intersubjectivity. An interactional solution, fully coherent with key insights from the (...)
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  • Three Generations of Complexity Theories: Nuances and Ambiguities.Michel Alhadeff‐Jones - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (1):66-82.
    The contemporary use of the term ‘complexity’ frequently indicates that it is considered a unified concept. This may lead to a neglect of the range of different theories that deal with the implications related to the notion of complexity. This paper, integrating both the English and the Latin traditions of research associated with this notion, suggests a more nuanced use of the term, thereby avoiding simplification of the concept to some of its dominant expressions only. The paper further explores the (...)
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  • Social Ontology.Brian Epstein - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Social ontology is the study of the nature and properties of the social world. It is concerned with analyzing the various entities in the world that arise from social interaction. -/- A prominent topic in social ontology is the analysis of social groups. Do social groups exist at all? If so, what sorts of entities are they, and how are they created? Is a social group distinct from the collection of people who are its members, and if so, how is (...)
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  • Freedom as a Natural Phenomenon.Martin Zwick - 2015 - Foundations of Science 20 (3):1-10.
    “Freedom” is a phenomenon in the natural world. This phenomenon—and indirectly the question of free will—is explored using a variety of systems-theoretic ideas. It is argued that freedom can emerge only in systems that are partially determined and partially random, and that freedom is a matter of degree. The paper considers types of freedom and their conditions of possibility in simple living systems and in complex living systems that have modeling subsystems. In simple living systems, types of freedom include independence (...)
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  • Intentionality and Information Processing: An Alternative Model for Cognitive Science.Kenneth M. Sayre - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):121-38.
    This article responds to two unresolved and crucial problems of cognitive science: (1) What is actually accomplished by functions of the nervous system that we ordinarily describe in the intentional idiom? and (2) What makes the information processing involved in these functions semantic? It is argued that, contrary to the assumptions of many cognitive theorists, the computational approach does not provide coherent answers to these problems, and that a more promising start would be to fall back on mathematical communication theory (...)
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  • Basins of Attraction in Cellular Automata.Andrew Wuensche - 2000 - Complexity 5 (6):19-25.
  • Multiscale Variety in Complex Systems.Yaneer Bar-Yam - 2004 - Complexity 9 (4):37-45.
    The standard assumptions that underlie many conceptual and quantitative frameworks do not hold for many complex physical, biological, and social systems. Complex systems science clarifies when and why such assumptions fail and provides alternative frameworks for understanding the properties of complex systems. This review introduces some of the basic principles of complex systems science, including complexity profiles, the tradeoff between efficiency and adaptability, the necessity of matching the complexity of systems to that of their environments, multiscale analysis, and evolutionary processes. (...)
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  • The Environmentally Sustainable Organization (ESO): A Systems Approach.Asterios G. Kefalas - 2001 - Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):90-105.
    : Few concepts have created more sound and fury than the concepts of development and environment. The difficulty associated with these concepts increases exponentially when one attempts to clarify them by adding some attributes such as concrete definitions and measurements pertaining to the quantity and quality of these concepts. This essay deals with the private, for-profit corporation as the primary agent in the process of satisfying the human struggle for survival. This agent has been the epicenter of the "development-environment" issue (...)
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  • The Quest for Plausibility: A Negative Heuristic for Science?R. W. Byrne - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):217-218.
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  • The Quest for Optimality: A Positive Heuristic of Science?Paul J. H. Schoemaker - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):205-215.
    This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of one of science's most pervasive and flexible metaprinciples;optimalityis used to explain utility maximization in economics, least effort principles in physics, entropy in chemistry, and survival of the fittest in biology. Fermat's principle of least time involves both teleological and causal considerations, two distinct modes of explanation resting on poorly understood psychological primitives. The rationality heuristic in economics provides an example from social science of the potential biases arising from the extreme flexibility of (...)
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  • Toward a More Humanistic Governance Model: Network Governance Structures. [REVIEW]Michael Pirson & Shann Turnbull - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (1):101 - 114.
    This conceptual article suggests a reexamination of current governance structures, specifically those of unitary boards after the financial crisis of 2008.We suggest that the existing governance structures are based on an outdated paradigm of business, rooted in economics. We propose an alternative paradigm, a more humanistic paradigm, which allows conceiving alternative, network-oriented governance structures. As hierarchical firms grow larger and more complex, the risk of failure increases from biases, errors, and missing data in communication and control systems. These problems are (...)
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  • Physical Symbol Systems.Allen Newell - 1980 - Cognitive Science 4 (2):135-83.
  • The Environmentally Sustainable Organization (Eso)a Systems Approach.A. G. Stell Kefalas - 2001 - Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):90-105.
    Few concepts have created more sound and fury than the concepts of development and environment. The difficulty associated with these concepts increases exponentially when one attempts to clarify them by adding some attributes such as concrete definitions and measurements pertaining to the quantity and quality of these concepts. This essay deals with the private, for-profit corporation as the primary agent in the process of satisfying the human struggle for survival. This agent has been the epicenter of the "development-environment" issue for (...)
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  • The Immune System and its Ecology.Alfred I. Tauber - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (2):224-245.
    In biology, the ‘ecological orientation' rests on a commitment to examining systems, and the conceptual challenge of defining that system now employs techniques and concepts adapted from diverse disciplines (i.e., systems philosophy, cybernetics, information theory, computer science) that are applied to biological simulations and model building. Immunology has joined these efforts, and the question posed here is whether the discipline will remain committed to its theoretical concerns framed by the notions of protecting an insular self, an entity demarcated from its (...)
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  • Review Article.R. J. Nelson - 1980 - Synthese 43 (3):433-451.
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  • The Appropriation of Ideas, Theories, Concepts and Models by Management Practitioners.Laurence Robinson - 2010 - Dissertation, Coventry University
    During the second half of the 20th century there has been both a burgeoning intellectual interest in business and management as a topic and an exponential growth in the formal study of business and management as an academic subject. Indeed by the end of the century it was estimated that worldwide there were 8,000 business schools and more than 13 million students of business and management. In addition, it was estimated that worldwide annual expenditure on university level business and management (...)
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  • On the Relational Character of Mind and Nature.Vuk Uskokovic - 2009 - Res Cogitans 6 (1).
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  • A Short Primer on Situated Cognition.Philip Robbins & Murat Aydede - 2009 - In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 3--10.
    Introductory Chapter to the _Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition_ (CUP, 2019).
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  • How Does It Work?: The Search for Explanatory Mechanisms.Mario Bunge - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2):182-210.
    This article addresses the following problems: What is a mechanism, how can it be discovered, and what is the role of the knowledge of mechanisms in scientific explanation and technological control? The proposed answers are these. A mechanism is one of the processes in a concrete system that makes it what it is — for example, metabolism in cells, interneuronal connections in brains, work in factories and offices, research in laboratories, and litigation in courts of law. Because mechanisms are largely (...)
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  • Toward 'Complexics' as a Transdiscipline.Albert Bastardas I. Boada - unknown
    The proposed transdisciplinary field of ‘complexics’ would bring together allcontemporary efforts in any specific disciplines or by any researchersspecifically devoted to constructing tools, procedures, models and conceptsintended for transversal application that are aimed at understanding andexplaining the most interwoven and dynamic phenomena of reality. Our aimneeds to be, as Morin says, not “to reduce complexity to simplicity, [but] totranslate complexity into theory”.New tools for the conception, apprehension and treatment of the data ofexperience will need to be devised to complement existing (...)
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  • Challenging the Computational Metaphor: Implications for How We Think.Lynn Andrea Stein - unknown
    This paper explores the role of the traditional computational metaphor in our thinking as computer scientists, its influence on epistemological styles, and its implications for our understanding of cognition. It proposes to replace the conventional metaphor--a sequence of steps--with the notion of a community of interacting entities, and examines the ramifications of such a shift on these various ways in which we think.
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  • Щодо теоретичного аналізу і уточнення поняття «управлінська пара» як основи розвитку та удосконалення публічного управління.Д. І Дзвінчук, О. В Лютий & В. П Петренко - 2016 - Гуманітарний Вісник Запорізької Державної Інженерної Академії 67:191-202.
    As a result of decomposition of a system consisting of two elements as a typical management pair “subject - object” or “manager – subordinate”, and interpretation of each of its components as an element that is characterized by a certain coefficient of transformation, it has been proposed to discover such systems as “subject - object”, “object - subject”, and “object - object” with the purpose of identifying one of the above mentioned modes that will be the most efficient in achieving (...)
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  • Transactional Economics: John Dewey's Ways of Knowing and the Radical Subjectivism of the Austrian School.Robert Mulligan - 2006 - Education and Culture 22 (2):61-82.
    The subjectivism of the Austrian school of economics is a special case of Dewey's transactional philosophy, also known as pragmatism or pragmatic epistemology. The Austrian economists Carl Friedrich Menger (1840-1921) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) adopted an Aristotelian deductive approach to economic issues such as social behavior and exchange. Like Menger and Mises, Friedrich A. Hayek (1899-1992) viewed scientific knowledge, even in the social sciences, as asserting and aiming for objective certainty. Hayek was particularly critical of attempts to apply the (...)
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  • Intentionally: A Problem of Multiple Reference Frames, Specificational Information, and Extraordinary Boundary Conditions on Natural Law.M. T. Turvey - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):153-155.
  • Homeostats for the 21st Century? Simulating Ashby Simulating the Brain.S. Franchi - 2013 - Constructivist Foundations 9 (1):93-101.
    Context: W. R. Ashby’s work on homeostasis as the basic mechanism underlying all kinds of physiological as well as cognitive functions has aroused renewed interest in cognitive science and related disciplines. Researchers have successfully incorporated some of Ashby’s technical results, such as ultrastability, into modern frameworks (e.g., CTRNN networks). Problem: The recovery of Ashby’s technical contributions has left in the background Ashby’s far more controversial non-technical views, according to which homeostatic adaptation to the environment governs all aspects of all forms (...)
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  • Editorial. The Constructivist Challenge.A. Riegler - 2005 - Constructivist Foundations 1 (1):1--8.
    Purpose: This is an attempt to define constructivism in a pluralistic way. It categorizes constructivist work within a three-dimensional space rather than along one dimension only. Practical implications: The interdisciplinary definition makes it possible to perceive the rather heterogeneous constructivist community as a coherent and largely consistent scientific effort to provide answers to demanding complex problems. Furthermore it gives authors of Constructivist Foundation the opportunity to locate their own position within the community. Conclusion: I offer a catalogue of ten points (...)
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  • Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience.Kotchoubey Boris, Tretter Felix, A. Braun Hans, Buchheim Thomas, Draguhn Andreas, Fuchs Thomas, Hasler Felix, Hastedt Heiner, Hinterberger Thilo, Northoff Georg, Rentschler Ingo, Schleim Stephan, Sellmaier Stephan, Van Elst Ludger Tebartz & Tschacher Wolfgang - unknown
    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge, rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather (...)
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  • Significance of Models of Computation, From Turing Model to Natural Computation.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):301-322.
    The increased interactivity and connectivity of computational devices along with the spreading of computational tools and computational thinking across the fields, has changed our understanding of the nature of computing. In the course of this development computing models have been extended from the initial abstract symbol manipulating mechanisms of stand-alone, discrete sequential machines, to the models of natural computing in the physical world, generally concurrent asynchronous processes capable of modelling living systems, their informational structures and dynamics on both symbolic and (...)
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  • Reproduzierbarkeit Von Ergebnissen Vs. Heuristischer Gehalt Wissenschaftlicher Konzepte.Bernd Martens - 1986 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 17 (2):256-264.
    By means of an ecological and system theoretic example it is argued, that the methodological principle of repeatable effects is only partially valid. In 1970 a conjecture of system's properties was published which was refuted later, but further research was initiated in different fields, just because it referred to a non-repeatable "false" result. The heuristic content of a concept seemed to be more important than a successful replication of an experiment. The case study exhibits the restricted validity of general methodological (...)
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  • Should the Quest for Optimality Worry Us?Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):231-231.
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  • A Quantum Theory of Causality.Peter Caws - 1963 - Synthese 15 (1):317 - 326.
  • Complexity and Intersubjectivity: Towards the Theory of Niklas Luhmann. [REVIEW]John Bednarz - 1984 - Human Studies 7 (3-4):55-69.
  • Converging Technologies: A Critical Analysis of Cognitive Enhancement for Public Policy Application. [REVIEW]Christos Makridis - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1017-1038.
    This paper investigates cognitive enhancement, specifically biological cognitive enhancement (BCE), as a converging technology, and its implications for public policy. With an increasing rate of technological advancements, the legal, social, and economic frameworks lag behind the scientific advancements that they support. This lag poses significant challenges for policymakers if it is not dealt with sufficiently within the right analytical context. Therefore, the driving question behind this paper is, “What contingencies inform the advancement of biological cognitive enhancement, and what would society (...)
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  • Discovery as Correction.James Blachowicz - 1987 - Synthese 71 (3):235 - 321.
    In recent years, there have been some attempts to defend the legitimacy of a non-inductive generative logic of discovery whose strategy is to analyze a variety of constraints on the actual generation of explanatory hypotheses. These proposed new theories, however, are only weakly generative (relying on sophisticated processes of elimination) rather than strongly generative (embodying processes of correction).This paper develops a strongly generative theory which holds that we can come to know something new only as a variant of what we (...)
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  • Biological Levers and Extended Adaptationism.Gillian Barker - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (1):1-25.
    Two critiques of simple adaptationism are distinguished: anti-adaptationism and extended adaptationism. Adaptationists and anti-adaptationists share the presumption that an evolutionary explanation should identify the dominant simple cause of the evolutionary outcome to be explained. A consideration of extended-adaptationist models such as coevolution, niche construction and extended phenotypes reveals the inappropriateness of this presumption in explaining the evolution of certain important kinds of features—those that play particular roles in the regulation of organic processes, especially behavior. These biological or behavioral ‘levers’ are (...)
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  • Vaulting Optimality.Peter Dayan & Jon Oberlander - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):221-222.
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  • Re-Framing Systemic Paradigms for the Art of Learning.Donald McNeil - 1996 - World Futures 46 (1):23-45.
  • Self‐Organizing Traffic Lights at Multiple‐Street Intersections.Carlos Gershenson & David A. Rosenblueth - 2012 - Complexity 17 (4):23-39.
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  • How is Education Possible? Preliminary Investigations for a Theory of Education.Raf Vanderstraeten & Gert J. J. Biesta - 2001 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 33 (1):7–21.
  • The Structure of Multi‐Stasis: On the Evolution of Self‐Organizing Systems.Hu Tao - 1993 - World Futures 37 (1):1-28.
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  • Degrees of Freedom Between Somatosensory and Somatomotor Processes; or, One Nonsequitur Deserves Another.P. E. Roland - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):307-312.
  • Two Metaphors for Neural Afference and Efference.Peter N. Kugler & M. T. Turvey - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):305-307.
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  • Intentionality and Communication Theory.K. M. Sayre - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):155-165.
  • Intentionality: No Mystery.William T. Powers - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):152-153.
  • Intentionality as Internality.Don Perlis & Rosalie Hall - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):151-152.
  • A Total Process Approach to Perception.Maxine Morphis - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):150-151.
  • Cognitive Science and the Pragmatics of Behavior.Lawrence E. Marks - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):150-150.
  • Intrinsic Versus Contrived Intentionality.Donald M. MacKay - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):149-150.
  • The Relationship Between Information Theory, Statistical Mechanics, Evolutionary Theory, and Cognitive Science.Michael Leyton - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):148-149.
  • Semantic Information: Inference Rules + Memory.Michael Lebowitz - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):147-148.