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  1. Empathy, honour, and the apprenticeship of violence: rudiments of a psychohistorical critique of the individualistic science of evil.Nicolas J. Bullot - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):821-845.
    Research seeking to explain the perpetration of violence and atrocities by humans against other humans offers both social and individualistic explanations, which differ namely in the roles attributed to empathy. Prominent social models suggest that some manifestations of inter-human violence are caused by parochial attitudes and obedience reinforced by within-group empathy. Individualistic explanations of violence, by contrast, posit that stable intra-individual characteristics of the brain and personality of some individuals lead them to commit violence and atrocities. An individualistic explanation argues (...)
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  • The Secret Society and the Social Dynamics of Terrorist Behavior.Jürgen Mackert - 2014 - Revue de Synthèse 135 (4):331-359.
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  • Humiliation and the Inertia Effect: Implications for Understanding Violence and Compromise in Intractable Intergroup Conflicts.Jeremy Ginges & Scott Atran - 2008 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 8 (3-4):281-294.
    We investigated the influence of humiliation on inter-group conflict in three studies of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza. We demonstrate that experienced humiliation produces an inertia effect; a tendency towards inaction that suppresses rebellious or violent action but which paradoxically also suppresses support for acts of inter-group compromise. In Study 1, Palestinians who felt more humiliated by the Israeli occupation were less likely to support suicide attacks against Israelis. In Study 2, priming Palestinians with a humiliating experience (...)
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  • Adaptationism for Human Cognition: Strong, Spurious, or Weak?Scott Atran - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (1):39-67.
    Strong adaptationists explore complex organic design as taskspecific adaptations to ancestral environments. This strategy seems best when there is evidence of homology. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic (including cognitive and linguistic) functioning necessarily or primarily represents taskspecific adaptation. This approach to cognition resembles physicists' attempts to deductively explain the most facts with fewest hypotheses. For certain domainspecific competencies (folkbiology) strong adaptationism is useful but not necessary to research. With grouplevel belief systems (religion) strong adaptationism degenerates into spurious notions (...)
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  • The Culture of Care Within Psychiatric Services: Tackling Inequalities and Improving Clinical and Organisational Capabilities.Micol Ascoli, Andrea Palinski, John Owiti, Bertine De Jongh & Kamaldeep S. Bhui - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:12-.
    Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS) that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period (...)
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  • An Introduction to Evolutionary Psychology and its Application to Suicide Terrorism.James R. Liddle, Lance S. Bush & Todd K. Shackelford - 2011 - Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression 3:176-197.
    This article introduces evolutionary psychology to a general readership, with the purpose of applying evolutionary psychology to suicide terrorism. Some of the key concepts related to evolutionary psychology are discussed, as well as several misconceptions associated with this approach to psychology. We argue that one of the primary, but insufficient, motivating factors for suicide terrorism is strong religious belief. Evolutionary psychological theories related to religious belief, and supporting empirical work, are described, laying a foundation for examining suicide terrorism. Several promising (...)
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  • The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions.Scott Atran & Joseph Henrich - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):18-30.
    Understanding religion requires explaining why supernatural beliefs, devotions, and rituals are both universal and variable across cultures, and why religion is so often associated with both large-scale cooperation and enduring group conflict. Emerging lines of research suggest that these oppositions result from the convergence of three processes. First, the interaction of certain reliably developing cognitive processes, such as our ability to infer the presence of intentional agents, favors—as an evolutionary by-product—the spread of certain kinds of counterintuitive concepts. Second, participation in (...)
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  • Combating Al Qaeda's Splinters: Mishandling Suicide Terrorism.Scott Atran - unknown
    The past three years saw more suicide attacks than the last quarter century. Most of these were religiously motivated. While most Westerners have imagined a tightly coordinated transnational terrorist organization headed by Al Qaeda, it seems more likely that nations under attack face a set of largely autonomous groups and cells pursuing their own regional aims. Repeated suicide actions show that massive counterforce alone does not diminish the frequency or intensity of suicide attack. Like pounding mercury with a hammer, this (...)
     
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  • The Cultural Mind: Environmental Decision Making and Cultural Modeling Within and Across Populations.Scott Atran, Douglas L. Medin & Norbert O. Ross - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):744-776.
    This paper describes a cross-cultural research project on the relation between how people conceptualize nature and how they act in it. Mental models of nature differ dramatically among and within populations living in the same area and engaged in more or less the same activities. This has novel implications for environmental decision making and management, including dealing with commons problems. Our research also offers a distinct perspective on models of culture, and a unified approach to the study of culture and (...)
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  • A Spectrum of Relational Autonomy, Illustrated Using the Case Studies of Female Suicide Bombers.Herjeet Marway - unknown
    When women become perpetrators of suicide bombing, their agency – their ability to act upon and affect the world – is often denied. There are a number of reasons for this and one this thesis considers is that – as females – they are not expected to be violent. Accordingly, such women are judged to be coerced or incompetent, and so unable to rule themselves sufficiently as agents. Models of autonomy propose various frameworks for assessing whether acts or persons are (...)
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  • Kamikaze – und der Westen.Barry Smith - 2003 - In Georg Meggle (ed.), Terror und der Krieg gegen ihn: Öffentliche Reflexionen. Münster: Mentis. pp. 107-118.
    Vor dem Hintergrund einer von Durkheim ausgehenden Selbstmordarten-Typologie wird das Phänomen von terroristischen Selbstmordattentaten untersucht: Diese scheinen ein spezifisch nicht-westliches Phänomen zu sein. Der deutliche Unterschied zwischen der Strategie westlicher Terrorgruppen und solchen Terrorgruppen, die Selbstmordattentate ausüben, geht auf ein besonderes Merkmal der Geschichte und der Eigenart des Westens zurück; und dies wiederum ist tief im Mittelalter verwurzelt. -/- Against the background of a taxonomy of types of suicide advanced by Durkheim we propose an analysis of the phenomenon of terrorist (...)
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  • Professor.Daniel M. T. Fessler - forthcoming - In Richard Joyce, Kim Sterelny & Brett Calcott (eds.), Signaling, Commitment, and Emotion. MIT Press.
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  • Scandalous Subwomen and Sublime Superwomen: Exploring Portrayals of Female Suicide Bombers' Agency.Herjeet Marway - 2011 - Journal of Global Ethics 7 (3):221-240.
    When the terms ?women? and ?violence? are used, it is usually in the context of women as victims and rarely as perpetrators of violence, and yet women do behave aggressively ? for instance, as female suicide bombers. An ethical analysis of this role, however, has tended to be somewhat overlooked, partly because of the gender stereotypes at play, with little (or spurious) focus on the agency and autonomy of the women. This has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the unique (...)
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  • “Brothers” in Arms: Does Metaphorizing Kinship Increase Approval of Parochial Altruism?Maria Abou-Abdallah, Yoshihisa Kashima & Charles Harb - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (1-2):37-49.
    Parochial altruism is manifested in the most violent of conflicts. Although it makes evolutionary sense for kin, many non-kin groups also behave parochially altruistically in response to threat from out-groups. It is possible that such non-kin groups share a sense of “fictive” kinship which encourages them to behave parochially altruistically for each other’s benefit. Our findings show that individuals not directly involved in a conflict approved of parochial altruism enacted by an in-group against an out-group more when the out-group posed (...)
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  • The Faith of Sacrifice: Leadership Trade-Offs in an Afro-Brazilian Religion.Montserrat Soler - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (4):372-394.
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  • Normative Seeds for Deadly Martyrdoms.Adolf Tobeña & Oscar Vilarroya - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):378-379.
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  • The Morality of Martyrdom and the Stigma of Suicide.Joshua Rottman & Deborah Kelemen - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):375-376.
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  • Intergroup Aggression in Chimpanzees and War in Nomadic Hunter-Gatherers.Richard W. Wrangham & Luke Glowacki - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):5-29.
    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species—selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result (...)
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  • University Sports Rivalries Provide Insights on Coalitional Psychology.Daniel J. Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader & Shannon Murphy - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):337-352.
    Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival’s (...)
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  • The Evolutionary Basis of Religious Ethics.John Teehan - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):747-774.
  • Altruism in Suicide Terror Organizations.Hector N. Qirko - 2009 - Zygon 44 (2):289-322.
    In recent years, much has been learned about the strategic and organizational contexts of suicide attacks. However, motivations of the agents who commit them remain difficult to explain. In part this is because standard models of social learning as well as Durkheimian notions of sacrificial behavior are inadequate in the face of the actions of human bombers. In addition, the importance of organizational structures and practices in reinforcing commitment on the part of suicide recruits is an under-explored factor in many (...)
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