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Philosophy in the Twentieth Century

Vintage Books (1982)

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  1. Cognitive Values, Theory Choice, and Pluralism: On the Grounds and Implications of Philosophical Diversity.Guy Stanwood Axtell - 1991 - Dissertation, University of Hawai'i
    This dissertation focuses on the development of a pragmatic account of normative discourse. The approach taken to the subject of study is metaphilosophical. Prevalent contemporary treatments of norm governance and cognitive evaluation, are examined in light of background metaphilosophical views adopted by such schools as logical empiricism, pragmatism, and schools associated with contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge. I examine metaphilosophical assumptions that pre-structure treatment of conceptual issues such as belief-modification, theory choice, and explanation, pursuing these issues across a wide range (...)
     
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  • “The Revolution of Relativity” and Self-Consciousness in the History of Philosophy of the 20th Century.O. A. Vlasova - 2018 - Russian Journal of Philosophical Sciences 11:114-125.
    This paper discusses the development of self-consciousness in the history of philosophy of the 20th century compared with the same development in the natural sciences. The author characterizes this stage of philosophical historiography as the “revolution of relativity.” This movement of self-consciousness was apparent in not only the humanities but also the natural sciences at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Awareness of probability is a fundamental achievement of non-classic physics, which has since reversed its paradigm. In contrast (...)
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  • Philosophical and Linguistic Sources of Herbert L. A. Hart’s Theory of Law.Katarzyna Doliwa - 2016 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 46 (1):231-254.
    The paper presents H. L. A. Hart as a leading exponent of the analytic orientation in legal philosophy. Hart showed that the principles and methods of analytic philosophy yield fruitful implications to law, where they may foster fresh ideas and innovative solutions. The text emphasizes the linguistic aspect of Hart’s works; his achievements in legal theory are discussed in the context of the principles of ordinary language philosophy.
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  • Meaning, Presuppositions, Truth-Relevance, Gödel's Sentence and the Liar Paradox.X. Y. Newberry - manuscript
    Section 1 reviews Strawson’s logic of presuppositions. Strawson’s justification is critiqued and a new justification proposed. Section 2 extends the logic of presuppositions to cases when the subject class is necessarily empty, such as (x)((Px & ~Px) → Qx) . The strong similarity of the resulting logic with Richard Diaz’s truth-relevant logic is pointed out. Section 3 further extends the logic of presuppositions to sentences with many variables, and a certain valuation is proposed. It is noted that, given this valuation, (...)
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  • Abnormal Theories. The Case of Romanian Postmodernism.Dan Pătroc - 2012 - Annales Philosophici 4:23-28.
    While some cultures have established a long tradition of theoretical thinking, Romanian culture appears to have an innate resistance to theory and to the standards of what is usually considered to be the proper way of theorizing. This paper tries to demonstrate the hypothesis shown above by analyzing the case of postmodernism related theories within the Romanian cultural environment. More precisely, we have focused our attention on what is considered to be one of the most relevant works on Romanian postmodernism, (...)
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  • Some Consequences of Current Scientific Treatments of Consciousness and Selfhood.Se�N. � Nuall�in - 1994 - AI and Society 8 (4):305-314.
    For a variety of reasons, consciousness and selfhood are beginning once again to be intensively studied in a scientific frame of reference. The notions of each which are emerging are extremely varied: in the case of selfhood, the lack of an adequate vocabulary to capture various aspects of subjectivity has led to deep confusion. The task of the first part of this article is to clear up this terminological confusion, while salvaging whatever is valuable from the contemporary discussion. The more (...)
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  • J. M. Keynes' 'Theory of Evidential Weight': Its Relation to Information Processing Theory and Application in the General Theory.Michael E. Brady - 1987 - Synthese 71 (1):37 - 59.
    The conclusions derived by Keynes in his Treatise on Probability (1921) concerning induction, analogical reasoning, expectations formation and decision making, mirror and foreshadow the main conclusions of cognitive science and psychology.The problem of weight is studied within an economic context by examining the role it played in Keynes' applied philosophy work, The General Theory (1936). Keynes' approach is then reformulated as an optimal control approach to dealing with changes in information evaluation over time. Based on this analysis the problem of (...)
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  • Limitations of Ethical Reasoning as an Action (Praxis) Strategy.Richard P. Nielsen - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (10):725 - 733.
    For both philosophers and managers, reasoning with ourselves and others can be used both as (1) a way of knowing what is ethical and (2) a way of acting to help ourselves, others and organizations behave ethically. However, for many of us, knowing is frequently not the same as acting. Four areas are addressed: (1) thirteen limitations of ethical reasoning as an action strategy; (2) how a better understanding of these limitations can strengthen ethical reasoning as an action strategy; (3) (...)
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  • Intimations of Oakeshott: A Critical Reading of His ‘Notebooks, 1922–86’.David Hexter, Michael Kenny & Luke O’Sullivan - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 18 (1):138-149.
    The nature and worth of Michael Oakeshott’s contribution as a political thinker have long been the subject of deep disagreement within the community of Anglophone political theory. This is partly the product of a partial familiarity with Oakeshott’s corpus. During his lifetime, his body of published work had a rather slender appearance, comprising two major monographs, separated by some forty years, and two rather more accessible collections of essays on politics and history. Following his death in 1990, however, a much (...)
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  • A Theory of Knowledge.J. Pachner - 1984 - Foundations of Physics 14 (11):1107-1120.
    In order to make reliable predictions in any region of human activity, it is necessary to distinguish clearly what is based on experience and what is a construction of intellect. The theory of knowledge developed in the present paper is an attempt to devise a set of axioms that demarcate experience, as the only source of our knowledge of the external world, from the ideas, scientific models, and theories by means of which the scientific predictions are made. After a discussion (...)
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  • Problems of Other Minds: Solutions and Dissolutions in Analytic and Continental Philosophy.Jack Reynolds - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (4):326-335.
    While there is a great diversity of treatments of other minds and inter-subjectivity within both analytic and continental philosophy, this article specifies some of the core structural differences between these treatments. Although there is no canonical account of the problem of other minds that can be baldly stated and that is exhaustive of both traditions, the problem(s) of other minds can be loosely defined in family resemblances terms. It seems to have: (1) an epistemological dimension (How do we know that (...)
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  • The Computational Metaphor and Environmentalism.John Nolan - 1992 - AI and Society 6 (1):50-61.
    The Computational Metaphor is an extremely influential notion, and more than any other trend has given rise to the field of Cognitive Science. Environmentalism is at present better formalised as a political movement than as a scientific paradigm, despite significant research by Gibson and his followers. This article attempts to address the difficult problem of synthesising these two apparently antagonistic research paradigms.
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