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  1. Forms of Benefit Sharing in Global Health Research Undertaken in Resource Poor Settings: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholders' Views in Kenya.Geoffrey Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael English - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:7.
    Background Increase in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings in the last decade though a positive development has raised ethical concerns relating to potential for exploitation. Some of the suggested strategies to address these concerns include calls for providing universal standards of care, reasonable availability of proven interventions and more recently, promoting the overall social value of research especially in clinical research. Promoting the social value of research has been closely associated with providing fair benefits to various stakeholders (...)
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  • Broadening the Debate About Post-Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Qualitative Study of Participant Experiences at the End of a Trial Investigating a Medical Device to Support Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management.J. Lawton, M. Blackburn, D. Rankin, C. Werner, C. Farrington, R. Hovorka & N. Hallowell - 2019 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 10 (2):100-112.
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  • What Do International Ethics Guidelines Say in Terms of the Scope of Medical Research Ethics?Rosemarie D. L. C. Bernabe, Ghislaine J. M. W. van Thiel & Johannes J. M. van Delden - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-18.
    BackgroundIn research ethics, the most basic question would always be, “which is an ethical issue, which is not?” Interestingly, depending on which ethics guideline we consult, we may have various answers to this question. Though we already have several international ethics guidelines for biomedical research involving human participants, ironically, we do not have a harmonized document which tells us what these various guidelines say and shows us the areas of consensus. In this manuscript, we attempted to do just that.MethodsWe extracted (...)
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  • Ethics in Practice: The State of the Debate on Promoting the Social Value of Global Health Research in Resource Poor Settings Particularly Africa.Geoffrey M. Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael C. English - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):22.
    BackgroundPromoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been intense debate within academic (...)
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  • From the Ideal Market to the Ideal Clinic: Constructing a Normative Standard of Fairness for Human Subjects Research.T. Phillips - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):79-106.
    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects (...)
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  • Seeking Consent to Genetic and Genomic Research in a Rural Ghanaian Setting: A Qualitative Study of the MalariaGEN Experience. [REVIEW]Paulina Tindana, Susan Bull, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Jantina de Vries, Raymond Aborigo, Kwadwo Koram, Dominic Kwiatkowski & Michael Parker - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):15-.
    Background: Seeking consent for genetic and genomic research can be challenging, particularly in populations with low literacy levels, and in emergency situations. All of these factors were relevant to the MalariaGEN study of genetic factors influencing immune responses to malaria in northern rural Ghana. This study sought to identify issues arising in practice during the enrolment of paediatric cases with severe malaria and matched healthy controls into the MalariaGEN study. Methods: The study used a rapid assessment incorporating multiple qualitative methods (...)
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  • Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.David Wendler & Seema Shah - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):584-600.
    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against this possibility, (...)
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  • Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “How to Do Research Fairly in an Unjust World”.Angela J. Ballantyne - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):4-6.
    (2010). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “How to Do Research Fairly in an Unjust World”. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. W4-W6.
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  • How to Do Research Fairly in an Unjust World.Angela J. Ballantyne - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):26-35.
    International research, sponsored by for-profit companies, is regularly criticised as unethical on the grounds that it exploits research subjects in developing countries. Many commentators agree that exploitation occurs when the benefits of cooperative activity are unfairly distributed between the parties. To determine whether international research is exploitative we therefore need an account of fair distribution. Procedural accounts of fair bargaining have been popular solutions to this problem, but I argue that they are insufficient to protect against exploitation. I argue instead (...)
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  • What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?Bege Dauda, Yvonne Denier & Kris Dierickx - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (2):281-293.
    The concept of benefit sharing pertains to the act of giving something in return to the participants, communities, and the country that have participated in global health research or bioprospecting activities. One of the key concerns of benefit sharing is the ethical justifications or reasons to support the practice of the concept in global health research and bioprospecting. This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map (...)
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  • Attitudes Toward Post‐Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Review of Academic Literature, Legislation, and International Guidelines. [REVIEW]Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder & John Calvert - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (2):70-79.
    There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes towards post-trial access (...)
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  • The Role of Formal Justice in Ethical Reasoning.Georg Spielthenner - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (1):77-92.
    In this article I am concerned with reasoning about matters of justice. There is no doubt that justice-reasoning is a significant mode of ethical reasoning and its importance is therefore generally accepted. But there is a considerable debate concerning the role formal justice can play in reasoning about justice. In this paper, I first provide an analysis of formal justice. I then show that the concept of formal justice is identical to one notion of fairness and I illustrate the function (...)
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  • Human Dignity as a Basis for Providing Post-Trial Access to Healthcare for Research Participants: A South African Perspective.Pamela Andanda & Jane Wathuta - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):139-155.
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  • Vulnerability as a Regulatory Category in Human Subject Research.Carl H. Coleman - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (1):12-18.
    This article examines and critiques the use of the term “vulnerability” in U.S. and international regulations and guidelines on research ethics. After concluding that the term is currently used in multiple, often inconsistent, senses, it calls on regulators to differentiate between three distinct types of vulnerability: “consent-based vulnerability,”“risk-based vulnerability,” and “justice-based vulnerability.”.
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  • Vulnerability as a Regulatory Category in Human Subject Research.Carl H. Coleman - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (1):12-18.
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