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  1. Theroy of Mind in Non-Verbal Apes: Conceptual Issues and the Critical Experiments.Andrew Whiten - 2001 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 49:199-223.
    It is now over twenty years since Premack and Woodruff posed the question, ‘Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?’—‘by which we meant’, explained Premack in a later reappraisal, ‘does the ape do what humans do: attribute states of mind to the other one, and use these states to predict and explain the behaviour of the other one? For example, does the ape wonder, while looking quizzically at another individual, What does he reallywant?What does hebelieve?What are hisintentions?'.
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  • Intentionality, Mind and Folk Psychology.Winand H. Dittrich & Stephen E. G. Lea - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):39-41.
    The comment addresses central issues of a "theory theory" approach as exemplified in Gopnik' and Goldman's BBS-articles. Gopnik, on the one hand, tries to demonstrate that empirical evidence from developmental psychology supports the view of a "theory theory" in which common sense beliefs are constructed to explain ourselves and others. Focusing the informational processing routes possibly involved we would like to argue that his main thesis (e.g. idea of intentionality as a cognitive construct) lacks support at least for two reasons: (...)
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  • Self as Cultural Construct? An Argument for Levels of Self-Representations.Alexandra Zinck, Daniela Simon, Martin Schmidt-Daffy, Gottfried Vosgerau, Kirsten G. Volz, Anne Springer & Tobias Schlicht - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (6):687-709.
    In this paper, we put forward an interdisciplinary framework describing different levels of self-representations, namely non-conceptual, conceptual and propositional self-representations. We argue that these different levels of self-representation are differently affected by cultural upbringing: while propositional self-representations rely on “theoretical” concepts and are thus strongly influenced by cultural upbringing, non-conceptual self-representations are uniform across cultures and thus universal. This differentiation offers a theoretical specification of the distinction between an independent and interdependent self-construal put forward in cross-cultural psychology. Hence, this does (...)
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  • Self-Referential Emotions.Alexandra Zinck - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):496-505.
    The aim of this paper is to examine a special subgroup of emotion: self-referential emo- tions such as shame, pride and guilt. Self-referential emotions are usually conceptualized as (i) essentially involving the subject herself and as (ii) having complex conditions such as the capacity to represent others’ thoughts. I will show that rather than depending on a fully fledged ‘theory of mind’ and an explicit language-based self-representation, (i) pre-forms of self-referential emotions appear at early developmental stages already exhib- iting their (...)
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  • Preserved Perspective Taking in Free Indirect Discourse in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Juliane T. Zimmermann, Sara Meuser, Stefan Hinterwimmer & Kai Vogeley - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Perspective taking has been proposed to be impaired in persons with autism spectrum disorder, especially when implicit processing is required. In narrative texts, language perception and interpretation is fundamentally guided by taking the perspective of a narrator. We studied perspective taking in the linguistic domain of so-called Free Indirect Discourse, during which certain text segments have to be interpreted as the thoughts or utterances of a protagonist without explicitly being marked as thought or speech representations of that protagonist. Crucially, the (...)
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  • The Psychologist's Fallacy.Philip David Zelazo & Douglas Frye - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):89-90.
  • Development of Social Emotions and Constructive Agents.Aaron Ben Ze'ev & Keith Oatley - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):124-125.
    The psychology of emotions illuminates the questions of intentional capacities raised by Barresi & Moore. Complex emotions require the development of a sense of self and are based on social comparisons between mainly imagined objects. The fourth level in B&M's framework requires something like a constructive agent rather than a mental agent.
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  • Prior Knowledge, Episodic Control and Theory of Mind in Autism: Toward an Integrative Account of Social Cognition.Tiziana Zalla & Joanna Korman - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Metacognition of Agency and Theory of Mind in Adults with High Functioning Autism.Tiziana Zalla, David Miele, Marion Leboyer & Janet Metcalfe - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 31:126-138.
  • Moral Judgment in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders.Tiziana Zalla, Luca Barlassina, Marine Buon & Marion Leboyer - 2011 - Cognition 121 (1):115-126.
    The ability of a group of adults with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) to distinguish moral, conventional and disgust transgressions was investigated using a set of six transgression scenarios, each of which was followed by questions about permissibility, seriousness, authority contingency and justification. The results showed that although individuals with HFA or AS (HFA/AS) were able to distinguish affect-backed norms from conventional affect-neutral norms along the dimensions of permissibility, seriousness and authority-dependence, they failed to distinguish moral and (...)
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  • Belief, Desire and the Prediction of Behaviour.José L. Zalabardo - 2019 - Philosophical Issues 29 (1):295-310.
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  • Intentionality, Theoreticity and Innateness.Deborah Zaitchik & Jerry Samet - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):87-89.
  • Analogy Lays the Foundation for Two Crucial Aspects of Symbolic Development: Intention and Correspondence.Lei Yuan & David H. Uttal - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):738-757.
    We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others’ intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly disparate findings in the (...)
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  • Disruption of the Right Temporoparietal Junction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reduces the Role of Beliefs in Moral Judgments.Liane Young, Joan Albert Camprodon, Marc Hauser, Alvaro Pascual-Leone & Rebecca Saxe - 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    When we judge an action as morally right or wrong, we rely on our capacity to infer the actor's mental states. Here, we test the hypothesis that the right temporoparietal junction, an area involved in mental state reasoning, is necessary for making moral judgments. In two experiments, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to disrupt neural activity in the RTPJ transiently before moral judgment and during moral judgment. In both experiments, TMS to the RTPJ led participants to rely less on the (...)
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  • Minding Theory of Mind.Melanie Yergeau & Bryce Huebner - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (3):273-296.
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  • Modulation of Neural Activity in the Temporoparietal Junction with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Changes the Role of Beliefs in Moral Judgment.Hang Ye, Shu Chen, Daqiang Huang, Haoli Zheng, Yongmin Jia & Jun Luo - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Competence and Performance in Belief-Desire Reasoning Across Two Cultures: The Truth, the Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth About False Belief?Amir Amin Yazdi, Tim P. German, Margaret Anne Defeyter & Michael Siegal - 2006 - Cognition 100 (2):343-368.
  • Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.Jiushu Xie, Him Cheung, Manqiong Shen & Ruiming Wang - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (4):1179-1206.
    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded (...)
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  • Processing False Beliefs in Preschool Children and Adults: Developing a Set of Custom Tasks to Test the Theory of Mind in Neuroimaging and Behavioral Research.Joanna Wysocka, Karolina Golec, Maciej Haman, Tomasz Wolak, Bartosz Kochański & Agnieszka Pluta - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  • Instructed and Cooperative Learning in Human Evolution.Thomas Wynn - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):539-540.
  • The Roles of Social Status Information in Irony Comprehension: An Eye-Tracking Study.Zixuan Wu & Yuxia Wang - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The literature on irony processing mainly focused on contextual effect, leaving other factors untouched. The current study investigated how social status information affected the online comprehension of irony. As irony might be more damaging when a speaker uses it to a superordinate than the other way around, it is assumed that greater processing efforts would be observed in the former case. Using an eye-movement sentence reading paradigm, we recruited 36 native Mandarin speakers and examined the role of social status information (...)
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  • Three Questions for Goldman.Andrew Woodfield - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):86-87.
  • A Computational Model of the Cultural Co-Evolution of Language and Mindreading.Marieke Woensdregt, Chris Cummins & Kenny Smith - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):1347-1385.
    Several evolutionary accounts of human social cognition posit that language has co-evolved with the sophisticated mindreading abilities of modern humans. It has also been argued that these mindreading abilities are the product of cultural, rather than biological, evolution. Taken together, these claims suggest that the evolution of language has played an important role in the cultural evolution of human social cognition. Here we present a new computational model which formalises the assumptions that underlie this hypothesis, in order to explore how (...)
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  • The God Allusion.Rafael Wlodarski & Eiluned Pearce - 2016 - Huamn Nature 27 (2):160-172.
    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed (...)
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  • Children's Theory of Mind: Fodor's Heuristics Examined.Heinz Wimmer & Viktor Weichbold - 1994 - Cognition 53 (1):45-57.
  • Why Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders Have Failed to Resolve the Theory Theory Versus Simulation Theory Debate.Meredith R. Wilkinson & Linden J. Ball - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):263-291.
    The Theory Theory (TT) versus Simulation Theory (ST) debate is primarily concerned with how we understand others’ mental states. Theory theorists claim we do this using rules that are akin to theoretical laws, whereas simulation theorists claim we use our own minds to imagine ourselves in another’s position. Theorists from both camps suggest a consideration of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help resolve the TT/ST debate (e.g., Baron-Cohen 1995; Carruthers 1996a; Goldman 2006). We present a three-part argument that (...)
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  • Mutual (Mis)Understanding: Reframing Autistic Pragmatic “Impairments” Using Relevance Theory.Gemma L. Williams, Tim Wharton & Caroline Jagoe - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    A central diagnostic and anecdotal feature of autism is difficulty with social communication. We take the position that communication is a two-way, intersubjective phenomenon—as described by the double empathy problem—and offer up relevance theory as a means of explaining such communication difficulties. Based on a set of proposed heuristics for successful and rapid interpretation of intended meaning, relevance theory positions communication as contingent on shared—and, importantly, mutually recognized—“relevance.” Given that autistic and non-autistic people may have sometimes markedly different embodied experiences (...)
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  • Embodying the False-Belief Tasks.Michael Wilby - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):519-540.
    Embodied approaches to mindreading have tended to define themselves in contrast to cognitive approaches to social mindreading. One side effect of this has been a lack of engagement with key areas in the study of social cognition—in particular the topic of how we gain an understanding of the referential nature of others’ thoughts, and how that understanding develops from infancy. I argue that embodied accounts of mindreading are well equipped to enter into this debate, by making use of the notion (...)
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  • Ethical Dilemmas in Social Work Practice with Disabled People: Young Adults with Autism.David Wilkins - 2012 - Ethics and Social Welfare 6 (1):97-105.
    This paper discusses ethical dilemmas related to social work practice with young adults with autism. It does so via the use of a case study taken from real life practice. The different viewpoints and ethical frameworks of the young person, the young person's parents and the Local Authority (or the Local Authority social worker) are considered and discussed. The competing rights of the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (and the Optional Protocol) are also considered.
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  • Against a Normative View of Folk Psychology.Meredith R. Wilkinson - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social.Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta & Agnieszka Wykowska - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • Theory of Mind in Non-Verbal Apes: Conceptual Issues and the Critical Experiments.Andrew Whiten - 2001 - In D. Walsh (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 199-223.
    It is now over twenty years since Premack and Woodruff posed the question, ‘Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?’—‘by which we meant’, explained Premack in a later reappraisal, ‘does the ape do what humans do: attribute states of mind to the other one, and use these states to predict and explain the behaviour of the other one? For example, does the ape wonder, while looking quizzically at another individual, What does he really want? What does he believe? What (...)
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  • Human Enculturation, Chimpanzee Enculturation and the Nature of Imitation.Andrew Whiten - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):538-539.
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  • Belief–Desire Reasoning in the Explanation of Behavior: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?Annie E. Wertz & Tamsin C. German - 2007 - Cognition 105 (1):184-194.
  • Young Children's Reasoning About Beliefs.Henry M. Wellman & Karen Bartsch - 1988 - Cognition 30 (3):239-277.
  • The Role of Victims' Emotions in Preschoolers' Moral Judgments.Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Alan M. Leslie - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):439-455.
    Do victims’ emotions underlie preschoolers’ moral judgment abilities? Study 1 asked preschoolers (n = 72) to judge actions directed at characters who could and could not feel hurt and who did and did not cry. These judgments took into account only the nature of the action, not the nature of the victim. To further investigate how victims’ emotions might impact children’s moral judgments, Study 2 presented preschoolers (n = 37) with stories that varied in transgression type (Moral, Conventional, or None) (...)
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  • Autism, Metaphor and Relevance Theory.Catherine Wearing - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (2):196-216.
    The pattern of impairments exhibited by some individuals on the autism spectrum appears to challenge the relevance-theoretic account of metaphor ( Carston, 1996, 2002 ; Sperber and Wilson, 2002 ; Sperber and Wilson, 2008 ). A subset of people on the autism spectrum have near-normal syntactic, phonological, and semantic abilities while having severe difficulties with the interpretation of metaphor, irony, conversational implicature, and other pragmatic phenomena. However, Relevance Theory treats metaphor as importantly unlike phenomena such as conversational implicature or irony (...)
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  • Is Implicit Theory of Mind the ‘Real Deal’? The Own‐Belief/True‐Belief Default in Adults and Young Preschoolers.Lu Wang & Alan M. Leslie - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (2):147-176.
    Recent studies reveal spontaneous implicit false-belief understanding in infancy. But is this early ability genuine theory-of-mind? Spontaneous tasks may allow early success by eliminating the selection-response bias thought to underlie later failure on standard tasks. However, using anticipatory eye gaze, we find the same bias in non-verbal tasks in both preschoolers and adults. We argue that the bias arises from theory-of-mind competence itself and takes the form of a rational prior to attribute one's own belief to others. Our discussion then (...)
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  • Is Human Language Just Another Neurobiological Specialization?Stephen F. Walker - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):649-650.
    One can disagree with Müller that it is neurobiologically questionable to suppose that human language is innate, specialized, and species-specific, yet agree that the precise brain mechanisms controlling language in any individual will be influenced by epigenesis and genetic variability, and that the interplay between inherited and acquired aspects of linguistic capacity deserves to be investigated.
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  • The “Muscles of the Psyche”: From Body Literacy to Emotional Literacy.Maya Vulcan - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Autism spectrum disorder is a neuro-developmental condition, which requires a multi-disciplinary matrix of treatments, including functional, educational, and emotional interventions. The latter mode of treatment entails particular difficulties, inasmuch as the core deficits of this condition seem to challenge the very premises of traditional psychotherapy. Reciprocity, verbal, and symbolic expression and inter-subjective dynamics are often difficult to attain with clients diagnosed with ASD, and emotional treatment thus often turns out to be a frustrating process, which may well elicit questions as (...)
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  • Experiencia y cuerpo animado en el espectro autista. Evaluando los alcances y límites del DSM-5.Andrés Felipe Villamil Lozano - 2017 - Ideas Y Valores 66 (S3):137-156.
    Se aborda de forma crítica la exposición del desorden del espectro autista llevada a cabo en la quinta y última edición del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, herramienta principal de muchos psiquiatras para comprender y diagnosticar cualquier psicopatología. Con este abordaje se busca evidenciar cómo, en el DSM-5 –al igual que en la interpretación inaugurada por Baron-Cohen, Leslie y Frith–, se deja de lado la experiencia y el cuerpo animado del paciente, por lo que es aconsejable un nuevo (...)
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  • Stabilizing Autism: A Fleckian Account of the Rise of a Neurodevelopmental Spectrum Disorder.Berend Verhoeff - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 46 (1):65-78.
    Using the conceptual tools of philosopher of science Ludwik Fleck, I argue that the reframing of autism as a neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder is constrained by two governing ‘styles of thought’ of contemporary psychiatry. The first is the historically conditioned ‘readiness for directed perception’ of, and thinking in terms of, ontologically distinct diseases. The clinical gaze of mental health professionals, the bureaucratic needs of health administration, the clinical and scientific utility of disease categories, and the practices of autism-oriented advocacy groups all (...)
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  • Logic and Social Cognition: The Facts Matter, and so Do Computational Models.Rineke Verbrugge - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):649-680.
    This article takes off from Johan van Benthem’s ruminations on the interface between logic and cognitive science in his position paper “Logic and reasoning: Do the facts matter?”. When trying to answer Van Benthem’s question whether logic can be fruitfully combined with psychological experiments, this article focuses on a specific domain of reasoning, namely higher-order social cognition, including attributions such as “Bob knows that Alice knows that he wrote a novel under pseudonym”. For intelligent interaction, it is important that the (...)
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  • From Intra- to Interpsychological Analysis of Cognition: Cognitive Science at a Developmental Crossroad.Boris M. Velichkovsky - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):537-538.
  • Common Sense, Functional Theories and Knowledge of the Mind.Max Velmans - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):85-86.
    A commentary on a target article by Alison Gopnik (1993) How we know our minds: the illusion of first-person knowledge of intentionality. Focusing on evidence of how children acquire a theory of mind, this commentary argues that there are internal inconsistencies in theories that both argue for the functional role of conscious experiences and the irreducibility of those experiences to third-person viewable information processing.
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  • Empathy, Mentalization, and Theory of Mind in Borderline Personality Disorder: Possible Overlap With Autism Spectrum Disorders.Nicoletta Vegni, Caterina D'Ardia & Giulia Torregiani - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
  • Parameterized Complexity of Theory of Mind Reasoning in Dynamic Epistemic Logic.Iris van de Pol, Iris van Rooij & Jakub Szymanik - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 27 (3):255-294.
    Theory of mind refers to the human capacity for reasoning about others’ mental states based on observations of their actions and unfolding events. This type of reasoning is notorious in the cognitive science literature for its presumed computational intractability. A possible reason could be that it may involve higher-order thinking. To investigate this we formalize theory of mind reasoning as updating of beliefs about beliefs using dynamic epistemic logic, as this formalism allows to parameterize ‘order of thinking.’ We prove that (...)
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  • My Beliefs About Your Beliefs: A Case Study in Theory of Mind and Epistemic Logic.Hans van Ditmarsch & Willem Labuschagne - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):191-209.
    We model three examples of beliefs that agents may have about other agents’ beliefs, and provide motivation for this conceptualization from the theory of mind literature. We assume a modal logical framework for modelling degrees of belief by partially ordered preference relations. In this setting, we describe that agents believe that other agents do not distinguish among their beliefs (‘no preferences’), that agents believe that the beliefs of other agents are in part as their own (‘my preferences’), and the special (...)
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  • Developing Semiotic Activity in Cultural Contexts.B. van Oers - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):536-537.
  • Do People Automatically Track Others’ Beliefs? Evidence From a Continuous Measure.Robrecht P. R. D. van der Wel, Natalie Sebanz & Guenther Knoblich - 2014 - Cognition 130 (1):128-133.