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  1. Double Standards: The Role of Techniques of Neutralization.Tine De Bock & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (2):283 - 296.
    Despite the growing number of studies examining consumers' perceptions of unethical corporate and consumer practices, research examining the apparent double standard existing between what consumers perceive as acceptable corporate behaviour and what they believe are acceptable consumer practices remains scarce. Contradictory, double standards are often quoted by other researchers as a major stream in ethical literature.The few studies dealing with this topic as well as this study indicate that people rate corporate unethical actions as less admissible compared to similar consumer (...)
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  • Towards the Development of an Empirical Model for Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence from the Middle East.Petya Koleva - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (4):789-813.
    Academic research suggests that variances in contextual dynamics, and more specifically religion, may lead to disparate perceptions and practices of corporate social responsibility. Driven by the increased geopolitical and economic importance of the Middle East and identified gaps in knowledge, the study aims to examine if indeed there is a divergent form of CSR exercised in the region. The study identifies unique CSR dimensions and constructs presented through an empirical framework in order to outline the practice and perception of CSR (...)
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  • The Differential Influence of Identification on Ethical Judgment: The Role of Brand Love.M. Deniz Dalman, Mari W. Buche & Junhong Min - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):875-891.
    As negative information about companies becomes widely available and spreads rapidly through digital communications, understanding consumer reactions to these events and how human perceptions are shaped becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate how consumers’ identification with brands and their love for them affect their support for the brand during extremely unethical situations. The results indicate that brand identification both decreases and increases consumers’ ethical judgment following extremely unethical events. Moreover, we find that consumers who are in a love (...)
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  • Demographic & Related Differences in Ethical Views Among Small Businesses.Paul J. Serwinek - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (7):555 - 566.
    This study examines the effects of demographic characteristics on ethical perceptions. While earlier research has produced conflicting results regarding the predictive power of these variables, significant and definite insights were obtained with proper controls. The following predictors of ethical attitudes are examined: age, gender, marital status, education, dependent children status, region of the country and years in business, while controlling for job status. A nation-wide random sample of employees was used in obtaining a response rate of fifty-three percent (total n (...)
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  • The Ethical Decision-Making Processes of Information Systems Workers.David B. Paradice & Roy M. Dejoie - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (1):1 - 21.
    An empirical investigation was conducted to determine whether management information systems (MIS) majors, on average, exhibit ethical decision-making processes that differ from students in other functional business areas. The research also examined whether the existence of a computer-based information system in an ethical dilemma influences ethical desision-making processes. Although student subjects were used, the research instrument has been highly correlated with educational levels attained by adult subjects in similar studies. Thus, we feel that our results have a high likelihood of (...)
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  • Measuring Moral Judgment: The Moral Judgment Interview or the Defining Issues Test? [REVIEW]Dawn R. Elm & James Weber - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (5):341-355.
    This paper compares and contrasts two distinct techniques for measuring moral judgment: The Moral Judgment Interview and the Defining Issues Test. The theoretical foundations, accompanying advantages and limitations, as well as appropriate usage of these methodologies are discussed. Adaptation and use of the instruments for business ethics research is given special attention.
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  • An Investigation of the Moral Reasoning of Managers.Dawn R. Elm & Mary Lippitt Nichols - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (11):817 - 833.
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  • Managers, Values, and Executive Decisions: An Exploration of the Role of Gender, Career Stage, Organizational Level, Function, and the Importance of Ethics, Relationships and Results in Managerial Decision-Making. [REVIEW]John H. Barnett & Marvin J. Karson - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (10):747 - 771.
    A study of 513 executives researched decisions involving ethics, relationships and results. Analyzing personal values, organization role and level, career stage, gender and sex role with decisions in ten scenarios produced conclusions about both the role of gender, subjective values, and the other study variables and about situational relativity, gender stereotypes, career stages, and future research opportunities.
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  • Consumers' Evaluation of Unethical Marketing Behaviors: The Role of Customer Commitment. [REVIEW]Rhea Ingram, Steven J. Skinner & Valerie A. Taylor - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):237 - 252.
    While there is a significant amount of research investigating managerial ethical judgments, a limited amount examines consumer judgments of unethical corporate behavior and its impact on the marketplace. This study examines how consumers’ commitment to a company impacts not only their ethical judgment of corporate behavior but also the outcomes of that judgment. The authors test hypotheses with data from 334 consumers and find that consumers’ level of commitment attenuates the level of perceived fairness. More specifically, highly committed consumers may (...)
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  • Business Moral Values of Supervisors and Subordinates and Their Effect on Employee Effectiveness.Ding-Yu Jiang, Yi-Chen Lin & Lin-Chin Lin - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (2):239 - 252.
    Business moral values are defined as the personal moral values held by individuals who are engaged in business interactions. Direct supervisors may play an important role in shaping the business moral values of their subordinates. Using 264 supervisor— subordinate dyadic data from Taiwanese organizations, the study investigated the relationships among supervisor business moral values, subordinate business moral values, subordinate organizational commitment, job performance, and attendance. The results indicated that supervisor business moral values were positively associated with subordinate business moral values, (...)
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  • Ethically Questionable Negotiating: The Interactive Effects of Trust, Competitiveness, and Situation Favorability on Ethical Decision Making. [REVIEW]Filipe Sobral & Gazi Islam - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):281-296.
    This study explores the direct and interactive effects of individual differences in interpersonal trust and negotiation style on ethical decision-making processes across commonly faced negotiation situations. Individual differences influence basic ideas about legitimate negotiating behaviors, affect behavioral intentions directly, and interact with the favorability of negotiating situations, resulting in direct, indirect, and interactive effects on ethical decision-making processes. Using a sample of 298 participants in executive education workshops, the study analyzes the relationship between interpersonal trust, competitiveness, moral judgment, and behavioral (...)
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  • Values That Create Value: Socially Responsible Business Practices in SMEs – Empirical Evidence From German Companies.Eva-Maria Hammann, André Habisch & Harald Pechlaner - 2009 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 18 (1):37-51.
    Socially responsible business and ethical behaviour of companies have been of interest to academia and practice for decades. But the focus has almost exclusively been on large corporations while small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have not received as much attention. Thus, this paper focuses on socially responsible business practices of SME entrepreneurs or owner–managers in Germany. Based on the assumption that decision-makers in SMEs are the central point where all business activities start, members of a German entrepreneurs association were approached (...)
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  • Consumers’ Evaluation of Unethical Marketing Behaviors: The Role of Customer Commitment.Rhea Ingram, Steven J. Skinner & Valerie A. Taylor - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):237-252.
    While there is a significant amount of research investigating managerial ethical judgments, a limited amount examines consumer judgments of unethical corporate behavior and its impact on the marketplace. This study examines how consumers' commitment to a company impacts not only their ethical judgment of corporate behavior but also the outcomes of that judgment. The authors test hypotheses with data from 334 consumers and find that consumers' level of commitment attenuates the level of perceived fairness. More specifically, highly committed consumers may (...)
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  • Ethical Sensitivity for Organizational Communication Issues: Examining Individual and Organizational Differences.Tammy Swenson-Lepper - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (3):205-231.
    . This descriptive study discusses cognitive mapping as a technique for analyzing ethical sensitivity, examines whether the method allows comparisons between people, compares the ethical sensitivity levels of participants from three organizations, examines which indicators of ethical sensitivity are most salient to members of specific organizations, and examines whether education level or organizational membership is the best predictor of an individual’s ethical sensitivity level. Subjects from three organizations read background information, listened to two audiotaped scenarios containing multiple ethical issues related (...)
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  • Gods Are Still in Business - Introduction to the Symposium: God and Management.Marian Eabrasu - 2019 - Philosophy of Management 18 (3):293-302.
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  • The Link Between Social Movements and Corporate Social Initiatives: Toward a Multi-Level Theory.Panayiotis Georgallis - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (4):735-751.
    This article offers a first step toward a multi-level theory linking social movements to corporate social initiatives. In particular, building on the premise that social movements reflect ideologies that direct behavior inside and outside organizations, this essay identifies mechanisms by which social movements induce firms to engage with social issues. First, social movements are able to influence the expectations that key stakeholders have about firms’ social responsibility, making corporate social initiatives more attractive. Second, through conflict or collaboration, they shape firms’ (...)
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  • Making Sense of the Research on Gender and Ethics in Business.Laurie Babin - 1997 - Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (4):61-90.
    This article represents an attempt to organize, critique, and extend research findings on gender differences in business ethics. The focus is on two dependent variables—ethical judgment and behavioral intent. Differences in findings between student and professional groups are noted and theoretical implications are discussed. The new research provided for this article contains two benchmark studies undertaken with identical stimuli and identical measures. These studies were followed by two additional studies, using the same measures but different stimuli, as a partial replication (...)
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  • Understanding Research on Values in Business A Level of Analysis Framework.Bradley R. Agle & Craig B. Caldwell - 1999 - Business and Society 38 (3):326-387.
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  • Moral Values: Situationally Defined Individual Differences.Elizabeth D. Scott - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (2):497-521.
    This article suggests that there are individual differences in how people define important moral values, and that these differences are made manifest in differences in the situations. It identifies five dimensions along which individuals can differ in their understandings of values: 1) value category (where the value lies in the hierarchy), 2) agent (how voluntary the action is and whether it is morally required of the agent), 3) object (how close the self is to the object of the action; whether (...)
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  • Ethics in Declining Organizations.Marshall Schminke - 1991 - Business Ethics Quarterly 1 (3):235-248.
    This paper explores the relationship between declining organizations and unethical behavior. Data from a four month long managementsimulation indicate that declining organizations demonstrate a greater propensity for unethical activities than do more successful companies. The results indicate that: I) organizations in decline are more likely to be involved in unethical activities; 2) the more severe the decline is, the more unethical the behavior is likely to be; and 3) it is organizational decline and not initial propensities toward unethical conduct that (...)
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  • Academic and Business Ethical Misconduct and Cultural Values: A Cross National Comparison. [REVIEW]Soheila Mirshekary & Ann D. K. Lawrence - 2009 - Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (3):141-157.
    Efforts to promote ethical behaviour in business and academic contexts have raised awareness of the need for an ethical orientation in business students. This study examines the similarities and differences between the personal values of Iranian and Australian business students and their attitudes to cheating behaviour in universities and unethical practices in business settings. Exploratory factory analysis provided support for three distinct ethics factors—serious academic ethical misconduct, minor academic ethical misconduct, and business ethical misconduct. Results reveal statistically significant differences between (...)
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  • “What’s the Harm in Being Unethical? These Strangers Are Rich Anyway!” Exploring Underlying Factors of Double Standards.Tine De Bock, Iris Vermeir & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (2):225-240.
    Previous studies show evidence of double standards in terms of individuals being more tolerant of questionable consumer practices than of similar business practices. However, whether these double standards are necessarily due to the fact that one party is a business company while the other is a consumer was not addressed. The results of our two experimental studies, conducted among 277 (Study 1) and 264 (Study 2) participants from a Western European country by means of an anonymous self-administered online survey, demonstrate (...)
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  • Differences in Moral Values Between Corporations.Paul C. Nystrom - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (12):971 - 979.
    This research compares the importance of moral values for corporations' managements, as reported by 97 knowledgeable employees in eight corporations. Does an employee consensus emerge within corporations and does it differ between corporations? To answer this question, an analysis of covariance technique was used to compare the importance of moral values between corporations versus within corporations. Results corroborate the hypothesis that closely matched corporations do differ significantly from one another in the importance of prevailing moral values. Evidence also suggests that (...)
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  • Taking Stock: Can the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Unethical Conduct? [REVIEW]Donna M. Randall - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (11):873 - 882.
    Extensive interest in business ethics has developed accompanied by an increase in empirical research on the determinants of unethical conduct. In setting forth the theory of reasoned action, Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) maintained that research attention on such variables as personality traits and demographic characteristics is misplaced and, instead, researchers should focus on behavioral intentions and the beliefs that shape those intentions. This study summarizes business ethics research which tests the theory of reasoned action and suggests directions for further research.
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  • Supervisor Role Modeling, Ethics-Related Organizational Policies, and Employee Ethical Intention: The Moderating Impact of Moral Ideology.Pablo Ruiz-Palomino & Ricardo Martinez-Cañas - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (4):653-668.
    The moral ideology of banking and insurance employees in Spain was examined along with supervisor role modeling and ethics-related policies and procedures for their association with ethical behavioral intent. In addition to main effects, we found evidence supporting that the person–situation interactionist perspective in supervisor role modeling had a stronger positive relationship with ethical intention among employees with relativist moral ideology. Also as hypothesized, formal ethical polices and procedures were positively related to ethical intention among those with universal beliefs, but (...)
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  • Exploring the Structure of Ethical Attributions as a Component of the Consumer Decision Model: The Vicarious Versus Personal Perspective. [REVIEW]Joel Whalen, Robert E. Pitts & John K. Wong - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):285 - 293.
    The managerial ethics literature is used as a base for the inclusion of Ethical Attribution, as an element in the consumer's decision process. A situational model of ethical consideration in consumer behavior is proposed and examined for Personal vs. Vicarious effects. Using a path analytic approach, unique structures are reported for Personal and Vicarious situations in the evaluation of a seller's unethical behavior. An attributional paradigm is suggested to explain the results.
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  • “What's the Harm in Being Unethical? These Strangers Are Rich Anyway!” Exploring Underlying Factors of Double Standards.Tine Bock, Iris Vermeir & Patrick Kenhove - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (2):225-240.
    Previous studies show evidence of double standards in terms of individuals being more tolerant of questionable consumer practices than of similar business practices. However, whether these double standards are necessarily due to the fact that one party is a business company while the other is a consumer was not addressed. The results of our two experimental studies, conducted among 277 (Study 1) and 264 (Study 2) participants from a Western European country by means of an anonymous self-administered online survey, demonstrate (...)
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  • The Influence of Personal and Organizational Values on Marketing Professionals' Ethical Behavior.Ishmael P. Akaah & Daulatram Lund - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (6):417 - 430.
    The authors examine empirically the influence of personal and organizational values on marketing professionals'' ethical behavior. The results indicate that personal and organizational values underlie differences in marketing professionals'' ethical behavior, albeit small terms of the proportion of explained variance. The results also suggest the relationship between organizational values and ethical behavior to be significant. However, the same is not the case for the relationship between personal values and ethical behavior.
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  • An Examination of the Association Between Gender and Reporting Intentions for Fraudulent Financial Reporting.Steven Kaplan, Kurt Pany, Janet Samuels & Jian Zhang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):15-30.
    We report the results of a study that examines the association between gender and individuals’ intentions to report fraudulent financial reporting using non-anonymous and anonymous reporting channels. In our experimental study, we examine whether reporting intentions in response to discovering a fraudulent financial reporting act are associated with the participants’ gender, the perpetrator’s gender, and/or the interaction between the participants’ and perpetrator’s gender. We find that female participants’ reporting intentions for an anonymous channel are higher than for male participants; the (...)
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  • Assessing the “Tone at the Top”: The Moral Reasoning of CEOs in the Automobile Industry.James Weber - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):167-182.
    Relying on an expanded view of leadership and the moral reasoning framework developed by Lawrence Kohlberg (1981), this study explores the moral reasoning of the chief executive officers at the 11 largest automobile manufacturers in the world. Using the CEO's letter to their stakeholders found in the organizations' annual social responsibility reports, the CEOs' moral reasoning is compared to other managers' moral reasoning, and the moral reasoning exhibited within the CEO group is analyzed for differences due to regional location. Contrary (...)
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  • Methodology in Business Ethics Research: A Review and Critical Assessment. [REVIEW]D. M. Randall & A. M. Gibson - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (6):457 - 471.
    Using 94 published empirical articles in academic journals as a data base, this paper provides a critical review of the methodology employed in the study of ethical beliefs and behavior of organizational members. The review revealed that full methodological detail was provided in less than one half of the articles. Further, the majority of empirical research articles expressed no concern for the reliability or validity of measures, were characterized by low response rates, used convenience samples, and did not offer a (...)
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  • Managers' Attitudes About Firm Responsibilities.Sara A. Morris - 1996 - International Journal of Value-Based Management 9 (1):63-75.
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  • Values That Create Value: Socially Responsible Business Practices in SMEs - Empirical Evidence From German Companies.Eva-Maria Hammann, André Habisch & Harald Pechlaner - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (1):37-51.
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  • Are G.P.A. And Ethics Related?Andrew Sikula & Adelmiro D. Costa - 1995 - International Journal of Value-Based Management 8 (3):237-253.
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