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  1. Simulation, Simplicity, and Selection: An Evolutionary Perspective on High-Level Mindreading. [REVIEW]Armin Schulz - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (2):271 - 285.
    In this paper, I argue that a natural selection-based perspective gives reasons for thinking that the core of the ability to mindread cognitively complex mental states is subserved by a simulationist process—that is, that it relies on nonspecialised mechanisms in the attributer's cognitive architecture whose primary function is the generation of her own decisions and inferences. In more detail, I try to establish three conclusions. First, I try to make clearer what the dispute between simulationist and non-simulationist theories of mindreading (...)
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  • Special Divine Insight: Escaping the Snow Queen's Palace.Andrew Pinsent - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (4):173.
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  • ¿Qué es la neurorretórica?Francisco Arenas Dolz - 2013 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 58:69-80.
    Este artículo considera el potencial trabajo cooperativo entre los especialistas en retórica y los neurocientíficos, explorando cómo poner en práctica de manera significativa la investigación retórica en el ámbito de las neurociencias.
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  • Creativity, Psychosis, Autism, and the Social Brain.Michael Fitzgerald & Ziarih Hawi - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):268-269.
    In the target article, Crespi & Badcock (C&B) propose a novel hypothesis based on observations that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autism-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions. They propose that development of these conditions is mediated in part by alterations in This hypothesis is based on the model of the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The authors have produced a masterful discussion of the differences between psychosis and autism. Of course, another article could be written on the (...)
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  • Psychosis and Autism as Diametrical Disorders of the Social Brain.Bernard Crespi & Christopher Badcock - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):241-261.
    Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders also (...)
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  • Balance Within the Neurexin Trans-Synaptic Connexus Stabilizes Behavioral Control.Raymond A. Clarke & Valsamma Eapen - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • Depth Accessibility Difficulties: An Alternative Conceptualisation of Autism Spectrum Conditions.John Lawson - 2003 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (2):189–202.
    Autism and Asperger syndrome are psychiatric conditions diagnosed primarily on the basis of deficits and problems in social behaviour; interaction and communication. At present the explanation of these behavioural features is dominated by three cognitive models. However, it is a characteristic of each of these models that they only explain a sub-set of the overall features.The aim of this paper is to suggest an alternative conceptual theory of autism and Asperger syndrome that unites the current three models. Thus, the aim (...)
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  • Can Studies of Autism Teach Us About Consciousness of the Physical and the Mental?Simon Baron-Cohen - 1999 - Philosophical Explorations 2 (3):175-188.
    Most scientists and theorists concerned with the problem of consciousness focus on our consciousness of the physical world (our sensations, feelings, and awareness). In this paper I consider our consciousness of the mental world (our thoughts about thoughts, intentions, wishes, and emotions).The argument is made that these are two distinct forms of consciousness, the evidence for this deriving from studies of autism. Autism is a severe childhood psychiatric condition in which individuals may be conscious of the physical world but not (...)
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  • Motion, Identity and the Bias Toward Agency.Chris Fields - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • Axiom, Anguish, and Amazement: How Autistic Traits Modulate Emotional Mental Imagery.Gianluca Esposito, Sara Dellantonio, Claudio Mulatti & Remo Job - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Shepard Illusion Is Reduced in Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder Because of Perceptual Rather Than Attentional Mechanisms.Philippe A. Chouinard, Kayla A. Royals, Oriane Landry & Irene Sperandio - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Savant Memory in a Man with Colour Form-Number Synaesthesia and Asperger.Simon Baron-Cohen, D. Bor, J. Billington, J. Asher, S. Wheelwright & C. Ashwin - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (9-10):237-251.
    Extreme conditions like savantism, autism or synaesthesia, which have a neurological 2AH, UK basis, challenge the idea that other minds are similar to our own. In this paper we report a single case study of a man in whom all three of these conditions co-occur. We suggest, on the basis of this single case, that when savantism and synaesthesia co- occur, it is worthwhile testing for an undiagnosed Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). This is because savantism has an established association with (...)
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  • Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants.India Harvey, Samuela Bolgan, Daniel Mosca, Colin McLean & Elena Rusconi - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  • Four Broad Temperament Dimensions: Description, Convergent Validation Correlations, and Comparison with the Big Five.Helen E. Fisher, Heide D. Island, Jonathan Rich, Daniel Marchalik & Lucy L. Brown - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Sex, Lies and Gender.Irina Mikhalevich & Russell Powell - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (1):14-16.
    Browne 1 (this issue ) argues that what may appear to be a benevolent practice-disclosing the sex of a fetus to expecting parents who wish to know-is in fact an epistemically problematic and, as a result, ethically questionable medical practice. Browne worries that not only will the disclosure of fetal sex encourage sex-selective abortions (an issue we will not take up here), but also that it will convey a misleading and pernicious message about the relationship between sex and gender. More (...)
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  • Emotional Androgyny: A Preventive Factor of Psychosocial Risks at Work?Leire Gartzia, Jon Pizarro & Josune Baniandres - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism and the Potential Adverse Effects for Boys and Girls with Autism.Timothy M. Krahn & Andrew Fenton - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):93-103.
    Autism, typically described as a spectrum neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in verbal ability and social reciprocity as well as obsessive or repetitious behaviours, is currently thought to markedly affect more males than females. Not surprisingly, this encourages a gendered understanding of the Autism Spectrum. Simon Baron-Cohen, a prominent authority in the field of autism research, characterizes the male brain type as biased toward systemizing. In contrast, the female brain type is understood to be biased toward empathizing. Since persons with (...)
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  • Cultivation of Empathy in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.Pier Jaarsma - 2013 - Ethics and Education 8 (3):290-300.
    High-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder typically lack cognitive empathy, compromising their moral agency from both a Kantian and a Humean perspective. Nevertheless, they are capable of exhibiting moral behavior, and sometimes, they exhibit what may be deemed ‘super-moral’ behavior. The empathy deficit poses, to varying degrees, limitations with respect to their moral motivation and moral agency. To compensate for this deficit, individuals with HF-ASD rely primarily, and justifiably, on the formation and application of moral rules. Educators who focus predominantly (...)
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  • The Phenomenal Stance.Philip Robbins & Anthony I. Jack - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 127 (1):59-85.
    Cognitive science is shamelessly materialistic. It maintains that human beings are nothing more than complex physical systems, ultimately and completely explicable in mechanistic terms. But this conception of humanity does not ?t well with common sense. To think of the creatures we spend much of our day loving, hating, admiring, resenting, comparing ourselves to, trying to understand, blaming, and thanking -- to think of them as mere mechanisms seems at best counterintuitive and unhelpful. More often it may strike us as (...)
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  • The Simulating Social Mind: The Role of the Mirror Neuron System and Simulation in the Social and Communicative Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - unknown
    The mechanism by which humans perceive others differs greatly from how humans perceive inanimate objects. Unlike inanimate objects, humans have the distinct property of being “like me” in the eyes of the observer. This allows us to use the same systems that process knowledge about self-performed actions, self-conceived thoughts, and self-experienced emotions to understand actions, thoughts, and emotions in others. The authors propose that internal simulation mechanisms, such as the mirror neuron system, are necessary for normal development of recognition, imitation, (...)
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  • Analysis of Human Brain Structure Reveals That the Brain “Types” Typical of Males Are Also Typical of Females, and Vice Versa.Daphna Joel, Ariel Persico, Moshe Salhov, Zohar Berman, Sabine Oligschläger, Isaac Meilijson & Amir Averbuch - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  • Assessing Theory of Mind by Humor: The Humor Comprehension and Appreciation Test.Simge Aykan & Erhan Nalçacı - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts with Sex to Affect Face Recognition Ability.Yvette N. Lamb, Nicole S. McKay, Shrimal S. Singh, Karen E. Waldie & Ian J. Kirk - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Categories of Evidence Relating to the Hypothesis That Mammalian Sex Ratios at Birth Are Causally Related to the Hormone Concentrations of Both Parents Around the Time of Conception.William H. James - 2011 - Journal of Biosocial Science 43 (2):167-184.
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  • Individual Difference Factors in the Learning and Transfer of Patterning Discriminations.Maes Elisa, Vanderoost Elias, D'Hooge Rudi, De Houwer Jan & Beckers Tom - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Cultural Differences in Perceiving Sounds Generated by Others: Self Matters.Liyu Cao & Joachim Gross - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Human Capabilities, Mild Autism, Deafness and the Morality of Embryo Selection.Pier Jaarsma & Stellan Welin - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):817-824.
    A preimplantation genetic test to discriminate between severe and mild autism spectrum disorder might be developed in the foreseeable future. Recently, the philosophers Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane claimed that there are strong reasons for prospective parents to make use of such a test to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to autism or Asperger’s disorder. In this paper we will criticize this claim. We will discuss the morality of selection for mild autism in embryo selection in a (...)
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  • The Role of Pattern Extrapolation in the Perception of Dynamic Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Letizia Palumbo, Sylwia T. Macinska & Tjeerd Jellema - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading Across the Adult Life Span.Renata Wacker, Sven Bölte & Isabel Dziobek - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Sex Differences in Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Cerebellum in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Rachel E. W. Smith, Jason A. Avery, Gregory L. Wallace, Lauren Kenworthy, Stephen J. Gotts & Alex Martin - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
  • Culture–Sex Interaction and the Self-Report Empathy in Australians and Mainland Chinese.Qing Zhao, David L. Neumann, Yuan Cao, Simon Baron-Cohen, Chao Yan, Raymond C. K. Chan & David H. K. Shum - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Interplay Between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy Across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?Rianne van Rooijen, Caroline M. M. Junge & Chantal Kemner - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Men Who Compliment a Woman's Appearance Using Metaphorical Language: Associations with Creativity, Masculinity, Intelligence and Attractiveness.Zhao Gao, Qi Yang, Xiaole Ma, Benjamin Becker, Keshuang Li, Feng Zhou & Keith M. Kendrick - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Sex-Related Variation in Human Behavior and the Brain.Melissa Hines - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):448-456.
  • The “Mechanism” of Human Cognitive Variation.Matthew K. Belmonte - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):263-264.
    The theory of psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders offers a tractable and testable view of normal and abnormal human cognitive variation as a function of opposing traits grouped by their selection for maternal and paternal reproductive fitness. The theory could be usefully rooted and developed with reference to the lower-level perceptual and attentional phenomena from which social cognitive modules are developmentally refined.
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  • A Review of Empathy Education in Nursing. [REVIEW]Scott Brunero, Scott Lamont & Melissa Coates - 2010 - Nursing Inquiry 17 (1):65-74.
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  • Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator.Andrew Shaner, Geoffrey Miller & Jim Mintz - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (4):389-413.
    Siblings compete for parental care and feeding, while parents must allocate scarce resources to those offspring most likely to survive and reproduce. This could cause offspring to evolve traits that advertise health, and thereby attract parental resources. For example, experimental evidence suggests that bright orange filaments covering the heads of North American coot chicks may have evolved for this fitness-advertising purpose. Could any human mental disorders be the equivalent of dull filaments in coot chicks—low-fitness extremes of mental abilities that evolved (...)
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  • Mapping Cognitive Structure Onto the Landscape of Philosophical Debate: An Empirical Framework with Relevance to Problems of Consciousness, Free Will and Ethics.Jared P. Friedman & Anthony I. Jack - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (1):73-113.
    There has been considerable debate in the literature as to whether work in experimental philosophy actually makes any significant contribution to philosophy. One stated view is that many X-Phi projects, notwithstanding their focus on topics relevant to philosophy, contribute little to philosophical thought. Instead, it has been claimed the contribution they make appears to be to cognitive science. In contrast to this view, here we argue that at least one approach to X-Phi makes a contribution which parallels, and also extends, (...)
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  • Individual Differences in (Non-Visual) Processing Style Predict the Face Inversion Effect.Natalie A. Wyer, Douglas Martin, Tracey Pickup & C. Neil Macrae - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (2):373-384.
    Recent research suggests that individuals with relatively weak global precedence (i.e., a smaller propensity to view visual stimuli in a configural manner) show a reduced face inversion effect (FIE). Coupled with such findings, a number of recent studies have demonstrated links between an advantage for feature-based processing and the presentation of traits associated with autism among the general population. The present study sought to bridge these findings by investigating whether a relationship exists between the possession of autism-associated traits (i.e., as (...)
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  • A Mature View of Autism.Simon Baron-Cohen - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (9):380-383.
  • Mathematical Talent is Linked to Autism.Simon Baron-Cohen, Sally Wheelwright, Amy Burtenshaw & Esther Hobson - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (2):125-131.
    A total of 378 mathematics undergraduates (selected for being strong at “systemizing”) and 414 students in other (control) disciplines at Cambridge University were surveyed with two questions: (1) Do you have a diagnosed autism spectrum condition? (2) How many relatives in your immediate family have a diagnosed autism spectrum condition? Results showed seven cases of autism in the math group (or 1.85%) vs one case of autism in the control group (or 0.24%), a ninefold difference that is significant. Controlling for (...)
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  • Kinds Behaving Badly: Intentional Action and Interactive Kinds.Sophie R. Allen - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    This paper investigates interactive kinds, a class of kinds suggested by Ian Hacking for which classification generates a feedback loop between the classifiers and what is classified, and argues that human interactive kinds should be distinguished from non-human ones. First, I challenge the claim that there is nothing ontologically special about interactive kinds in virtue of their members being classified as such. To do so, I reject Cooper’s counterexample to Hacking’s thesis that kind descriptions are necessary for intentional action, arguing (...)
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  • Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance.Meredith Meyer, Andrei Cimpian & Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Male Versus Female: How the Gender of Apologizers Influences Consumer Forgiveness.Haiying Wei & Yaxuan Ran - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (2):371-387.
    In a corporate apology, the apologizer can be either a male or a female. How does the gender of the apologizer influence consumer forgiveness? We suggest that the relative effectiveness of corporate apologies made by males versus females depends on the nature of the corporate wrongdoing, namely whether the wrongdoing is related to performance or to value. Three experiments demonstrate that a male apologizer elicits more consumer forgiveness than a female apologizer for performance-related wrongdoings, while a female apologizer garners more (...)
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  • A New Spin on the Wheel of Fortune: Priming of Action-Authorship Judgements and Relation to Psychosis-Like Experiences.Simon R. Jones, Lee de-Wit, Charles Fernyhough & Elizabeth Meins - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):576-586.
    The proposal that there is an illusion of conscious will has been supported by findings that priming of stimulus location in a task requiring judgements of action-authorship can enhance participants’ experience of agency. We attempted to replicate findings from the ‘Wheel of Fortune’ task [Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Wegner, D. M. . On the inference of personal authorship: enhancing experienced agency by priming effect information. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 439–458]. We also examined participants’ performance on this task in relation (...)
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  • The Evolutionary Social Brain: From Genes to Psychiatric Conditions.Bernard Crespi & Christopher Badcock - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):284-320.
    The commentaries on our target article, reflect the multidisciplinary yet highly fragmented state of current studies of human social cognition. Progress in our understanding of the human social brain must come from studies that integrate across diverse analytic levels, using conceptual frameworks grounded in evolutionary biology.
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  • Anticipating Intentional Actions: The Effect of Eye Gaze Direction on the Judgment of Head Rotation.Matthew Hudson, Chang Hong Liu & Tjeerd Jellema - 2009 - Cognition 112 (3):423-434.
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  • Autism and Moral Responsibility: Executive Function, Reasons Responsiveness, and Reasons Blockage.Kenneth Richman - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (1):23-33.
    As a neurodevelopmental condition that affects cognitive functioning, autism has been used as a test case for theories of moral responsibility. Most of the relevant literature focuses on autism’s impact on theory of mind and empathy. Here I examine aspects of autism related to executive function. I apply an account of how we might fail to be reasons responsive to argue that autism can increase the frequency of excuses for transgressive behavior, but will rarely make anyone completely exempt from moral (...)
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  • Ontological Confusions but Not Mentalizing Abilities Predict Religious Belief, Paranormal Belief, and Belief in Supernatural Purpose.Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Jari Lipsanen - 2015 - Cognition 134:63-76.
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  • The Role of Higher-Order Expectations in David Lewis's Theory of Convention.Haruka Tsutsui - 2010 - Journal of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 37 (2):59-66.
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