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  1. More on the Fragility of Performance: Choking Under Pressure in Mathematical Problem Solving.Sian L. Beilock, Catherine A. Kulp, Lauren E. Holt & Thomas H. Carr - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (4):584-600.
  • Why Roger Federer is a GOAT: An Account of Sporting Genius.Joe Higgins - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (3):296-317.
    ABSTRACTWhy is Roger Federer a GOAT of tennis? I argue that the correct response goes beyond statistics and style of play; instead, it is due to the fact that Federer embodies the qualities that typify sporting genius. More than merely being a developed or refined form of expertise, sporting genius relies on the notion of performative fit; that is, the capacity to express viable ways of succeeding within a given sport in virtue of one’s cultivated history of biological and socio-cultural (...)
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  • Attending to the Execution of a Complex Sensorimotor Skill: Expertise Differences, Choking, and Slumps.Rob Gray - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 10 (1):42-54.
  • Yoga From the Mat Up: How Words Alight on Bodies.Doris McIlwain & John Sutton - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (6):655-673.
    Yoga is a unique form of expert movement that promotes an increasingly subtle interpenetration of thought and movement. The mindful nature of its practice, even at expert levels, challenges the idea that thought and mind are inevitably disruptive to absorbed coping. Building on parallel phenomenological and ethnographic studies of skilful performance and embodied apprenticeship, we argue for the importance in yoga of mental access to embodied movement during skill execution by way of a case study of instruction and practice in (...)
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  • Always Doing Your Best? Effort and Performance in Dynamic Settings.Nicolas Houy, Jean-Philippe Nicolaï & Marie Claire Villeval - forthcoming - Theory and Decision.
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  • Not Being There: An Analysis of Expertise‐Induced Amnesia.Simon Høffding & Barbara Gail Montero - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
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  • Cognition in Skilled Action: Meshed Control and the Varieties of Skill Experience.Wayne Christensen, John Sutton & Doris J. F. McIlwain - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (1):37-66.
    We present a synthetic theory of skilled action which proposes that cognitive processes make an important contribution to almost all skilled action, contrary to influential views that many skills are performed largely automatically. Cognitive control is focused on strategic aspects of performance, and plays a greater role as difficulty increases. We offer an analysis of various forms of skill experience and show that the theory provides a better explanation for the full set of these experiences than automatic theories. We further (...)
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  • Mindreading as Social Expertise.John Michael, Wayne Christensen & Søren Overgaard - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-24.
    In recent years, a number of approaches to social cognition research have emerged that highlight the importance of embodied interaction for social cognition (Reddy, How infants know minds, 2008; Gallagher, J Conscious Stud 8:83–108, 2001; Fuchs and Jaegher, Phenom Cogn Sci 8:465–486, 2009; Hutto, in Seemans (ed.) Joint attention: new developments in psychology, philosophy of mind and social neuroscience, 2012). Proponents of such ‘interactionist’ approaches emphasize the importance of embodied responses that are engaged in online social interaction, and which, according (...)
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  • Rationalizing Flow: Agency in Skilled Unreflective Action.Michael Brownstein - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (2):545-568.
    In recent work, Peter Railton, Julia Annas, and David Velleman aim to reconcile the phenomenon of “flow”—broadly understood as describing the “unreflective” aspect of skilled action—with one or another familiar conception of agency. While there are important differences between their arguments, Railton, Annas, and Velleman all make, or are committed to, at least one similar pivotal claim. Each argues, directly or indirectly, that agents who perform skilled unreflective actions can, in principle, accurately answer “Anscombean” questions—”what” and “why” questions— about what (...)
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  • Intuitions Without Concepts Lose the Game: Mindedness in the Art of Chess. [REVIEW]Barbara Montero & C. D. A. Evans - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):175-194.
    To gain insight into human nature philosophers often discuss the inferior performance that results from deficits such as blindsight or amnesia. Less often do they look at superior abilities. A notable exception is Herbert Dreyfus who has developed a theory of expertise according to which expert action generally proceeds automatically and unreflectively. We address one of Dreyfus’s primary examples of expertise: chess. At first glance, chess would seem an obvious counterexample to Dreyfus’s view since, clearly, chess experts are engaged in (...)
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  • Consciousness and Choking in Visually-Guided Actions.Johan M. Koedijker & David L. Mann - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):333-348.
    Choking under pressure describes the phenomenon of people performing well below their expected standard under circumstances where optimal performance is crucial. One of the prevailing explanations for choking is that pressure increases the conscious attention to the underlying processes of the performer's task execution, thereby disrupting what would normally be a relatively automatic process. However, research on choking has focused mainly on the influence of pressure on motor performance, typically overlooking how it might alter the way that vision is controlled (...)
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  • Is Monitoring One’s Actions Causally Relevant to Choking Under Pressure?Barbara Gail Montero - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):379-395.
    I have a painfully vivid memory of performing the Venezuelan choreographer Vincente Nebrada’s ballet Pentimento.After graduating from high school at age 15 and before entering college, I spent a number of years working as a professional ballet dancer with North Carolina Dance Theatre , among other companies. I was a new member of North Carolina Dance Theatre, and although the company had presented the piece on a number of occasions, this was the first time the director was watching from the (...)
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  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Reflection as a Guide to Action: Pressure Assails Performance in Multiple Ways.Thomas H. Carr - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):227-252.
    The current status of Beilock and Carr's "execution focus" theory of choking under pressure in performance of a sensorimotor skill is reviewed and assessed, mainly from the perspective of cognitive psychology, and put into the context of a wider range of issues, attempting to take philosophical analysis into account. These issues include other kinds of skills, pre-performance practice, post-performance evaluation and repair, and integrating new and creative achievements into repertoires of heavily practiced routines. The focus is on variation in the (...)
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  • From Clumsy Failure to Skillful Fluency: A Phenomenological Analysis of and Eastern Solution to Sport’s Choking Effect.Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):397-421.
    Excellent performance in sport involves specialized and refined skills within very narrow applications. Choking throws a wrench in the works of finely tuned performances. Functionally, and reduced to its simplest expression, choking is severe underperformance when engaging already mastered skills. Choking is a complex phenomenon with many intersecting facets: its dysfunctions result from the multifaceted interaction of cognitive and psychological processes, neurophysiological mechanisms, and phenomenological dynamics. This article develops a phenomenological model that, complementing empirical and theoretical research, helps understand and (...)
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  • Introduction: When Embodied Cognition and Sport Psychology Team-Up.Massimiliano L. Cappuccio - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):213-225.
    I.One of the main undertakings of the embodied approach to cognition is to spell out effectively the intuition that our body shapes what our mind can do . This endeavor is motivated—among other things – by the deep sense of awe that cognitive scientists experience in front of the sophistication, flexibility, and variability that can be reached by the motor abilities of well-trained humans. In particular, excellence in sporting skills inspires embodied cognition by exhibiting tangible evidence that the details of (...)
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  • Just Doing What I Do: On the Awareness of Fluent Agency.James M. Dow - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (1):155-177.
    Hubert Dreyfus has argued that cases of absorbed bodily coping show that there is no room for self-awareness in flow experiences of experts. In this paper, I argue against Dreyfus’ maxim of vanishing self-awareness by suggesting that awareness of agency is present in expert bodily action. First, I discuss the phenomenon of absorbed bodily coping by discussing flow experiences involved in expert bodily action: merging into the flow; immersion in the flow; emergence out of flow. I argue against the claim (...)
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  • Being-in-the-Flow: Expert Coping as Beyond Both Thought and Automaticity.Joshua A. Bergamin - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):403-424.
    Hubert Dreyfus argues that explicit thought disrupts smooth coping at both the level of everyday tasks and of highly-refined skills. However, Barbara Montero criticises Dreyfus for extending what she calls the ‘principle of automaticity’ from our everyday actions to those of trained experts. In this paper, I defend Dreyfus’ account while refining his phenomenology. I examine the phenomenology of what I call ‘esoteric’ expertise to argue that the explicit thought Montero invokes belongs rather to ‘gaps’ between or above moments of (...)
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  • The Paradox of Post‐Performance Amnesia.Barbara Gail Montero - 2019 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 44 (1):38-47.
    Midwest Studies In Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  • Putting Pressure on Theories of Choking: Towards an Expanded Perspective on Breakdown in Skilled Performance.Doris McIlwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):253-293.
    There is a widespread view that well-learned skills are automated, and that attention to the performance of these skills is damaging because it disrupts the automatic processes involved in their execution. This idea serves as the basis for an account of choking in high pressure situations. On this view, choking is the result of self-focused attention induced by anxiety. Recent research in sports psychology has produced a significant body of experimental evidence widely interpreted as supporting this account of choking in (...)
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  • The Sense of Agency and its Role in Strategic Control for Expert Mountain Bikers.Wayne Christensen, Kath Bicknell, Doris McIlwain & John Sutton - 2015 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 2 (3):340-353.
    Much work on the sense of agency has focused either on abnormal cases, such as delusions of control, or on simple action tasks in the laboratory. Few studies address the nature of the sense of agency in complex natural settings, or the effect of skill on the sense of agency. Working from 2 case studies of mountain bike riding, we argue that the sense of agency in high-skill individuals incorporates awareness of multiple causal influences on action outcomes. This allows fine-grained (...)
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  • Skilled Action.Wayne Christensen - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11).
  • Do We Reflect While Performing Skillful Actions? Automaticity, Control, and the Perils of Distraction.Juan Pablo Bermúdez - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (7):896-924.
    From our everyday commuting to the gold medalist’s world-class performance, skillful actions are characterized by fine-grained, online agentive control. What is the proper explanation of such control? There are two traditional candidates: intellectualism explains skillful agentive control by reference to the agent’s propositional mental states; anti-intellectualism holds that propositional mental states or reflective processes are unnecessary since skillful action is fully accounted for by automatic coping processes. I examine the evidence for three psychological phenomena recently held to support anti-intellectualism and (...)
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  • Moving and Thinking Together in Dance.John Sutton - 2005 - In Robin Grove, Kate Stevens & Shirley McKechnie (eds.), Thinking in Four Dimensions: creativity and cognition in contemporary dance. Melbourne UP. pp. 51-56.
    The collaborative projects described in this e-book have already produced thrilling new danceworks, new technologies, and innovative experimental methods. As the papers collected here show, a further happy outcome is the emergence of intriguing and hybrid kinds of writing. Aesthetic theory, cognitive psychology, and dance criticism merge, as authors are appropriately driven more by the heterogeneous nature of their topics than by any fixed disciplinary affiliation. We can spy here the beginnings of a mixed phenomenology and ethnography of dance practice (...)
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  • Breadth and Depth of Knowledge in Expert Versus Novice Athletes.John Sutton & Doris McIllwain - 2015 - In Damion Farrow & Joe Baker (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sport Expertise. Routledge.
    Questions about knowledge in expert sport are not only of applied significance: they also take us to the heart of foundational and heavily-disputed issues in the cognitive sciences. To a first (rough and far from uncontroversial) approximation, we can think of expert ‘knowledge’ as whatever it is that grounds or is applied in (more or less) effective decision-making, especially when in a competitive situation a performer follows one course of action out of a range of possibilities. In these research areas, (...)
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  • Conceptuality of Unreflective Actions in Flow: McDowell-Dryfus Debate.Ali Far - 2015 - GSTF Journal of General Philosophy 1 (2).
    The objective of this paper is to supplement Gottlieb’s challenge to Dryfus who claims that concepts are not operative in expert’s unreflective actions. First, concepts that an agent develops over time with practice, starting from the stage of novelty, become deeply rooted and persist through his expertise stage, according to common sense. It is unlikely that such rooted concepts become inoperative just when it is time for the agent to put them to use during the time that he is in (...)
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  • The NOTECHS+: A Short Scale Designed for Assessing the Non-Technical Skills in the Aviation and the Emergency Personnel.Andrea Ceschi, Arianna Costantini, Vivian Zagarese, Eleonora Avi & Riccardo Sartori - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Impact of Physical Exercise on Convergent and Divergent Thinking.Lorenza S. Colzato, Ayca Szapora, Justine N. Pannekoek & Bernhard Hommel - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  • Stereotype Threat and Working Memory: Mechanisms, Alleviation, and Spillover.Sian L. Beilock, Robert J. Rydell & Allen R. McConnell - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (2):256-276.
  • Examination of the Suitability of Collecting in Event Cognitive Processes Using Think Aloud Protocol in Golf.Amy E. Whitehead, Jamie A. Taylor & Remco C. J. Polman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Movement Kinematics and Learning Strategies Associated with Adopting Different Foci of Attention During Both Acquisition and Anxious Performance.Gavin P. Lawrence, Victoria M. Gottwald, Michael A. Khan & Robin S. S. Kramer - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  • Expertise-Based Differences in Search and Option-Generation Strategies.Markus Raab & Joseph G. Johnson - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 13 (3):158-170.
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  • Divisions Within the Posterior Parietal Cortex Help Touch Meet Vision.Catherine L. Reed - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):218-218.
    The parietal cortex is divided into two major functional regions: the anterior parietal cortex that includes primary somatosensory cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that includes the rest of the parietal lobe. The PPC contains multiple representations of space. In Dijkerman & de Haan's (D&dH's) model, higher spatial representations are separate from PPC functions. This model should be developed further so that the functions of the somatosensory system are integrated with specific functions within the PPC and higher spatial representations. (...)
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  • Taking a Conscious Look at the Body Schema.Jonathan P. Maxwell, Richard S. W. Masters & John van der Kamp - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):216-217.
    Dijkerman & de Haan (D&dH) propose a somatosensory perceptual pathway that informs a consciously accessible body image, and an action pathway that provides information to a body schema, which is not consciously accessible. We argue that the body schema may become accessible to consciousness in some circumstances, possibly resulting from cross talk, but that this may be detrimental to skilled movement production.
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  • Somatosensory Processes Subserving Perception and Action.H. Chris Dijkerman & Edward H. F. de Haan - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):189-201.
    The functions of the somatosensory system are multiple. We use tactile input to localize and experience the various qualities of touch, and proprioceptive information to determine the position of different parts of the body with respect to each other, which provides fundamental information for action. Further, tactile exploration of the characteristics of external objects can result in conscious perceptual experience and stimulus or object recognition. Neuroanatomical studies suggest parallel processing as well as serial processing within the cerebral somatosensory system that (...)
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  • The Strength Model of Self-Control in Sport and Exercise Psychology.Chris Englert - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Forecasting and Ethical Decision Making: What Matters?Cheryl Stenmark - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (6):445-462.
    This study examined how the number and types of consequences considered are related to forecasting and ethical decision making. Undergraduate participants took on the role of the key actor in several ethical problems and were asked to forecast potential outcomes and make a decision about each problem. Performance pressure was manipulated by ostensibly making rewards contingent on good problem-solving performance. The results indicated that forecast quality was associated with decision ethicality, and the identification of the critical consequences of the problem (...)
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  • The Spur of the Moment: What Jazz Improvisation Tells Cognitive Science.Steve Torrance & Frank Schumann - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (2):251-268.
    Improvisation is ubiquitous in life. It deserves, we suggest, to occupy a more central role in cognitive science. In the current paper, we take the case of jazz improvisation as a rich model domain from which to explore the nature of improvisation and expertise more generally. We explore the activity of the jazz improviser against the theoretical backdrop of Dreyfus’s account of expertise as well as of enactivist and 4E accounts of cognition and action. We argue that enactivist and 4E (...)
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  • Motivational Representations Within a Computational Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper discusses essential motivational representations necessary for a comprehensive computational cognitive architecture. It hypothesizes the need for implicit drive representations, as well as explicit goal representations. Drive representations consist of primary drives — both low-level primary drives (concerned mostly with basic physiological needs) and high-level primary drives (concerned more with social needs), as well as derived (secondary) drives. On the basis of drives, explicit goals may be generated on the fly during an agent’s interaction with various situations. These motivational (...)
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  • Recording Thoughts While Memorizing Music: A Case Study.Tania Lisboa, Roger Chaffin & Alexander P. Demos - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Regulating Force in Putting by Using the Borg CR100 Scale®.Bo Molander, C. -J. Olsson, Andreas Stenling & Elisabet Borg - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Action Monitoring Through External or Internal Focus of Attention Does Not Impair Endurance Performance.Francesca Vitali, Cantor Tarperi, Jacopo Cristini, Andrea Rinaldi, Arnaldo Zelli, Fabio Lucidi, Federico Schena, Laura Bortoli & Claudio Robazza - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Relative Effectiveness of Various Instructional Approaches in Developing Anticipation Skill.Nicholas J. Smeeton, A. Mark Williams, Nicola J. Hodges & Paul Ward - 2005 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 11 (2):98-110.
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  • Dynamic Neuro-Cognitive Imagery Improves Developpé Performance, Kinematics, and Mental Imagery Ability in University-Level Dance Students.Amit Abraham, Rebecca Gose, Ron Schindler, Bethany H. Nelson & Madeleine E. Hackney - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Commentary: “Poverty Impedes Cognitive Function” and “The Poor's Poor Mental Power”.Junhua Dang, Shanshan Xiao & Siegfried Dewitte - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Attention and Time Constraints in Perceptual-Motor Learning and Performance: Instruction, Analogy, and Skill Level.Johan M. Koedijker, Jamie M. Poolton, Jonathan P. Maxwell, Raôul R. D. Oudejans, Peter J. Beek & Rich S. W. Masters - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):245-256.
    We sought to gain more insight into the effects of attention focus and time constraints on skill learning and performance in novices and experts by means of two complementary experiments using a table tennis paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that skill-focus conditions and slowed ball frequency disrupted the accuracy of experts, but dual-task conditions and speeded ball frequency did not. For novices, only speeded ball frequency disrupted accuracy. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings by instructing novices either explicitly or by (...)
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  • Unreflective Action and the Argument From Speed.Gabriel Gottlieb - 2011 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):338-362.
    Hubert Dreyfus has defended a novel view of agency, most notably in his debate with John McDowell. Dreyfus argues that expert actions are primarily unreflective and do not involve conceptual activity. In unreflective action, embodied know-how plays the role reflection and conceptuality play in the actions of novices. Dreyfus employs two arguments to support his conclusion: the argument from speed and the phenomenological argument. I argue that Dreyfus's argumentative strategies are not successful, since he relies on a dubious assumption about (...)
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  • Skills and Knowledge - Nothing but Memory?Jens Erling Birch - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):362 - 378.
    The aim of this article is to enquire into neuroscientific research on memory and relate it to topics of skill, knowledge and consciousness. The article outlines some contemporary theories on procedural and working memory, and discusses what contributions they give to sport science and philosophy of sport. It is argued that memory research gives important insights to the neuronal structures and events involved in knowledge and consciousness contributing to sport skills, but that these explanations are not exhaustive. The article argues (...)
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  • 7—Riding The Wind—Consummate Performance, Phenomenology, and Skillful Fluency.Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (4):374-419.
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  • Know-How, Procedural Knowledge, and Choking Under Pressure.Gabriel Gottlieb - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):361-378.
    I examine two explanatory models of choking: the representationalist model and the anti-representationalist model. The representationalist model is based largely on Anderson's ACT model of procedural knowledge and is developed by Masters, Beilock and Carr. The antirepresentationalist model is based on dynamical models of cognition and embodied action and is developed by Dreyfus who employs an antirepresentational view of know-how. I identify the models' similarities and differences. I then suggest that Dreyfus is wrong to believe representational activity requires reflection and (...)
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  • Anchoring on Self and Others During Social Inferences.F. X. Willard Daniel & B. Markman Arthur - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):819-841.
    When making inferences about similar others, people anchor and adjust away from themselves. However, research on relational self theory suggests the possibility of using knowledge about others as an anchor when they are more similar to a target. We investigated whether social inferences are made on the basis of significant other knowledge through an anchoring and adjustment process, and whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Participants answered questions about their likes and habits, (...)
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