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  1. Thirty Years of Artificial Intelligence and Law: The Second Decade.Giovanni Sartor, Michał Araszkiewicz, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Tom van Engers, Enrico Francesconi, Henry Prakken, Giovanni Sileno, Frank Schilder, Adam Wyner & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2022 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 30 (4):521-557.
    The first issue of Artificial Intelligence and Law journal was published in 1992. This paper provides commentaries on nine significant papers drawn from the Journal’s second decade. Four of the papers relate to reasoning with legal cases, introducing contextual considerations, predicting outcomes on the basis of natural language descriptions of the cases, comparing different ways of representing cases, and formalising precedential reasoning. One introduces a method of analysing arguments that was to become very widely used in AI and Law, namely (...)
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  • SM-BERT-CR: A Deep Learning Approach for Case Law Retrieval with Supporting Model.Yen Thi-Hai Vuong, Quan Minh Bui, Ha-Thanh Nguyen, Thi-Thu-Trang Nguyen, Vu Tran, Xuan-Hieu Phan, Ken Satoh & Le-Minh Nguyen - forthcoming - Artificial Intelligence and Law:1-28.
    Case law retrieval is the task of locating truly relevant legal cases given an input query case. Unlike information retrieval for general texts, this task is more complex with two phases and much harder due to a number of reasons. First, both the query and candidate cases are long documents consisting of several paragraphs. This makes it difficult to model with representation learning that usually has restriction on input length. Second, the concept of relevancy in this domain is defined based (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence as Law: Presidential Address to the Seventeenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. [REVIEW]Bart Verheij - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (2):181-206.
    Information technology is so ubiquitous and AI’s progress so inspiring that also legal professionals experience its benefits and have high expectations. At the same time, the powers of AI have been rising so strongly that it is no longer obvious that AI applications help promoting a good society; in fact they are sometimes harmful. Hence many argue that safeguards are needed for AI to be trustworthy, social, responsible, humane, ethical. In short: AI should be good for us. But how to (...)
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  • On the Concept of Relevance in Legal Information Retrieval.Marc van Opijnen & Cristiana Santos - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 25 (1):65-87.
    The concept of ‘relevance’ is crucial to legal information retrieval, but because of its intuitive understanding it goes undefined too easily and unexplored too often. We discuss a conceptual framework on relevance within legal information retrieval, based on a typology of relevance dimensions used within general information retrieval science, but tailored to the specific features of legal information. This framework can be used for the development and improvement of legal information retrieval systems.
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  • Encoded summarization: summarizing documents into continuous vector space for legal case retrieval.Vu Tran, Minh Le Nguyen, Satoshi Tojo & Ken Satoh - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (4):441-467.
    We present our method for tackling a legal case retrieval task by introducing our method of encoding documents by summarizing them into continuous vector space via our phrase scoring framework utilizing deep neural networks. On the other hand, we explore the benefits from combining lexical features and latent features generated with neural networks. Our experiments show that lexical features and latent features generated with neural networks complement each other to improve the retrieval system performance. Furthermore, our experimental results suggest the (...)
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  • Representing Dimensions Within the Reason Model of Precedent.Adam Rigoni - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (1):1-22.
    This paper gives an account of dimensions in the reason model found in Horty : 1–33, 2011), Horty and Bench-Capon and Rigoni :133–160, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s10506-015-9166-x). The account is constructed with the purpose of rectifying problems with the approach to incorporating dimensions in Horty, namely, the problems arising from the collapse of the distinction between the reason model and the result model on that approach. Examination of the newly constructed theory revealed that the importance of dimensions in the reason model (...)
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  • A Principle-Based Robustness Analysis of Admissibility-Based Argumentation Semantics.Tjitze Rienstra, Chiaki Sakama, Leendert van der Torre & Beishui Liao - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (3):305-339.
    The principle-based approach is a methodology to classify and analyse argumentation semantics. In this paper we classify seven of the main alternatives for argumentation semantics using a set of new robustness principles. These principles complement Baroni and Giacomin’s original classification and deal with the behaviour of a semantics when the argumentation framework changes due to the addition or removal of an attack between two arguments. We distinguish so-called persistence principles and monotonicity principles, where the former deal with the question of (...)
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  • Detecting Tax Evasion: A Co-Evolutionary Approach.Erik Hemberg, Jacob Rosen, Geoff Warner, Sanith Wijesinghe & Una-May O’Reilly - 2016 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 24 (2):149-182.
    We present an algorithm that can anticipate tax evasion by modeling the co-evolution of tax schemes with auditing policies. Malicious tax non-compliance, or evasion, accounts for billions of lost revenue each year. Unfortunately when tax administrators change the tax laws or auditing procedures to eliminate known fraudulent schemes another potentially more profitable scheme takes it place. Modeling both the tax schemes and auditing policies within a single framework can therefore provide major advantages. In particular we can explore the likely forms (...)
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  • AI and society: a virtue ethics approach.Mirko Farina, Petr Zhdanov, Artur Karimov & Andrea Lavazza - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Advances in artificial intelligence and robotics stand to change many aspects of our lives, including our values. If trends continue as expected, many industries will undergo automation in the near future, calling into question whether we can still value the sense of identity and security our occupations once provided us with. Likewise, the advent of social robots driven by AI, appears to be shifting the meaning of numerous, long-standing values associated with interpersonal relationships, like friendship. Furthermore, powerful actors’ and institutions’ (...)
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  • Modeling law search as prediction.Faraz Dadgostari, Mauricio Guim, Peter A. Beling, Michael A. Livermore & Daniel N. Rockmore - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 29 (1):3-34.
    Law search is fundamental to legal reasoning and its articulation is an important challenge and open problem in the ongoing efforts to investigate legal reasoning as a formal process. This Article formulates a mathematical model that frames the behavioral and cognitive framework of law search as a sequential decision process. The model has two components: first, a model of the legal corpus as a search space and second, a model of the search process that is compatible with that environment. The (...)
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  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Legal Text Analytics.Jack G. Conrad & L. Karl Branting - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (2):99-102.
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  • Semantic Web Regulatory Models: Why Ethics Matter.Pompeu Casanovas - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):33-55.
    The notion of validity fulfils a crucial role in legal theory. In the emerging Web 3.0, Semantic Web languages, legal ontologies, and normative multi-agent systems are designed to cover new regulatory needs. Conceptual models for complex regulatory systems shape the characteristic features of rules, norms, and principles in different ways. This article outlines one of such multilayered governance models, designed for the CAPER platform, and offers a definition of Semantic Web Regulatory Models . It distinguishes between normative-SWRM and institutional-SWRM. It (...)
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  • Primer on an Ethics of AI-Based Decision Support Systems in the Clinic.Matthias Braun, Patrik Hummel, Susanne Beck & Peter Dabrock - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e3-e3.
    Making good decisions in extremely complex and difficult processes and situations has always been both a key task as well as a challenge in the clinic and has led to a large amount of clinical, legal and ethical routines, protocols and reflections in order to guarantee fair, participatory and up-to-date pathways for clinical decision-making. Nevertheless, the complexity of processes and physical phenomena, time as well as economic constraints and not least further endeavours as well as achievements in medicine and healthcare (...)
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  • HYPO's Legacy: Introduction to the Virtual Special Issue.T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 25 (2):205-250.
    This paper is an introduction to a virtual special issue of AI and Law exploring the legacy of the influential HYPO system of Rissland and Ashley. The papers included are: Arguments and cases: An inevitable intertwining, BankXX: Supporting legal arguments through heuristic retrieval, Modelling reasoning with precedents in a formal dialogue Game, A note on dimensions and factors, An empirical investigation of reasoning with legal cases through theory construction and application, Automatically classifying case texts and predicting outcomes, A factor-based definition (...)
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  • Before and After Dung: Argumentation in AI and Law.T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (1-2):221-238.
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  • Noise Induced Hearing Loss: Building an Application Using the ANGELIC Methodology.Latifa Al-Abdulkarim, Katie Atkinson, Trevor Bench-Capon, Stuart Whittle, Rob Williams & Catriona Wolfenden - 2018 - Argument and Computation 10 (1):5-22.
  • Handbook of Argumentation Theory.Frans Hendrik van Eemeren, Erik Bart Garssen, A. Francisca Snoeck Henkemans C. W. Krabbe, Jean Bart Verheij & H. M. Wagemans - 2014 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
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  • Handbook of Formal Argumentation.Pietro Baroni, Dov Gabbay, Massimilino Giacomin & Leendert van der Torre (eds.) - 2018 - London, England: College Publications.
    The Handbook of Formal Argumentation is a community effort aimed at providing a comprehensive and up-to-date view of the state of the art and current trends in the lively research field of formal argumentation. The first volume of the Handbook is organised into five parts, containing nineteen chapters in all, each written by leading experts in the field. The first part provides a general and historical perspective on the field. The second part gives a comprehensive coverage of the argumentation formalisms (...)
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