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  1. 'Playing God' and 'Vexing Nature': A Cultural Perspective.Georgiana Kirkham - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (2):173-195.
    In this paper I examine the twin concepts of 'playing God', and its secular equivalent – that which I term for the purpose of this discussion 'vexing Nature' – as they relate to arguments against certain human technological actions and behaviours. While noting the popular subscription to the notion that certain acts constitute instances of 'playing God' or interfering in the natural order, philosophers often deny that such phrases have any application to the central ethical issues in the areas where (...)
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  • Humanistic interpretation and machine learning.Juho Pääkkönen & Petri Ylikoski - 2021 - Synthese 199:1461–1497.
    This paper investigates how unsupervised machine learning methods might make hermeneutic interpretive text analysis more objective in the social sciences. Through a close examination of the uses of topic modeling—a popular unsupervised approach in the social sciences—it argues that the primary way in which unsupervised learning supports interpretation is by allowing interpreters to discover unanticipated information in larger and more diverse corpora and by improving the transparency of the interpretive process. This view highlights that unsupervised modeling does not eliminate the (...)
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  • Global bioethics – myth or reality?Søren Holm & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-10.
    Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, (...)
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  • How to Play the “Playing God” Card.Moti Mizrahi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1445-1461.
    When the phrase “playing God” is used in debates concerning the use of new technologies, such as cloning or genetic engineering, it is usually interpreted as a warning not to interfere with God’s creation or nature. I think that this interpretation of “playing God” arguments as a call to non-interference with nature is too narrow. In this paper, I propose an alternative interpretation of “playing God” arguments. Taking an argumentation theory approach, I provide an argumentation scheme and accompanying critical questions (...)
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  • The Scope and Implications of Morals Not Knowledge.John H. Evans - 2019 - Zygon 54 (3):665-679.
    I greatly appreciate the opportunity provided by the editor of Zygon to further develop the ideas in my book Morals Not Knowledge: Recasting the Contemporary U.S. Conflict between Religion and Science in conversation with four critical commentaries. It is an honor to have one's work focused upon so intently, and I greatly appreciate the time and effort of the critics. The book was quite intentionally written as a provocation, an attempt at agenda setting, and as a call for changing the (...)
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  • Discourse analysis of academic debate of ethics for AGI.Ross Graham - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (4):1519-1532.
    Artificial general intelligence is a greatly anticipated technology with non-trivial existential risks, defined as machine intelligence with competence as great/greater than humans. To date, social scientists have dedicated little effort to the ethics of AGI or AGI researchers. This paper employs inductive discourse analysis of the academic literature of two intellectual groups writing on the ethics of AGI—applied and/or ‘basic’ scientific disciplines henceforth referred to as technicians (e.g., computer science, electrical engineering, physics), and philosophy-adjacent disciplines henceforth referred to as PADs (...)
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  • When Extinction Is Warranted: Invasive Species, Suppression-Drives and the Worst-Case Scenario.Ann C. Thresher - 2022 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 25 (2):132-152.
    Most current techniques to deal with invasive species are ineffective or have highly damaging side effects. To this end suppression-drives based on clustered regularly inter-spaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) have been touted as a potential silver bullet for the problem, allowing for a highly focused, humane and cost-effective means of removing a target species from an environment. Suppression-drives come with serious risks, however, such that the precautionary principle seems to warrant us not deploying this technology. The focus of this paper (...)
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  • What are the focal points in bioethics literature? Examining the discussions about everyday ethics in Parkinson’s disease.Natalie Zizzo, Emily Bell & Eric Racine - 2017 - Clinical Ethics 12 (1):19-23.
  • How Can We Help? From "Sociology in" to "Sociology of" Bioethics.Raymond Vries - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (2):279-292.
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  • How Can We Help? From "Sociology in" to "Sociology of" Bioethics.Raymond Vries - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (2):279-292.
  • Communicating with Sufferers: Lessons from the Book of Job.Joseph Tham - 2013 - Christian Bioethics 19 (1):82-99.
    This article looks at the question of sin and disease in bioethics with a spiritual-theological analysis from the book of Job. The biblical figure Job is an innocent and just man who suffered horrendously. His dialogues with others—his wife, his friends, and God—can give many valuable insights for patients who suffer and for those who interact with them. Family, friends, physicians, nurses, chaplains, and pastoral workers can learn from Job how to communicate properly with sufferers. The main question for Job (...)
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  • Whereto speculative bioethics? Technological visions and future simulations in a science fictional culture.Ari Schick - 2016 - Medical Humanities 42 (4):225-231.
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  • What Counts as “Success” in Speculative and Anticipatory Ethics? Lessons from the Advent of Germline Gene Editing.Ari Schick - 2019 - NanoEthics 13 (3):261-267.
    This discussion note offers a preliminary analysis of what recent developments in human germline gene editing tell us about the effectiveness of speculative and anticipatory modes of techno-ethics. It argues that the benefits of speculative discussions are difficult to detect thus far, and that pushing the focal point of ethical discourse well ahead of the current state of technology may prematurely undermine existing norms long before a broad consensus would justify moving beyond them.
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  • Do Publics Share Experts’ Concerns about Brain–Computer Interfaces? A Trinational Survey on the Ethics of Neural Technology.Matthew Sample, Sebastian Sattler, David Rodriguez-Arias, Stefanie Blain-Moraes & Eric Racine - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 2019 (6):1242-1270.
    Since the 1960s, scientists, engineers, and healthcare professionals have developed brain–computer interface (BCI) technologies, connecting the user’s brain activity to communication or motor devices. This new technology has also captured the imagination of publics, industry, and ethicists. Academic ethics has highlighted the ethical challenges of BCIs, although these conclusions often rely on speculative or conceptual methods rather than empirical evidence or public engagement. From a social science or empirical ethics perspective, this tendency could be considered problematic and even technocratic because (...)
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  • The history of autonomy in medicine from antiquity to principlism.Toni C. Saad - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):125-137.
    Respect for Autonomy has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress’ in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility (...)
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  • After the DNR: Surrogates Who Persist in Requesting Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.Ellen M. Robinson, Wendy Cadge, Angelika A. Zollfrank, M. Cornelia Cremens & Andrew M. Courtwright - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (1):10-19.
    Some health care organizations allow physicians to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation from a patient, despite patient or surrogate requests that it be provided, when they believe it will be more harmful than beneficial. Such cases usually involve patients with terminal diagnoses whose medical teams argue that aggressive treatments are medically inappropriate or likely to be harmful. Although there is state-to-state variability and a considerable judicial gray area about the conditions and mechanisms for refusals to perform CPR, medical teams typically follow a (...)
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  • The Clinic and the Tearoom.Geoffrey Rees - 2013 - Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (2):109-121.
    Although the clinical and the sexual are commonly treated as antithetical realms of experience, queer commentary teaches that the clinic is a positively sexual space and that clinical intimacy is a creative form of sexual intimacy. Contrary to writers such as Engelhardt, the clinic is a space where queer publics are forged, and the barriers between moral friends and moral strangers potentially dissolve, but only to the extent that one is disposed to allow oneself to enjoy experiences of identification that (...)
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  • The value and pitfalls of speculation about science and technology in bioethics: the case of cognitive enhancement.Eric Racine, Tristana Martin Rubio, Jennifer Chandler, Cynthia Forlini & Jayne Lucke - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):325-337.
    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view “cognitive enhancement” as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and (...)
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  • Two Problematic Foundations of Neuroethics and Pragmatist Reconstructions.Eric Racine & Matthew Sample - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):566-577.
    Common understandings of neuroethics, i.e., of its distinctive nature, are premised on two distinct sets of claims: (1) neuroscience can change views about the nature of ethics itself and neuroethics is dedicated to reaping such an understanding of ethics; (2) neuroscience poses challenges distinct from other areas of medicine and science and neuroethics tackles those issues. Critiques have rightfully challenged both claims, stressing how the first may lead to problematic forms of reductionism while the second relies on debatable assumptions about (...)
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  • Introduction: The ethical challenges of nanotechnologies. [REVIEW]Alan Petersen - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1):9-12.
    Nanotechnologies are expected to have a substantial impact on our lives in the future. However, the nanotechnology field is characterised by many uncertainties and debates surrounding the characterisation of technologies, the nature of the applications, the potential benefits and the likely risks. Given the rapid development of nanotechnologies, it is timely to consider what, if any, novel ethical challenges are posed by developments and how best to address these given the attendant uncertainties. The three articles which comprise this symposium consider (...)
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  • Ethics Expertise and Public Credibility: A Case Study of the Ethical Principle of Justice.Yoshio Nukaga - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (4):709-731.
    In recent years, scholars in science and technology studies have examined the advice that experts make for the governance of biomedicine. This STS scholarship, however, has not yet explained how the credibility of ethics expertise in public bioethics is produced from particular conditions and extended to different settings. This article describes how a bioethics commission created the ethical principle of justice and examines how the ethics expertise established public credibility on the justice principle. The findings suggest that the principle of (...)
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  • Biotechnology and the new right: Neoconservatism's red menace.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):7 – 13.
    Although the neoconservative movement has come to dominate American conservatism, this movement has its origins in the old Marxist Left. Communists in their younger days, as the founders of neoconservatism, inverted Marxist doctrine by arguing that moral values and not economic forces were the primary movers of history. Yet the neoconservative critique of biotechnology still borrows heavily from Karl Marx and owes more to the German philosopher Martin Heidegger than to the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith. Loath to (...)
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  • Ethical Reflection Must Always be Measured.Alfred Moore, Sabine Könninger, Svea Luise Herrmann & Kathrin Braun - 2010 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 35 (6):839-864.
    The article analyses what we term governmental ethics regimes as forms of scientific governance. Drawing from empirical research on governmental ethics regimes in Germany, Franceand the UK since the early 1980s, it argues that these governmental ethics regimes grew out of the technical model of scientific governance, but have departed from it in crucial ways. It asks whether ethics regimes can be understood as new ‘‘technologies of humility’’ and answers the question with a ‘‘yes, but’’. Yes, governmental ethics regimes have (...)
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  • Diversity and Deliberation: Bioethics Commissions and Moral Reasoning.M. Cathleen Kaveny - 2006 - Journal of Religious Ethics 34 (2):311 - 337.
    This article considers the sort of diversity in perspective appropriate for a presidential commission on bioethics, and by implication, high-level governmental commissions on ethics more generally. It takes as its point of comparison the respective reports on human cloning produced by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, appointed by President Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush's President's Council on Bioethics, under the leadership of its original chair, Leon Kass. I argue that the Clinton Commission Report exemplifies forensic diversity (the type of (...)
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  • Ethical Consequences of the Positive Views of Enhancement in Asia.Darryl Macer - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (4):385-397.
    There are positive views towards use of science and technology in all Asian countries, and positive views towards use of enhancement in China, India and Thailand. After considering of the widespread use of cosmetic surgery and other body enhancements in Asian countries, and the generally positive views towards letting individuals make choices about improvement of themselves, the paper concludes that we can expect other enhancements to also be adopted rapidly in Asia. There will be future ethical dilemmas emerging from this (...)
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  • Docile Bodies: Transnational Research Ethics as Biopolitics.M. T. Lysaught - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (4):384-408.
    This essay explores the claim that bioethics has become a mode of biopolitics. It seeks to illuminate one of the myriad of ways that bioethics joins other institutionalized discursive practices in the task of producing, organizing, and managing the bodies—of policing and controlling populations—in order to empower larger institutional agents. The focus of this analysis is the contemporary practice of transnational biomedical research. The analysis is catalyzed by the enormous transformation in the political economy of transnational research that has occurred (...)
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  • The genetic technologies questionnaire: lay judgments about genetic technologies align with ethical theory, are coherent, and predict behaviour.Svenja Küchenhoff, Johannes Doerflinger & Nora Heinzelmann - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (54):1-14.
    -/- Policy regulations of ethically controversial genetic technologies should, on the one hand, be based on ethical principles. On the other hand, they should be socially acceptable to ensure implementation. In addition, they should align with ethical theory. Yet to date we lack a reliable and valid scale to measure the relevant ethical judgements in laypeople. We target this lacuna. -/- We developed a scale based on ethical principles to elicit lay judgments: the Genetic Technologies Questionnaire (GTQ). In two pilot (...)
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  • Diversity and deliberation.M. Cathleen Kaveny - 2006 - Journal of Religious Ethics 34 (2):311-337.
    ABSTRACTThis article considers the sort of diversity in perspective appropriate for a presidential commission on bioethics, and by implication, high‐level governmental commissions on ethics more generally. It takes as its point of comparison the respective reports on human cloning produced by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, appointed by President Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush's President's Council on Bioethics, under the leadership of its original chair, Leon Kass. I argue that the Clinton Commission Report exemplifies forensic diversity, while the Kass (...)
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  • Forbidding science: Some beginning reflections.Leon R. Kass - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):271-282.
    Growing powers to manipulate human bodies and minds, not merely to heal disease but to satisfy desires, control deviant behavior, and to change human nature, make urgent questions of whether and how to regulate their use, not merely to assure safety and efficacy but also to safeguard our humanity. Oversight in democratic societies rightly belongs to the polity, not merely to self-appointed experts, scientific or ethical. Yet the task of governing the uses of dangerous knowledge is daunting, and there is (...)
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  • Health Care Decision Making.S. Joseph Tham & Marie Catherine Letendre - 2014 - The New Bioethics 20 (2):174-185.
  • Through thick and thin: rationalizing the public bioethical debate over therapeutic cloning.Eric Jensen - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (4):194-198.
    Beauchamp and Childress (1994) elaborated an approach to bioethical deliberations based on four universalistic principles. This framework of ‘principlism’ has been criticized from within biomedical ethics as insufficient and problematic. However, this article considers a more radical sociological critique by John Evans (2002) that rejects the entire approach of defining ‘principles’ a priori. This sociological critique is based on classical sociologist Max Weber's (1925) distinction between instrumental (‘thin’) and substantive (‘thick’) rationality. As an exploratory assessment of Evans' critique, his conceptualization (...)
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  • The Sociology of Bioethics: The 'is' and the 'Ought'.Stephen J. Humphreys - 2008 - Research Ethics 4 (2):47-51.
    A selection of recent sociological literature dealing with bioethics, concentrating particularly on its interface with research ethics, is reviewed to reveal that the two disciplines of bioethics and sociology have tendencies to approach subject matters from opposed perspectives. These differences in approach have now been generally recognized, accepted and accommodated by proponents of both disciplines. A turning point in the relationship between the two disciplines may have been reached which augers greater mutual respect, appreciation and even learning.
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  • Climate Engineering and the Playing God Critique.Laura M. Hartman - 2017 - Ethics and International Affairs 31 (3):313-333.
    Climate engineering is subject to the “playing God” critique, which charges that humans should not undertake to control nature in ways that seem to overstep the proper scope of human agency. This argument is easily discredited, and in fact the opposite—that we should “play God”—may be equally valid in some circumstances. To revive the playing God critique, I argue that it functions not on a logical but on a symbolic and emotional level to highlight nostalgia for functional dualisms in the (...)
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  • Secular Dreams and Myths of Irreligion: On the Political Control of Religion in Public Bioethics.Boaz W. Goss & Jeffrey P. Bishop - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (2):219-237.
    Full-Blooded religion is not acceptable in mainstream bioethics. This article excavates the cultural history that led to the suppression of religion in bioethics. Bioethicists typically fall into one of the following camps. 1) The irreligious, who advocate for suppressing religion, as do Timothy F. Murphy, Sam Harris, and Richard Dawkins. This irreligious camp assumes American Fundamentalist Protestantism is the real substance of all religions. 2) Religious bioethicists, who defend religion by emphasizing its functions and diminishing its metaphysical commitments. Religious defenders (...)
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  • Philosophy in the Age of Neoliberalism.Robert Frodeman, Adam Briggle & J. Britt Holbrook - 2012 - Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):311-330.
    This essay argues that political, economic, and cultural developments have made the twentieth century disciplinary approach to philosophy unsustainable. It (a) discusses the reasons behind this unsustainability, which also affect the academy at large, (b) describes applied philosophy as an inadequate theoretical reaction to contemporary societal pressures, and (c) proposes a dedisciplined and interstitial approach??field philosophy??as a better response to the challenges facing the twenty-first century philosophy.
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  • The Social Context of Religion in the Jurisdictions of Bioethics.John H. Evans - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (12):1-4.
    In this issue, McCarthy, Homan and Rozier make the case for re-stablishing the relationship between theological and secular bioethics. I find MHR to be quite...
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  • The Empirical Examination of the Social Process of Genetic Enhancement, Objectification, and Maltreatment.John H. Evans - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (7):32-34.
    Volume 19, Issue 7, July 2019, Page 32-34.
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  • Power and Representation of the Public's Values in a Social Implications of Research Commission.John H. Evans - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (5):10-11.
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  • New Barriers on the Slippery Slope?John H. Evans - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):19-21.
    Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2020, Page 19-21.
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  • Keeping society from the benchside.John H. Evans - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):14 – 16.
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  • Between technocracy and democratic legitimation: A proposed compromise position for common morality public bioethics.John Evans - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (3):213 – 234.
    In this article I explore the underlying political philosophy of public bioethics by comparing it to technocratic authority, particularly the technocratic authority claimed by economists in Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. I find that public bioethics - at least in the dominant forms - is implicitly designed for and tries to use technocratic authority. I examine how this type of bioethics emerged and has continued. I finish by arguing that, as claims to technocratic authority go, bioethics is in an (...)
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  • Imagining a neuroethics which would go further than genethics.Hubert Doucet - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):29 – 31.
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  • How Can We Help? From “Sociology in” to “Sociology of” Bioethics.Raymond De Vries - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (2):279-292.
    The relationship between sociology and bioethics has been an uneasy one. It has been described as contentious and adversarial, and at least some of the sociologists who have ventured into the territory of medical ethics report back on unfriendly natives. This bioethical ill will toward sociology is not without cause. Sociologists have been quite critical of what they call the bioethical project. Two decades ago - when bioethics was just getting up on its organizational feet - Renée Fox and Judith (...)
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  • Life, DNA and the model.Robert Bud - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Science 46 (2):311-334.
    This paper argues that the 1953 double-helix solution to the problem of DNA structure was understood, at the time, as a blow within a fiercely fought dispute over the material nature of life. The paper examines the debates, between those for whom life was a purely material phenomenon and religious people for whom it had a spiritual significance, that were waged from the aftermath of the First World War to the 1960s. It looks at the developing arguments of early promoters (...)
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  • Three ways to politicize bioethics.Mark B. Brown - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):43 – 54.
    Many commentators today lament the politicization of bioethics, but some suggest distinguishing among different kinds of politicization. This essay pursues that idea with reference to three traditions of political thought: liberalism, communitarianism, and republicanism. After briefly discussing the concept of politicization itself, the essay examines how each of these political traditions manifests itself in recent bioethics scholarship, focusing on the implications of each tradition for the design of government bioethics councils. The liberal emphasis on the irreducible plurality of values and (...)
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  • A Review of: “Margaret L. Eaton, Ethics and the Business of Bioscience”: Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books, 2004. 534 pp. 80.00, hardcover. [REVIEW]Kean Birch - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (4):58-60.
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  • Impact and accountability: Improvement as a competency challenges the purposes of bioethics.Gary Belkin - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (2):14-16.
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  • A Path Not Taken: Beecher, Brain Death, and the Aims of Medicine.Gary Belkin - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):S10-S13.
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  • Memory and Justice in the Divine Liturgy: Christian Bioethics in Late Modernity.John Bekos - 2013 - Christian Bioethics 19 (1):100-113.
    As the prototype par excellence of Christian Orthodox ethics, the Divine Liturgy must constitute the prototype for Christian bioethics. According to St. Nicholas Cabasilas, the Divine Liturgy corresponds to the history of the economy of the Saviour and cultivates life in Christ, that is the way of life, the ethics that should characterize the life of a faithful Christian. The import of such an approach is significant for Orthodox Christian bioethics with regard to ethical questions that are connected both with (...)
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  • Balkanizing bioethics.Robert Baker - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):13 – 14.
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