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  1. Epistemology Contextualized: Social-Scientific Knowledge in a Postpositivist Era.Isaac Ariail Reed - 2010 - Sociological Theory 28 (1):20-39.
    In the production of knowledge about social life, two social contexts come together: the context of investigation, consisting of the social world of the investigator, and the context of explanation, consisting of the social world of the actors who are the subject of study. The nature of, and relationship between, these contexts is imagined in philosophy; managed, rewarded, and sanctioned in graduate seminars, journal reviews, and tenure cases; and practiced in research. Positivism proposed to produce objective knowledge by suppressing the (...)
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  • Posłuszne Klucze, Chodliwe Aparaty.Łukasz Afeltowicz & Witold Wachowski - 2013 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 4 (1).
    The authors' commentary on Bruno Latour's "Technology is society made durable" provides the reader with an opportunity to become acquainted with actor-network theory.
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  • The Genealogical Method in Epistemology.Martin Kusch & Robin McKenna - forthcoming - Synthese.
    In 1990 Edward Craig published a book called Knowledge and the State of Nature in which he introduced and defended a genealogical approach to epistemology. In recent years Craig’s book has attracted a lot of attention, and his distinctive approach has been put to a wide range of uses including anti-realist metaepistemology, contextualism, relativism, anti-luck virtue epistemology, epistemic injustice, value of knowledge, pragmatism and virtue epistemology. While the number of objections to Craig’s approach has accumulated, there has been no sustained (...)
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  • When Expert Disagreement Supports the Consensus.Finnur Dellsén - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):142-156.
    It is often suggested that disagreement among scientific experts is a reason not to trust those experts, even about matters on which they are in agreement. In direct opposition to this view, I argue here that the very fact that there is disagreement among experts on a given issue provides a positive reason for non-experts to trust that the experts really are justified in their attitudes towards consensus theories. I show how this line of thought can be spelled out in (...)
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  • Bruno Latour and the Secularization of Science.Massimiliano Simons - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (6):925-954.
    Many young dreamers who want to be modern up to the tips of their toes, and who think they have gotten rid of these barely imaginable old-fashioned ideas, are, without realizing it, mystics in search of a spiritual experience. Several sociologists of science have mobilized secularization metaphors to describe developments in the study of science. Similar to how secularization refers to a decreasing status of religion and God as a transcendent factor in society, the secularization of science refers to an (...)
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  • The “Pragmatic Trial”: An Essentially Contested Concept?Ray Pawson - 2019 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25 (6):943-954.
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  • Constructivism for Philosophers (Be It a Remark on Realism).Ofer Gal - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (4):523-549.
    : Bereft of the illusion of an epistemic vantage point external to science, what should be our commitment towards the categories, concepts and terms of that very science? Should we, despaired of the possibility to found these concepts on rock bottom, adopt empiricist skepticism? Or perhaps the inexistence of external foundations implies, rather, immunity for scientific ontology from epistemological criticism? Philosophy's "realism debate" died out without providing a satisfactory answer to the dilemma, which was taken over by the neighboring disciplines. (...)
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  • The Philosophy of Scientific Practice in Naturalist Thought: Its Approaches and Problems. [REVIEW]Xiaofei Tian & Tong Wu - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):589-603.
    It is the continuity between epistemology and empirical science that the naturalism in contemporary philosophy of science emphasizes. After its individual and social dimensions, the philosophy of scientific practice takes a stand on naturalism in order to observe complex scientific activities through practice. However, regarding the naturalism’s problem of normativity, the philosophy of scientific practice today has deconstructed more than it has constructed.
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  • Evolutionary Epistemology, Social Epistemology, and the Demic Structure of Science.Todd A. Grantham - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):443-463.
    One of the principal difficulties in assessing Science as aProcess (Hull 1988) is determining the relationship between the various elements of Hull's theory. In particular, it is hard to understand precisely how conceptual selection is related to Hull's account of the social dynamics of science. This essay aims to clarify the relation between these aspects of his theory by examining his discussion of the``demic structure'' of science. I conclude that the social account cando significant explanatory work independently of the selectionistaccount. (...)
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  • The Knowledge Content of Science and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Loet Leydesdorff - 1992 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 23 (2):241-263.
    Several, seemingly unrelated problems of empirical research in the 'sociology of scientific knowledge' can be analyzed as following from initial assumptions with respect to the status of the knowledge content of science. These problems involve: (1) the relation between the level of the scientific field and the group level; (2) the boundaries and the status of 'contexts', and (3) the emergence of so-called 'asymmetry' in discourse analysis. It is suggested that these problems can be clarified by allowing for cognitive factors (...)
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  • A Critique of Relativism in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Si Sun - 2007 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (1):115-130.
    “The Strong Programme” is put forward as a metaphysical theory of sociology by the Edinburgh School (SSK) to study the social causes of knowledge. Barry Barnes and David Bloor are the proponents of the School. They call their programme “the Relativist View of Knowledge” and argue against rationalism in the philosophy of science. Does their relativist account of knowledge present a serious challenge to rationalism, which has dominated 20th century philosophy of science? I attempt to answer this question by criticizing (...)
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  • Radical Constructivism in Biology and Cognitive Science.John Stewart - 2001 - Foundations of Science 6 (1-3):99-124.
    This article addresses the issue of objectivism vs constructivism in two areas,biology and cognitive science, which areintermediate between the natural sciences suchas physics (where objectivism is dominant) andthe human and social sciences (whereconstructivism is widespread). The issues inbiology and in cognitive science are intimatelyrelated; in each of these twin areas, the objectivism vs constructivism issue isinterestingly and rather evenly balanced; as aresult, this issue engenders two contrastingparadigms, each of which has substantialspecific scientific content. The neo-Darwinianparadigm in biology is closely resonant (...)
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  • The Possibility of a Mathematical Sociology of Scientific Communication.Loet Leydesdorff - 1996 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 27 (2):243-265.
    The focus on discourse and communication in the recent sociology of scientific knowledge offers new perspectives for an integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches in science studies. The common point of interest is the question of how reflexive communication systems communicate. The elaboration of the mathematical theory of communication into a theory of potentially self-organizing entropical systems enables us to distinguish the various layers of communication, and to specify the dynamic changes in these configurations over time. For example, a paradigmatic (...)
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  • Introduction: Systematicity, the Nature of Science?Karim Bschir, Simon Lohse & Hasok Chang - 2017 - Synthese 196 (3):1-13.
    Introduction to Synthese SI: Systematicity: The Nature of Science?
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  • Latour on Politics, Modernity, and Climate Change.Michael Lynch - 2019 - Metascience 28 (3):429-434.
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  • Alternative Facts and States of Fear: Reality and STS in an Age of Climate Fictions.Joanna Radin - 2019 - Minerva 57 (4):411-431.
    In the decades since the Science Wars of the 1990s, climate science has become a crucible for the negotiation of claims about reality and expertise. This negotiation, which has drawn explicitly on the ideas and techniques of science and technology studies, has taken place in genres of fiction as well as non-fiction, which intersect in surprising ways. In this case study, I focus on two interwoven strands of this history. One follows Michael Crichton’s best-selling 2004 novel, State of Fear and (...)
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  • Theological Underpinnings of the Modern Philosophy of Mathematics.Vladislav Shaposhnikov - 2016 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 44 (1):147-168.
    The study is focused on the relation between theology and mathematics in the situation of increasing secularization. My main concern in the second part of this paper is the early-twentieth-century foundational crisis of mathematics. The hypothesis that pure mathematics partially fulfilled the functions of theology at that time is tested on the views of the leading figures of the three main foundationalist programs: Russell, Hilbert and Brouwer.
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  • State of the Field: Are the Results of Science Contingent or Inevitable?Katherina Kinzel - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 52:55-66.
    This paper presents a survey of the literature on the problem of contingency in science. The survey is structured around three challenges faced by current attempts at understanding the conflict between “contingentist” and “inevitabilist” interpretations of scientific knowledge and practice. First, the challenge of definition: it proves hard to define the positions that are at stake in a way that is both conceptually rigorous and does justice to the plethora of views on the issue. Second, the challenge of distinction: some (...)
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  • Gift Versus Trade: On the Culture of Science Communication.Ilya Kasavin - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (6):453-472.
    This article aims at a critical reevaluation of the trading zone concept. It starts from a case study of the Faraday–Whewell collaboration in coming to terms with electrolysis experiments. The case is supposed to be an example of a trade zone of science/philosophy interaction though it demonstrates the unequal nature of the “trade.” This requires the analysis to log in some details concerning Galison’s metaphor of trading zones, which reveals its market-oriented connotations. The following criticism of the market metaphor for (...)
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  • Humanities-as-Technique: New Images of Knowledge and Ontological Construction.Eugenia Samostienko - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (6):473-492.
    The sociocultural landscape of contemporaneity can be represented as a porous inhomogeneous space consisting of border zones. These zones, understood by P. Galison as “local coordination of beliefs and actions,” can be deployed due to already existing conditions, for example, a project may arise at a university. However, such zones do not create sustainable social configurations and infrastructures associated with new areas of knowledge. In this article, we expand the concept of trading zones and call them zones requiring local ontologies (...)
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  • Scientific Ignorance: Probing the Limits of Scientific Research and Knowledge Production.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2019 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 34 (2):195.
    The aim of the paper is to clarify the concept of scientific ignorance: what is it, what are its sources, and when is it epistemically detrimental for science. I present a taxonomy of scientific ignorance, distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic sources. I argue that the latter can create a detrimental epistemic gap, which have significant epistemic and social consequences. I provide three examples from medical research to illustrate this point. To conclude, I claim that while some types of scientific ignorance (...)
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  • Identifying Pseudoscience: A Social Process Criterion.Gregory W. Dawes - 2018 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 49 (3):283-298.
    Many philosophers have come to believe there is no single criterion by which one can distinguish between a science and a pseudoscience. But it need not follow that no distinction can be made: a multifactorial account of what constitutes a pseudoscience remains possible. On this view, knowledge-seeking activities fall on a spectrum, with the clearly scientific at one end and the clearly non-scientific at the other. When proponents claim a clearly non-scientific activity to be scientific, it can be described as (...)
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  • La concepción estructural de la ciencia: una lectura histórica desde sus aportes a la pragmática.Adriana Gonzalo - 2012 - Agora 31 (2):13-41.
    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo central realizar aportes a la historia de la filosofía de la ciencia en general, y de la Concepción Estructural en particular, resaltando las contribuciones que desde esta última se han realizado en el campo de la pragmática; como también evaluar dichos logros, y señalar los límites y potencialidades de las propuestas analizadas en marco de la CE. En una primer etapa se comentarán los primeros desarrollos de las ideas pragmáticas en la CE, en integración (...)
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  • Is Science Neurotic?Nicholas Maxwell - 2002 - Metaphilosophy 33 (3):259-299.
    Neurosis can be interpreted as a methodological condition which any aim-pursuing entity can suffer from. If such an entity pursues a problematic aim B, represents to itself that it is pursuing a different aim C, and as a result fails to solve the problems associated with B which, if solved, would lead to the pursuit of aim A, then the entity may be said to be "rationalistically neurotic". Natural science is neurotic in this sense in so far as a basic (...)
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  • Two Problems with the Socio-Relational Critique of Distributive Egalitarianism.Christian Seidel - 2013 - In Miguel Hoeltje, Thomas Spitzley & Wolfgang Spohn (eds.), Was dürfen wir glauben? Was sollen wir tun? Sektionsbeiträge des achten internationalen Kongresses der Gesellschaft für Analytische Philosophie e.V. DuEPublico.
    Distributive egalitarians believe that distributive justice is to be explained by the idea of distributive equality (DE) and that DE is of intrinsic value. The socio-relational critique argues that distributive egalitarianism does not account for the “true” value of equality, which rather lies in the idea of “equality as a substantive social value” (ESV). This paper examines the socio-relational critique and argues that it fails because – contrary to what the critique presupposes –, first, ESV is not conceptually distinct from (...)
     
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  • Academic Success in America: Analytic Philosophy and the Decline of Wittgenstein.Guido Bonino & Paolo Tripodi - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-34.
    There is a rather widespread consensus, among historians of philosophy, concerning the decline of Wittgenstein amid recent analytic philosophy. However, the exact import of such a decline,...
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  • Philipp Frank’s Decline and the Crisis of Logical Empiricism.Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2017 - Studies in East European Thought 69 (3):257-276.
    The aim of the paper is to consider the narrative that Philipp Frank’s decline in the United States started in the 1940s and 1950s. Though this account captures a kernel of truth, it is not the whole story. After taking a closer look at Frank’s published writings and at his proposed book, one can see how he imagined the reunion of logical empiricism. His approach was centered on sociology and on the sociological aspects of science and knowledge. As I will (...)
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  • Balancing the Normativity of Expertise.Markus Seidel - 2019 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 8 (7):34-40.
  • Science as a Matter of Honour: How Accused Scientists Deal with Scientific Fraud in Japan.Pablo A. Pellegrini - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1297-1313.
    Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that took place in Japan (...)
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  • "The Real is Relational": An Epistemological Analysis of Pierre Bourdieu's Generative Structuralism.Frederic Vandenberghe - 1999 - Sociological Theory 17 (1):32-67.
    An internal reconstruction and an immanent critique of Bourdieu's generative structuralism is presented. Rather than starting with the concept of "habitus," as is usually done, the article tries to systematically reconstruct Bourdieu's theory by an analysis of the relational logic that permeates his whole work. Tracing the debt Bourdieu's approach owes to Bachelard's rationalism and Cassirer's relationalism, the article examines Bourdieu's epistemological writings of the 1960s and 70s. It tries to make the case that Bourdieu's sociological metascience represents a rationalist (...)
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  • Inaugural Lecture: Philosophy Enough.David Spurrett - 2009 - South African Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):43-64.
    This inaugural lecture was delivered at the Howard College Campus of UKZN on 2 April 2008. In it I do three things. First I sketch some arguments in favour of a naturalist conception of philosophy. The conclusions that I’m after are that philosophy is not an autonomous enterprise, so that it had better be continuous with scientific enquiry if it is to get anywhere. A supplementary claim I defend briefly is that the natural and social sciences should be viewed as (...)
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  • Towards a Curricular Model of the Nature of Science.Keith S. Taber - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (2-3):179-218.
  • Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Education: Part I.Peter Slezak - 1994 - Science & Education 3 (3):265-294.
  • Reader in epistemology; Social epistemology.Samal H. R. Manee - 2018 - Kurdistan: Mexak publishing house.
    This is book ll of three philosophy books in international language, formal academic philosophy source in Kurdish language. Written for non English speaking university students as a philosophy guide into epistemology/ Social epistemology, as a resource for the use of philosophy departments and philosophy schools.
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  • Parroting Patriots: Interspecies Trauma and Becoming-Well-Together.Brad Bolman - 2019 - Medical Humanities 45 (3):305-312.
    At a Veterans Affairs Medical Center in West Los Angeles, traumatised parrots and former soldiers participate in an experimental therapy programme aimed at overcoming the wounds of war and abandonment. Drawing on the work of Giorgio Agamben and Peter Sloterdijk, this article uses the VA parrot therapy programme to develop an interspecies account of trauma in and beyond language that emphasises the dangers of isolation and denaturalisation. Looking after parrots, veterans reacclimate themselves to an alternative mode of existence centred around (...)
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  • The Emergence of Evolutionary Biology of Behaviour in the Early Nineteenth Century.Robert J. Richards - 1982 - British Journal for the History of Science 15 (3):241-280.
    The sciences of ethology and sociobiology have as premisses that certain dispositions and behavioural patterns have evolved with species and, therefore, that the acts of individual animals and men must be viewed in light of innate determinates. These ideas are much older than the now burgeoning disciplines of the biology of behaviour. Their elements were fused in the early constructions of evolutionary theory, and they became integral parts of the developing conception. Historians, however, have usually neglected close examination of the (...)
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  • Technology and Change : The Role of Technology in Knowledge Civilization.P. Wierzbicki Andrzej - unknown
    The paper presents a reflection on the role of technology in the era of knowledge civilization. Diverse perceptions of this era, the concepts of three civilization eras versus three waves, of a conceptual platform versus an episteme of a civilization era, of a big change at the end of industrial civilization era are outlined. The deepening separation of the three spheres of technology, hard science, and social science with humanities is discussed. The contemporary philosophy of technology is shortly reviewed; it (...)
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  • Friends with Benefits! Distributed Cognition Hooks Up Cognitive and Social Conceptions of Science.P. D. Magnus & Ron McClamrock - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (8):1114-1127.
    One approach to science treats science as a cognitive accomplishment of individuals and defines a scientific community as an aggregate of individual inquirers. Another treats science as a fundamentally collective endeavor and defines a scientist as a member of a scientific community. Distributed cognition has been offered as a framework that could be used to reconcile these two approaches. Adam Toon has recently asked if the cognitive and the social can be friends at last. He answers that they probably cannot, (...)
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  • Naturalism and the Problem of Normativity: The Case of Historiography.Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (5):331-363.
    This article tackles the problem of normativity in naturalism and considers it in the context of the philosophy of historiography. I argue that strong naturalism is inconsistent with genuine normat...
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  • What Strong Sociologists Can Learn From Critical Realism: Bloor on the History of Aerodynamics.Christopher Norris - 2014 - Journal of Critical Realism 13 (1):3-37.
    This essay presents a long, detailed, in many ways critical but also appreciative account, of David Bloor’s recent book The Enigma of the Aerofoil. I take that work as the crowning statement of ideas and principles developed over the past four decades by Bloor and other exponents of the ‘strong programme’ in the sociology of scientific knowledge. It therefore offers both a test-case of that approach and a welcome opportunity to review, clarify and extend some of the arguments brought against (...)
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  • Crítica da Arrog'ncia Pura: A Filosofia Mais Perto da Pura Retórica Que da Ciência Dura.Alberto Oliva - 2009 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 2 (3).
    O conhecimento científico tem ficado a meio caminho entre a episteme - ou a veram &certam scientiam postulada por Descartes - e a doxa. Entre os cientistas é cada vez maior oreconhecimento de que mesmo que a verdade tenha sido alcançada não se tem como saberenquanto a pesquisa prosseguir. Na aparência, a filosofia é em alguns autores e em determinadosmomentos de sua história explicativamente mais pretensiosa que em outros. A tese que defendemosé a de que, no fundo, a hybris explicativa (...)
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  • Extensionalism and Intensionalism in the Realist-SSK ‘Debate’.Edward Mariyani-Squire - 2010 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 3 (2):26-46.
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  • Does Genomics Challenge the Social Construction of Race?Ann Morning - 2014 - Sociological Theory 32 (3):189-207.
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  • Friends at Last? Distributed Cognition and the Cognitive/Social Divide.Adam Toon - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-14.
    Distributed cognition (d-cog) claims that many cognitive processes are distributed across groups and the surrounding material and cultural environment. Recently, Nancy Nersessian, Ronald Giere, and others have suggested that a d-cog approach might allow us to bring together cognitive and social theories of science. I explore this idea by focusing on the specific interpretation of d-cog found in Edwin Hutchins' canonical text Cognition in the wild. First, I examine the scope of a d-cog approach to science, showing that there are (...)
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  • Marxism and Science Studies: A Sweep Through the Decades.Helena Sheehan - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (2):197 – 210.
    This article outlines the distinctive contribution of Marxism to science studies. It traces the trajectory of Marxist ideas through the decades from the origins of Marxism to the present conjuncture. It looks at certain key episodes, such as the arrival of a Soviet delegation at the International History of Science Congress in London in 1931, as well as subsequent interactions between Marxists and exponents of other positions at later international congresses. It focuses on the impact of several generations of Marxists (...)
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  • On the Evolutionary Defense of Scientific Antirealism.Seungbae Park - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (2):263-273.
    Van Fraassen (1980) claims that successful theories exist today because successful theories survive and unsuccessful ones die. Wray (2007, 2010) appeals to Stanford’s new pessimistic induction (2006), arguing that van Fraassen’s selectionist explanation is better than the realist explanation that successful theories exist because they are approximately true. I argue that if the pessimistic induction is correct, then the evolutionary explanation is neither true nor empirically adequate, and that realism is better than selectionism because realism explains more phenomena in science (...)
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  • Normativity and Mathematics: A Wittgensteinian Approach to the Study of Number.J. Robert Loftis - 1999 - Dissertation, Northwestern University
    I argue for the Wittgensteinian thesis that mathematical statements are expressions of norms, rather than descriptions of the world. An expression of a norm is a statement like a promise or a New Year's resolution, which says that someone is committed or entitled to a certain line of action. A expression of a norm is not a mere description of a regularity of human behavior, nor is it merely a descriptive statement which happens to entail a norms. The view can (...)
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  • Realism and Antirealism.Randall Harp & Kareem Khalifa - 2016 - In A. Rosenberg & L. McIntyre (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 254-269.
    Our best social scientific theories try to tell us something about the social world. But is talk of a “social world” a metaphor that we ought not take too seriously? In particular, do the denizens of the social world—cultural values like the Protestant work ethic, firms like ExxonMobil, norms like standards of dress and behavior, institutions like the legal system, teams like FC Barcelona, conventions like marriages—exist? The question is not merely academic. Social scientists use these different social entities to (...)
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  • Contextualism in Epistemology.Robin McKenna - 2015 - Analysis 75 (3):489-503.
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  • Assessing the “Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics”.Markus Pantsar - 2015 - Discipline Filosofiche:111-130.
    Abstract In the new millennium there have been important empirical developments in the philosophy of mathematics. One of these is the so-called “Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics”(EPM) of Buldt, Löwe, Müller and Müller-Hill, which aims to complement the methodology of the philosophy of mathematics with empirical work. Among other things, this includes surveys of mathematicians, which EPM believes to give philosophically important results. In this paper I take a critical look at the sociological part of EPM as a case study of (...)
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