Switch to: References

Citations of:

Theory and observation in science

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009)

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education Through Lakatos’s Philosophy of Science.Hyemin Han - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):32-53.
    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of science, this article mainly utilizes the perspectives of Lakatos’s research program. In particular, the article considers the relations and interactions between different fields, including moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. Finally, the potential (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  • Philosophy of Ethnobiology: Understanding Knowledge Integration and Its Limitations.David Ludwig & Charbel N. El-Hani - forthcoming - Journal of Ethnobiology.
    Ethnobiology has become increasingly concerned with applied and normative issues such as climate change adaptation, forest management, and sustainable agriculture. Applied ethnobiology emphasizes the practical importance of local and traditional knowledge in tackling these issues but thereby also raises complex theoretical questions about the integration of heterogeneous knowledge systems. The aim of this article is to develop a framework for addressing questions of integration through four core domains of philosophy - epistemology, ontology, value theory, and political theory. In each of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Respect, Punishment and Mandatory Neurointerventions.Sebastian Jon Holmen - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-10.
    The view that acting morally is ultimately a question of treating others with respect has had a profound influence on moral and legal philosophy. Not surprisingly, then, some scholars forcefully argue that the modes of punishment that the states mete out to offenders should not be disrespectful, and, furthermore, it has been argued that obliging offenders to receive neurological treatment is incompatible with showing them their due respect. In this paper, I examine three contemporary accounts of what showing respect for (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Modes of Argumentation in Aristotle's Natural Science.Adam W. Woodcox - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    Through a detailed analysis of the various modes of argumentation employed by Aristotle throughout his natural scientific works, I aim to contribute to the growing scholarship on the relation between Aristotle’s theory of science and his actual scientific practice. I challenge the standard reading of Aristotle as a methodological empiricist and show that he permits a variety of non-empirical arguments to support controversial theses in properly scientific contexts. Specifically, I examine his use of logical argumentation in the discussion of mule (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • XIV—Sexual Orientation: What Is It?Kathleen Stock - 2019 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 119 (3):295-319.
    I defend an account of sexual orientation, understood as a reflexive disposition to be sexually attracted to people of a particular biological Sex or Sexes. An orientation is identified in terms of two aspects: the Sex of the subject who has the disposition, and whether that Sex is the same as, or different to, the Sex to which the subject is disposed to be attracted. I explore this account in some detail and defend it from several challenges. In doing so, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Philosophy of Ethnobiology: Understanding Knowledge Integration and Its Limitations. Journal of Ethnobiology.David Ludwig & Charbel El-Hani - 2019 - Journal of Ethnobiology 39.
    Ethnobiology has become increasingly concerned with applied and normative issues such as climate change adaptation, forest management, and sustainable agriculture. Applied ethnobiology emphasizes the practical importance of local and traditional knowledge in tackling these issues but thereby also raises complex theoretical questions about the integration of heterogeneous knowledge systems. The aim of this article is to develop a framework for addressing questions of integration through four core domains of philosophy -epistemology, ontology, value theory, and political theory. In each of these (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • True Belief at the End of the Tether : The Quest for Universal Epistemic Justification.Sam Thellman - unknown
    In this thesis I scavenge the history of philosophy for answers to the question ‘How are claims to knowledge justified?’. I argue that Plato’s psychological doctrine of knowledge marks the starting point of a philosophical inquiry motivated by the possibility to discover foundations of knowledge through investigating the nature of mind. At the core of this inquiry lies the hypothesis that if the psychological mechanisms that govern the capacity for knowledge acquisition is fully understood, then answers will follow about why (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • First-Person Experiments: A Characterisation and Defence.Brentyn Ramm - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9:449–467.
    While first-person methods are essential for a science of consciousness, it is controversial what form these methods should take and whether any such methods are reliable. I propose that first-person experiments are a reliable method for investigating conscious experience. I outline the history of these methods and describe their characteristics. In particular, a first-person experiment is an intervention on a subject's experience in which independent variables are manipulated, extraneous variables are held fixed, and in which the subject makes a phenomenal (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • How We Load Our Data Sets with Theories and Why We Do so Purposefully.Guillaume Rochefort-Maranda - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 60:1-6.
    In this paper, I compare theory-laden perceptions with imputed data sets. The similarities between the two allow me to show how the phenomenon of theory-ladenness can manifest itself in statistical analyses. More importantly, elucidating the differences between them will allow me to broaden the focus of the existing literature on theory-ladenness and to introduce some much-needed nuances.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • TRUTH, LAWS AND THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE.Mauro Dorato - 2011 - Manuscrito 34 (1):185-204.
    In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic metainduction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Data Fabrication and Falsification and Empiricist Philosophy of Science.David B. Resnik - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):423-431.
    Scientists have rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification that are enforced with significant punishments, such as loss of funding, termination of employment, or imprisonment. These rules pertain to data that describe observable and unobservable entities. In this commentary I argue that scientists would not adopt rules that impose harsh penalties on researchers for data fabrication or falsification unless they believed that an aim of scientific research is to develop true theories and hypotheses about entities that exist, including unobservable ones. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Theory-Laden Experimentation.Samuel Schindler - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):89-101.
    The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental practices are efficient in guarding against any epistemological threat posed by theory-ladenness. In this paper I show that one can generate a thesis of theory-ladenness for experimental practices from an influential New Experimentalist account. The notion (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Scientific Phenomena and Patterns in Data.Pascal Ströing - 2018 - Dissertation, LMU München
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Revisiting Peirce’s Account of Scientific Creativity to Inform Classroom Practice.Joseph Paul Ferguson & Vaughan Prain - 2020 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 52 (5):524-534.
    Peirce made repeated attempts to clarify what he understood as abduction or creative reasoning in scientific discoveries. In this article, we draw on past and recent scholarship on Peirce’s later accounts of abduction to put a case for how teachers can apply his ideas productively to elicit and guide student creative reasoning in the science classroom. We focus on his rationale for abduction, conditions he recognised as necessary to support this speculative reasoning, pragmatic strategies to guide inquiry and test conjectural (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • First-Person Investigations of Consciousness.Brentyn Ramm - 2016 - Dissertation, The Australian National University
    This dissertation defends the reliability of first-person methods for studying consciousness, and applies first-person experiments to two philosophical problems: the experience of size and of the self. In chapter 1, I discuss the motivations for taking a first-person approach to consciousness, the background assumptions of the dissertation and some methodological preliminaries. In chapter 2, I address the claim that phenomenal judgements are far less reliable than perceptual judgements (Schwitzgebel, 2011). I argue that the main errors and limitations in making phenomenal (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • ‘Saving the Phenomena’ and Saving the Phenomena.Jim Bogen - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):7-22.
    Empiricists claim that in accepting a scientific theory one should not commit oneself to claims about things that are not observable in the sense of registering on human perceptual systems (according to Van Fraassen’s constructive empiricism) or experimental equipment (according to what I call liberal empiricism ). They also claim scientific theories should be accepted or rejected on the basis of how well they save the phenomena in the sense delivering unified descriptions of natural regularities among things that meet their (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Kuhn’s Notion of Scientific Progress: “Reduction” Between Incommensurable Theories in a Rigid Structuralist Framework.Christian Damböck - 2014 - Synthese 191 (10):2195-2213.
    In the last two sections of Structure, Thomas Kuhn first develops his famous threefold conception of the incommensurability of scientific paradigms and, subsequently, a conception of scientific progress as growth of empirical strength. The latter conception seems to be at odds with the former in that semantic incommensurability appears to imply the existence of situations where scientific progress in Kuhns sense can no longer exist. In contrast to this seeming inconsistency of Kuhns conception, we will try to show in this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • What Counts as Scientific Data? A Relational Framework.Sabina Leonelli - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):810-821.
    This paper proposes an account of scientific data that makes sense of recent debates on data-driven and ‘big data’ research, while also building on the history of data production and use particularly within biology. In this view, ‘data’ is a relational category applied to research outputs that are taken, at specific moments of inquiry, to provide evidence for knowledge claims of interest to the researchers involved. They do not have truth-value in and of themselves, nor can they be seen as (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • On Philosophical and Pedagogical Facets of Teaching and Learning Regularities.O. V. Yashchuk & О. В Ящук - unknown
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Tackling Duhemian Problems: An Alternative to Skepticism of Neuroimaging in Philosophy of Cognitive Science.Emrah Aktunc - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):449-464.
    Duhem’s problem arises especially in scientific contexts where the tools and procedures of measurement and analysis are numerous and complex. Several philosophers of cognitive science have cited its manifestations in fMRI as grounds for skepticism regarding the epistemic value of neuroimaging. To address these Duhemian arguments for skepticism, I offer an alternative approach based on Deborah Mayo’s error-statistical account in which Duhem's problem is more fruitfully approached in terms of error probabilities. This is illustrated in examples such as the use (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Scientific Evidence, Big Data and the Curse of Dimensionality.Guillaume Rochefort-Maranda - unknown
    The curse of dimensionality is one of the most prominent challenge that data scientists face when trying to make valuable inferences. It is an epistemic problem that hits particularly hard in "Big Data" research contexts, where the volume of the data set is particularly large. The way in which we tackle with this problem sheds light on the notion of scientific evidence. Yet, it is virtually absent from the current philosophical literature. In this paper, I aim to broaden the focus (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark