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  1. A Tale of Two Deficits: Causality and Care in Medical AI.Melvin Chen - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-23.
    In this paper, two central questions will be addressed: ought we to implement medical AI technology in the medical domain? If yes, how ought we to implement this technology? I will critically engage with three options that exist with respect to these central questions: the Neo-Luddite option, the Assistive option, and the Substitutive option. I will first address key objections on behalf of the Neo-Luddite option: the Objection from Bias, the Objection from Artificial Autonomy, the Objection from Status Quo, and (...)
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  • A Computational Foundation for Cognitive Development: Comment on Griffths Et Al. And McLelland Et Al.Alison Gopnik, Henry M. Wellman, Susan A. Gelman & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):342-343.
  • Probabilistic Models as Theories of Children's Minds.Alison Gopnik - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):200-201.
    My research program proposes that children have representations and learning mechanisms that can be characterized as causal models of the world Bayesian Fundamentalism.”.
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  • Toddlers Infer Unobserved Causes for Spontaneous Events.Paul Muentener & Laura Schulz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Invisible Hand: Toddlers Connect Probabilistic Events With Agentive Causes.Yang Wu, Paul Muentener & Laura E. Schulz - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):1854-1876.
    Children posit unobserved causes when events appear to occur spontaneously. What about when events appear to occur probabilistically? Here toddlers saw arbitrary causal relationships in a fixed, alternating order. The relationships were then changed in one of two ways. In the Deterministic condition, the event order changed ; in the Probabilistic condition, the causal relationships changed. As intended, toddlers looked equally long at both changes. We then introduced a previously unseen candidate cause. Toddlers looked longer at the appearance of a (...)
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  • Young Children's Help‐Seeking as Active Information Gathering.Christopher Vredenburgh & Tamar Kushnir - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):697-722.
    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers’ help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the difficulty of each step of the task. We hypothesized that children's help-seeking would be a function of both initial competency and task difficulty. The results confirmed this prediction; all children were more likely to seek assistance (...)
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  • Causation: Interactions Between Philosophical Theories and Psychological Research.James Woodward - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):961-972.
  • Singular Clues to Causality and Their Use in Human Causal Judgment.Peter A. White - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (1):38-75.
    It is argued that causal understanding originates in experiences of acting on objects. Such experiences have consistent features that can be used as clues to causal identification and judgment. These are singular clues, meaning that they can be detected in single instances. A catalog of 14 singular clues is proposed. The clues function as heuristics for generating causal judgments under uncertainty and are a pervasive source of bias in causal judgment. More sophisticated clues such as mechanism clues and repeated interventions (...)
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  • In Defense of a Broad Conception of Experimental Philosophy.David Rose & David Danks - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (4):512-532.
    Experimental philosophy is often presented as a new movement that avoids many of the difficulties that face traditional philosophy. This article distinguishes two views of experimental philosophy: a narrow view in which philosophers conduct empirical investigations of intuitions, and a broad view which says that experimental philosophy is just the colocation in the same body of (i) philosophical naturalism and (ii) the actual practice of cognitive science. These two positions are rarely clearly distinguished in the literature about experimental philosophy, both (...)
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  • How Agency Can Solve Interventionism's Problem of Circularity.Victor Gijsbers & Leon de Bruin - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1-17.
    Woodward’s interventionist theory of causation is beset by a problem of circularity: the analysis of causes is in terms of interventions, and the analysis of interventions is in terms of causes. This is not in itself an argument against the correctness of the analysis. But by requiring us to have causal knowledge prior to making any judgements about causation, Woodward’s theory does make it mysterious how we can ever start acquiring causal knowledge. We present a solution to this problem by (...)
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  • The Intention-to-CAUSE Bias: Evidence From Children’s Causal Language.Paul Muentener & Laura Lakusta - 2011 - Cognition 119 (3):341-355.
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  • Mechanisms Revisited.James Woodward - 2011 - Synthese 183 (3):409-427.
    This paper defends an interventionist treatment of mechanisms and contrasts this with Waskan (forthcoming). Interventionism embodies a difference-making conception of causation. I contrast such conceptions with geometrical/mechanical or “actualist” conceptions, associating Waskan’s proposals with the latter. It is argued that geometrical/mechanical conceptions of causation cannot replace difference-making conceptions in characterizing the behavior of mechanisms, but that some of the intuitions behind the geometrical/mechanical approach can be captured by thinking in terms of spatio-temporally organized difference-making information.
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