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  1. A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge.Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of implicit knowledge, (...)
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  • Mindfulness Reduces Habitual Responding Based on Implicit Knowledge: Evidence From Artificial Grammar Learning.Stephen Whitmarsh, Julia Uddén, Henk Barendregt & Karl Magnus Petersson - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):833-845.
    Participants were unknowingly exposed to complex regularities in a working memory task. The existence of implicit knowledge was subsequently inferred from a preference for stimuli with similar grammatical regularities. Several affective traits have been shown to influence AGL performance positively, many of which are related to a tendency for automatic responding. We therefore tested whether the mindfulness trait predicted a reduction of grammatically congruent preferences, and used emotional primes to explore the influence of affect. Mindfulness was shown to correlate negatively (...)
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  • Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes.Anthony G. Greenwald & Mahzarin R. Banaji - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (1):4-27.
  • Emotion and Persuasion: Cognitive and Meta-Cognitive Processes Impact Attitudes.Richard E. Petty & Pablo Briñol - 2015 - Cognition and Emotion 29 (1):1-26.
  • Do Infants Show Social Preferences for People Differing in Race?Katherine D. Kinzler & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2011 - Cognition 119 (1):1-9.
  • Experimental Dissociations Between Memory Measures: Influence of Retrieval Strategies.Sylvie Willems & Martial Der Lindevann - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):39-55.
    The objective of this study was to explore the participants’ processing strategies on the mere exposure effect, object decision priming and explicit recognition. In Experiments 1, we observed that recognition and the mere exposure effect for unfamiliar three-dimensional objects were not dissociated by plane rotations in the same way as recognition and object decision priming. However, we showed that, under identical conditions, prompting analytic processing at testing produced a large plane rotation effect on recognition and the mere exposure effect similar (...)
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  • Mere Exposure Effect: A Consequence of Direct and Indirect Fluency–Preference Links☆.S. WillemS & M. Vanderlinden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):323-341.
    In three experiments, picture quality between test items was manipulated to examine whether subjects’ expectations about the fluency normally associated with these different stimuli might influence the effects of fluency on preference or familiarity-based recognition responses. The results showed that fluency due to pre-exposure influenced responses less when objects were presented with high picture quality, suggesting that attributions of fluency to preference and familiarity are adjusted according to expectations about the different test pictures. However, this expectations influence depended on subjects’ (...)
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  • Musicality: Instinct or Acquired Skill?Gary F. Marcus - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):498-512.
  • On the Relationship of Frontal Brain Activity and Anger: Examining the Role of Attitude Toward Anger.Eddie Harmon‐Jones - 2004 - Cognition and Emotion 18 (3):337-361.
  • The Objectivity of Subjective Bayesianism.Jan Sprenger - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):539-558.
    Subjective Bayesianism is a major school of uncertain reasoning and statistical inference. It is often criticized for a lack of objectivity: it opens the door to the influence of values and biases, evidence judgments can vary substantially between scientists, it is not suited for informing policy decisions. My paper rebuts these concerns by connecting the debates on scientific objectivity and statistical method. First, I show that the above concerns arise equally for standard frequentist inference with null hypothesis significance tests. Second, (...)
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  • Withdrawing Versus Withholding Freedoms: Nudging and the Case of Tobacco Control.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (7):3-14.
    Is it a stronger interference with people's freedom to withdraw options they currently have than to withhold similar options they do not have? Drawing on recent theorizing about sociopolitical freedom, this article identifies considerations that often make this the case for public policy. However, when applied to tobacco control, these considerations are shown to give us at best only very weak freedom-based reason to prioritize the status quo. This supports a popular argument for so-called “endgame” tobacco control measures: If we (...)
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  • Is Implicit Learning About Consciousness?Richard A. Carlson - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):400-400.
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  • Awareness and Abstraction Are Graded Dimensions.Axel Cleeremans - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):402-403.
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  • Are Subliminal Mere Exposure Effects a Form of Implicit Learning?Robert F. Bornstein - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):398-399.
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  • Implicit Assumptions About Implicit Learning.Keith J. Holyoak & Merideth Gattis - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):406-407.
  • A Step Too Far?Dianne C. Berry - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):397-398.
  • Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-447.
    A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, (1) between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and (2) between learning that involves the encoding of instances (or fragments) versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning (...)
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  • Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-395.
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  • When All is Revealed: A Dissociation Between Evaluative Learning and Contingency Awareness.Eamon P. Fulcher & Marianne Hammerl - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):524-549.
    Three experiments are reported that address the issue of awareness in evaluative learning in two different sensory modalities: visual and haptic. Attempts were made to manipulate the degree of awareness through a reduction technique (by use of a distractor task in Experiments 1 and 2 and by subliminally presenting affective stimuli in Experiment 3) and an induction technique (by unveiling the evaluative learning effect and requiring participants to try to discount the influence of the affective stimuli). The results indicate overall (...)
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  • The Mere Exposure Effect is Differentially Sensitive to Different Judgment Tasks.John G. Seamon, Patricia A. McKenna & Neil Binder - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (1):85-102.
    The mere exposure effect is the increase in positive affect that results from the repeated exposure to previously novel stimuli. We sought to determine if judgments other than affective preference could reliably produce a mere exposure effect for two-dimensional random shapes. In two experiments, we found that brighter and darker judgments did not differentiate target from distracter shapes, liking judgments led to target selection greater than chance, and disliking judgments led to distracter selection greater than chance. These results for brighter, (...)
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  • I Like It, but Only When I'm Not Sure Why: Evaluative Conditioning and the Awareness Issue.Marianne Hammerl - 2000 - Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):37-40.
  • Parallel Effects of Processing Fluency and Positive Affect on Familiarity-Based Recognition Decisions for Faces.Devin Duke, Chris M. Fiacconi & Stefan Kã¶Hler - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Processing Fluency as the Source of Experiences at the Fringe of Consciousness.Rolf Reber, Tedra Fazendeiro & Piotr Winkielman - 2002 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 8.
    We extend Mangan's account of fringe consciousness by discussing our work on processing experiences. Our research shows that variations in speed at different stages of perceptual processing can jointly contribute to subjective processing ease, supporting Mangan's notion that different mental processes condense into one subjective experience. We also discuss our studies showing that facilitation of perceptual processing leads to positive affect, supporting Mangan's suggestion that an evaluative component is built into cognitive phenomenology. Finally, we review research demonstrating that people draw (...)
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  • The Dynamics of Embodiment: A Field Theory of Infant Perseverative Reaching.Esther Thelen, Gregor Schöner, Christian Scheier & Linda B. Smith - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):1-34.
    The overall goal of this target article is to demonstrate a mechanism for an embodied cognition. The particular vehicle is a much-studied, but still widely debated phenomenon seen in 7–12 month-old-infants. In Piaget's classic “A-not-B error,” infants who have successfully uncovered a toy at location “A” continue to reach to that location even after they watch the toy hidden in a nearby location “B.” Here, we question the traditional explanations of the error as an indicator of infants' concepts of objects (...)
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  • The Nature of Music From a Biological Perspective.Isabelle Peretz - 2006 - Cognition 100 (1):1-32.
  • Exploring “Fringe” Consciousness: The Subjective Experience of Perceptual Fluency and its Objective Bases.Rolf Reber, Pascal Wurtz & Thomas D. Zimmermann - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):47-60.
    Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an incoming stimulus is processed. Although perceptual fluency is assessed by speed of processing, it remains unclear how objective speed is related to subjective experiences of fluency. We present evidence that speed at different stages of the perceptual process contributes to perceptual fluency. In an experiment, figure-ground contrast influenced detection of briefly presented words, but not their identification at longer exposure durations. Conversely, font in which the word was written influenced (...)
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  • Fake Views—or Why Concepts Are Bad Guides to Art’s Ontology.Michel-Antoine Xhignesse - 2018 - British Journal of Aesthetics 58 (2):193-207.
    It is often thought that the boundaries and properties of art-kinds are determined by the things we say and think about them. More recently, this tendency has manifested itself as concept-descriptivism, the view that the reference of art-kind terms is fixed by the ontological properties explicitly or implicitly ascribed to art and art-kinds by competent users of those terms. Competent users are therefore immune from radical error in their ascriptions; the result is that the ontology of art must begin and (...)
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  • Variability in Photos of the Same Face.Rob Jenkins, David White, Xandra Van Montfort & A. Mike Burton - 2011 - Cognition 121 (3):313-323.
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  • The Dissociation Paradigm and its Discontents: How Can Unconscious Perception or Memory Be Inferred?Michael Snodgrass - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):107-116.
    Erdelyi does us all a great service by his customarily incisive discussion of the various ways in which our field tends to neglect, confuse, and misunderstand numerous critical issues in attempting to differentiate conscious from unconscious perception and memory. Although no single commentary could hope to comprehensively assess these issues, I will address Erdelyi’s three main points: How the dissociation paradigm can be used to validly infer unconscious perception; The implications of below-chance effects; and The role of time. I suggest (...)
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  • Availability, Accessibility, and Subliminal Perception.John F. Kihlstrom - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):92-100.
  • Subliminal Perception and its Cognates: Theory, Indeterminacy, and Time.Matthew Hugh Erdelyi - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):73-91.
    Unconscious processes, by whatever name they may be known , are invariably operationalized by the dissociation paradigm, any situation involving the dissociation between two indicators , one of availability and the other, of accessibility , such that, ε>α. Subliminal perception has been traditionally defined by a special case of the dissociation paradigm in which availability exceeds accessibility when accessibility is null . Construct validity issues bedevil all dissociation paradigms since it is not clear what might constitute appropriate indicators that, moreover, (...)
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  • Implicit Preferences: The Role(s) of Familiarity in the Structural Mere Exposure Effect.D. Zizak - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (2):336-362.
    In four experiments using an artificial grammar learning procedure, the authors examined the links between the “classic” mere exposure effect [heightened affect for previously encountered stimulus items ] and the “structural” mere exposure effect [greater hedonic appreciation for novel stimuli that conform to an implicitly acquired underlying rule system ]. After learning, participants: classified stimuli according to whether they conformed to the principles of the grammar and, rated them in terms of how much they liked them. In some experiments unusual (...)
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  • Subliminality, Consciousness, and Temporal Shifts in Awareness: Implications Within and Beyond the Laboratory.Robert F. Bornstein - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):613-18.
    In his analysis of subliminal perception research, Erdelyi documented two important phenomena: subchance perception and temporal variability in stimulus availability and accessibility. This Commentary addresses three issues raised by Erdelyi's review: the importance of distinguishing “micro” from “macro” temporal shifts; the need to analyze perception without awareness data at the level of the individual as well as the group; and parallels between the dissociations associated with neuroclinical phenomena and those observed in patients with certain forms of personality pathology. Continued integration (...)
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  • The Ethics of Belief, Cognition, and Climate Change Pseudoskepticism: Implications for Public Discourse.Lawrence Torcello - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):19-48.
    The relationship between knowledge, belief, and ethics is an inaugural theme in philosophy; more recently, under the title “ethics of belief” philosophers have worked to develop the appropriate methodology for studying the nexus of epistemology, ethics, and psychology. The title “ethics of belief” comes from a 19th-century paper written by British philosopher and mathematician W.K. Clifford. Clifford argues that we are morally responsible for our beliefs because each belief that we form creates the cognitive circumstances for related beliefs to follow, (...)
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  • Are "Implicit" Attitudes Unconscious?Bertram Gawronski, Wilhelm Hofmann & Christopher J. Wilbur - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):485-499.
    A widespread assumption in recent research on attitudes is that self-reported evaluations reflect conscious attitudes, whereas indirectly assessed evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes. The present article reviews the available evidence regarding unconscious features of indirectly assessed “implicit” attitudes. Distinguishing between three different aspects of attitudes, we conclude that people sometimes lack conscious awareness of the origin of their attitudes, but that lack of source awareness is not a distinguishing feature of indirectly assessed versus self-reported attitudes, there is no evidence that people (...)
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  • Dynamic Variations in Affective Priming.P. Wong - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):147-168.
    The present study investigates the dynamics of emotional processing and awareness using an affective facial priming paradigm in conjunction with a multimodal assessment of awareness. Key facial primes are visually masked, and are presented for brief and extended durations. Using a preference measure, we examine whether the effects of the primes differ qualitatively . We show that: unconscious affective priming with faces emerges strongly in initial presentations and diminishes rapidly with repetition; conscious affective priming also emerges strongly in initial presentations, (...)
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  • The Feeling of Fluent Perception: A Single Experience From Multiple Asynchronous Sources☆.Pascal Wurtz, Rolf Reber & Thomas D. Zimmermann - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):171-184.
    Zeki and co-workers recently proposed that perception can best be described as locally distributed, asynchronous processes that each create a kind of microconsciousness, which condense into an experienced percept. The present article is aimed at extending this theory to metacognitive feelings. We present evidence that perceptual fluency—the subjective feeling of ease during perceptual processing—is based on speed of processing at different stages of the perceptual process. Specifically, detection of briefly presented stimuli was influenced by figure-ground contrast, but not by symmetry (...)
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  • Zajonc, Cockroaches, and Chickens, C. 1965—1975: A Characterization and Contextualization.D. W. Rajecki - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (4):320-328.
    As a social psychologist addressing mainly the topics of social facilitation (motivation) and attitudinal effects of mere exposure (affect), between 1965 and 1975 Robert B. Zajonc authored prominent works that relied on or led to observations of the actions of nonhuman animals. Zajonc pointed to insects, worms, fish, fowl, birds, mice, rats, cats, dogs, monkeys, and apes as animal models whereby responses of beasts were used as evidential substitutes (with apparently equal weight) for responses of man. These efforts notwithstanding, animal-based (...)
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  • Mere Exposure Effect: A Consequence of Direct and Indirect Fluency–Preference Links.Sylvie Willems & Martial Van der Linden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):323-341.
    In three experiments, picture quality between test items was manipulated to examine whether subjects’ expectations about the fluency normally associated with these different stimuli might influence the effects of fluency on preference or familiarity-based recognition responses. The results showed that fluency due to pre-exposure influenced responses less when objects were presented with high picture quality, suggesting that attributions of fluency to preference and familiarity are adjusted according to expectations about the different test pictures. However, this expectations influence depended on subjects’ (...)
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  • Experimental Dissociations Between Memory Measures: Influence of Retrieval Strategies.Sylvie Willems & Martial Van der Linden - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):39-55.
    The objective of this study was to explore the participants’ processing strategies on the mere exposure effect, object decision priming and explicit recognition. In Experiments 1, we observed that recognition and the mere exposure effect for unfamiliar three-dimensional objects were not dissociated by plane rotations in the same way as recognition and object decision priming. However, we showed that, under identical conditions, prompting analytic processing at testing produced a large plane rotation effect on recognition and the mere exposure effect similar (...)
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  • Very Brief Exposure: The Effects of Unreportable Stimuli on Fearful Behavior.Paul Siegel & Joel Weinberger - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):939-951.
    A series of experiments tested the hypothesis that very brief exposure to feared stimuli can have positive effects on avoidance of the corresponding feared object. Participants identified themselves as fearful of spiders through a widely used questionnaire. A preliminary experiment showed that they were unable to identify the stimuli used in the main experiments. Experiment 2 compared the effects of exposure to masked feared stimuli at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies . Participants were individually administered one of three continuous (...)
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  • The Mere Exposure Phenomenon: A Lingering Melody by Robert Zajonc.Richard L. Moreland & Sascha Topolinski - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (4):329-339.
    The mere exposure phenomenon (repeated exposure to a stimulus is sufficient to improve attitudes toward that stimulus) is one of the most inspiring phenomena associated with Robert Zajonc’s long and productive career in social psychology. In the first part of this article, Richard Moreland (who was trained by Zajonc in graduate school) describes his own work on exposure and learning, and on the relationships among familiarity, similarity, and attraction in person perception. In the second part, Sascha Topolinski (a recent graduate (...)
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  • The Role of Mere Exposure Effect on Ethical Tolerance: A Two-Study Approach.William A. Weeks, Justin G. Longenecker, Joseph A. McKinney & Carlos W. Moore - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 58 (4):281-294.
    This paper reports on the results from two studies that were conducted eight years apart with different respondents. The studies examined the role of the Mere Exposure Effect on ethical tolerance or acceptability of particular business decisions. The results from Study 1 show there is a significant difference in ethical judgment for 12 out of 16 vignettes between those who have been exposed to such situations compared to those who have not been exposed to them. In those 12 situations, those (...)
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  • Exploring "Fringe" Consciousness: The Subjective Experience of Perceptual Fluency and its Objective Bases.Rolf Reber, P. Wurtz & Thomas E. Zimmermann - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):47-60.
    Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an incoming stimulus is processed. Although perceptual fluency is assessed by speed of processing, it remains unclear how objective speed is related to subjective experiences of fluency. We present evidence that speed at different stages of the perceptual process contributes to perceptual fluency. In an experiment, figure-ground contrast influenced detection of briefly presented words, but not their identification at longer exposure durations. Conversely, font in which the word was written influenced (...)
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