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  1. A Comparison of the Contents of the Codes of Ethics of Canada’s Largest Corporations in 1992 and 2003.Jang B. Singh - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):17 - 29.
    This paper compares the findings of content analyses of the corporate codes of ethics of Canada’s largest corporations in 1992 and 2003. For both years, a modified version of a technique used in several other studies was used to determine and categorize the contents of the codes. It was found, inter alia, that, in 2003, as in 1992, more of the codes were concerned with conduct against the firm than with conduct on behalf of the firm. Among the changes from (...)
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  • Integrating Codes of Ethics in Hong Kong Construction Organizations—Practitioners’ Perspective.Olugbenga Timo Oladinrin & Christabel Man-Fong Ho - 2015 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 4 (1):15-33.
    Beyond the adoption of codes of ethics for moderating behaviours within an organization, there is need for change in the dynamism of ethics management in construction companies. This change is necessitated due to inability of ethical codes to function by its mere existence without proper integration into organization’s web. This study aims at identifying supporting factors for code integration and the resultant factors as well as the relationship between the two sets of factors. Questionnaire survey was used to gather data (...)
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  • Do Codes Make a Difference? The Case of Bank Lending and the Environment.Christopher J. Cowton & Paul Thompson - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 24 (2):165 - 178.
    Codes of conduct are a conspicuous feature of modern business organization, but doubts have been raised regarding their efficacy in ensuring high standards of behavior. Although some of the issues involved have been discussed at some length in the business ethics literature, the amount of systematic empirical evidence on the impact of codes is very limited. This paper seeks to make a contribution to that body of knowledge by studying the policies and procedures of a sample of banks which have (...)
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  • Empiricism in Business Ethics: Suggested Research Directions. [REVIEW]Diana C. Robertson - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (8):585 - 599.
    This paper considers future directions of empirical research in business ethics and presents a series of recommendations. Greater emphasis should be placed on the normative basis of empirical studies, behavior (rather than attitudes) should be established as the key dependent variable, theoretical models of ethical decision making should be tested, and empirical studies need to focus on theory-building. Extensions of methodology and the unit of analysis are proposed together with recommendations concerning the need for replication and validity, and building links (...)
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  • Corporate Ethical Policies in Large Corporations in Argentina, Brazil and Spain.Domènec Melé, Patricia Debeljuh & M. Cecilia Arruda - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (1):21-38.
    This paper examines the status of Corporate Ethical Policies (CEP) in large companies in Argentina, Brazil and Spain, with a special emphasis on Corporate Ethics Statements (CES), documents that define the firms’ philosophy, values and norms of conduct. It is based on a survey of the 500 largest companies in these nations. The findings reveal many similarities between these countries. Among other things, it emerges that most companies give consideration to ethics in business and have adopted some kind of formal (...)
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  • Communicating Ethical Values: A Study of Employee Perceptions. [REVIEW]Betsy Stevens - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 20 (2):113 - 120.
    Communicating ethical values is a serious issue for a number of organizations. While ethical codes are useful, they cannot exist alone. Organizations must make certain codes reflect the ideals of individuals in the organization and the ethical expectations must be clearly communicated. This study examined the sources (people) and channels (ways messages were received) that affected how employees learned about ethics. Results showed that training and orientation programs were affirmed as sources of learning along with teaching others. Codes and handbooks (...)
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  • A Global Code of Business Ethics.Payne Dinah, Raiborn Cecily & Askvik Jorn - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (16):1727-1735.
    The international economy is changing at a rapid rate. The alteration and reduction of both geographical and political borders, coupled with the growing interdependence of socially, politically, economically, and legally diverse countries, have caused multinational corporate entities to revise various policies. These revisions include revisions in marketing strategies, strategic alliances, product and service strategies and, perhaps most importantly as it affects all strategies, a MNC's approach to ethical systems. The truly global company must come to grips with the legal and (...)
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  • The Influence of Corporate Culture on Managerial Ethical Judgments.Saviour L. S. Nwachukwu & Scott J. Vitell - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (8):757-776.
    The contention that organizational culture influences ethical decision making is not disputable. However, the extent to which it influences ethical decision making in the workplace is a topic for scholarly debate and investigation. There are scholars who argue that, though corporate values are a powerful force in explaining the behavior of individuals and groups within organizations, these values are unperceived, unspoken, and taken for granted. However, there are others who argue that the formalization of corporate values facilitates job and role (...)
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  • Actual and Perceived Sharing of Ethical Reasoning and Moral Intent Among in-Group and Out-Group Members.Neil A. Granitz & James C. Ward - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 33 (4):299 - 322.
    Despite an extensive amount of research studying the influence of significant others on an individual's ethical behavior, researchers have not examined this variable in the context of organizational group boundaries. This study tests actual and perceptual sharing and variation in ethical reasoning and moral intent within and across functional groups in an organization. Integrating theory on ethical behavior, group dynamics, and culture, it is proposed that organizational structure affects cognitive structure. Departmental boundaries create stronger social ties within the group as (...)
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  • An Analysis of Corporate Ethical Code Studies: “Where Do We Go From Here?”. [REVIEW]Betsy Stevens - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (1):63 - 69.
    The dramatic increase in the number of corporate ethical codes over the past 20 years has been attributed to the Watergate scandal and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ethical codes differ somewhat from profesional codes and mission statements; yet the terms are frequently interchanged and often confused in the literature. Ethical code studies are reviewed in terms of how codes are communicated to employees and whether implications for violating codes are discussed. Most studies use content analysis to determine subjects in (...)
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  • A Paradigm Shift in the Implementation of Ethics Codes in Construction Organizations in Hong Kong: Towards an Ethical Behaviour.Christabel Man-Fong Ho & Olugbenga Timo Oladinrin - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):559-581.
    Due to the economic globalization which is characterized with business scandals, scholars and practitioners are increasingly engaged with the implementation of codes of ethics as a regulatory mechanism for stimulating ethical behaviours within an organization. The aim of this study is to examine various organizational practices regarding the effective implementation of codes of ethics within construction contracting companies. Views on ethics management in construction organizations together with the recommendations for improvement were gleaned through 19 semi-structured interviews, involving construction practitioners from (...)
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  • The Impact of the Work Environment on Ethical Decision Making: Some Australian Evidence. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Soutar, Margaret M. McNeil & Caron Molster - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (5):327 - 339.
    Business ethics has emerged in recent years as a field of significant scholarly endeavour. Particularly well documented is the existence of ethical conflict at work and the reported inseparability of business decisions and moral consequences. However, to date, the majority of studies have been conducted in the American business context.This paper examines the concept of ethical conflict as experienced by employees in the Australian context. According to a sample of Western Australian managers, ethical conflicts at work do occur — with (...)
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  • Perceived Correlates of Illegal Behavior in Organizations.Terence R. Mitchell, Denise Daniels, Heidi Hopper, Jane George-Falvy & Gerald R. Ferris - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (4):439 - 455.
    A survey was conducted of the perceived correlates of illegal abuses in the electronics industry. Human resource directors of thirty-one firms responded to a questionnaire which assessed their perceptions of the degree to which illegal behavior was caused by (1) deficiencies in the moral character of employees (2) the clarity of expectations and standards describing illegal behavior and (3) the presence of reinforcements and punishments contingent on these behaviors. All three variables were related to the frequency of abuses in three (...)
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  • Towards an Ethical Dimension of Decision Making in Organizations.Jonathan Z. Gottlieb & Jyotsna Sanzgiri - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (12):1275 - 1285.
    There is a growing need to increase our understanding of ethical decision making in U.S. based organizations. The authors examine the complexity of creating uniform ethical standards even when the meaning of ethical behavior is being debated. The nature of these controversies are considered, and three important dimensions for ethical decision making are discussed: leaders with integrity and a strong sense of social responsibility, organization cultures that foster dialogue and dissent, and organizations that are willing to reflect on and learn (...)
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  • Regulatory Multiplicity and Conflict: Towards a Combined Code on Corporate Governance in Nigeria.Louise Osemeke & Emmanuel Adegbite - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (3):431-451.
    Given the multiplicity of codes designed to regulate different stakeholders in terms of promoting good corporate governance, this paper examines areas of conflicts among the various codes and the associated implications for corporate governance practices and regulatory compliances by public-listed Nigerian firms. Using the conflict-signalling theory for developing the conceptual framework, this study examines the proliferation of codes in Nigeria, through a mixed method approach to provide an exploratory account of the implications of corporate governance regulatory multiplicity. Evidence suggests the (...)
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  • Factors Affecting Ethical Practice of Public Relations Professionals Within Public Relations Firms.Eyun-Jung Ki, Junghyuk Lee & Hong-Lim Choi - 2012 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):123 - 141.
    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the factors affecting ethical practices of public relations professionals in public relations firms. In particular, the following organizational ethics factors were examined: (1) presence of ethics code, (2) top management support for ethical practice, (3) ethical climate, and (4) perception of the association between career success and ethical practice. Analysis revealed that the presence of an ethics code along with top management support and a non-egoistic ethical climate within public relations firms significantly influenced (...)
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  • Toward Effective Codes: Testing the Relationship with Unethical Behavior. [REVIEW]Muel Kaptein - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (2):233 - 251.
    A business code of ethics is widely regarded as an important instrument to curb unethical behavior in the workplace. However, little is empirically known about the factors that determine the impact of a code on unethical behavior. Besides the existence of a code, this article studies five determining factors: the content of the code, the frequency of communication activities surrounding the code, the quality of the communication activities, and the embedment of the code in the organization by senior management as (...)
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  • Ethics Programs and Their Dimensions.Steven N. Brenner - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (5-6):391-399.
    All organizations have ethics programs which consist of both explicit and implicit parts. This paper defines corporate ethics programs and identifies a number of their components. Corporate ethics programs'' structural and behavioral dimensions are proposed which may allow further examination of such program components and their impacts. Finally, fifteen propositions are suggested which describe the influence of founder values, competitive pressures, leadership, and organizational problems on corporate ethics programs and the manageability of such programs.
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  • The Ethics of the US Business Executive: A Study of Perceptions.B. Stevens - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (2):163-171.
    Gallup Polls have reported on the perceived ethics of various professions in the US since 1976. Clergymen and pharmacists were consistently identified as two of the most ethical professionals in the 1980''s and 1990''s. Business executives have not fared well in these polls and have not been rated among the top ten most ethical professions in any of the years the poll was taken. Ethical codes have not done much to belay the perception that the US business executive is not (...)
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  • A Comparative Study of Codes of Ethics in Health Care Facilities and Energy Companies.Isaac D. Montoya & Alan J. Richard - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (9):713 - 717.
    Though written corporate codes of ethics have been touted as a panacea for the embarrassments and uncertainties of the past two decades, the absence of clear evaluation procedures severely compromises their usefulness. An ethnographic study comparing development processes and compliance outcomes in large health care facilities and energy companies shows that neither of the two industries has encountered much success with a codes of ethics program. Companies that distribute copies of their code of ethics seldom ensure the process is completed (...)
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  • The Impact of Personal Values on Judgments of Ethical Behaviour in the Workplace.Joan Finegan - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (9):747 - 755.
    This study examines how our personal values influence our judgment of the morality of some workplace behaviours. Sixty-nine undergraduates were asked to rank order separately Rokeach''s instrumental and terminal values in terms of their importance as guiding principles in their life. Subjects then read four scenarios, each of which described ethically questionable behaviour of the sort that might be encountered in business. They were then asked to rate whether or not the behaviour of the person described in the scenario was (...)
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  • A Management Perspective on Business Ethics.Geoffrey N. Soutar, Margaret McNeil & Caron Molster - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (8):603 - 611.
    In recent years the institutionalisation of ethics as a means of enhancing the ethical nature of business operations has received widespread empirical coverage. To date, however, few studies have been conducted in the Australian business context. This paper examines the institutionalisation of ethics by a sample of companies based in Perth, Western Australia. In particular, company representatives were asked if their company was institutionalising ethics, why this initiative was undertaken, how this was taking place and what specific issues were being (...)
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  • The Content and Focus of Canadian Corporate Codes of Ethics.Maurica Lefebvre & Jang B. Singh - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (10):799 - 808.
    This paper primarily reports the findings of content analyses of seventy-five codes of ethics ofFinancial Post 500 corporations. The contents of each code were comprehensively evaluated along sixty-one criteria according to four levels. It was found that the focus of these codes was the protection of the firm. While some of them refer to issues of social responsibility, they are principally concerned with conduct against the firm.
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  • The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model. [REVIEW]Muel Kaptein & Mark S. Schwartz - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (2):111 - 127.
    Business codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies used; and a lack of theory. In this paper, we propose an integrated research model and suggest directions for future research.
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  • Corporate Institutionalization of Ethics in the United States and Great Britain.Diana C. Robertson & Bodo B. Schlegelmilch - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (4):301-312.
    This paper compares the results of large-scale U.S. and U.K. surveys designed to identify managers' major ethical concerns and to investigate how firms are formulating and communicating ethics policies responsive to these concerns.Our findings indicate some important differences between U.S. and U.K. firms in perceptions of what are important ethical issues, in the means used to communicate ethics policies, and in the issues addressed in ethics policies and employee training. U.K. companies tend to be more likely to communicate ethics policies (...)
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  • Corporate Ethical Codes: Effective Instruments For Influencing Behavior.Betsy Stevens - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):601-609.
    This paper reviews studies of corporate ethical codes published since 2000 and concludes that codes be can effective instruments for shaping ethical behavior and guiding employee decision-making. Culture and effective communication are key components to a code’s success. If codes are embedded in the culture and embraced by the leaders, they are likely to be successful. Communicating the code’s precepts in an effective way is crucial to its success. Discussion between employees and management is a key component of successful ethical (...)
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  • The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model.Muel Kaptein & Mark S. Schwartz - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (2):111-127.
    Business codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies used; and a lack of theory. In this paper, we propose an integrated research model and suggest directions for future research.
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  • A Comparison of the Contents of the Codes of Ethics of Canada’s Largest Corporations in 1992 and 2003.Jang B. Singh - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):17-29.
    This paper compares the findings of content analyses of the corporate codes of ethics of Canada's largest corporations in 1992 and 2003. For both years, a modified version of a technique used in several other studies was used to determine and categorize the contents of the codes. It was found, inter alia, that, in 2003, as in 1992, more of the codes were concerned with conduct against the firm than with conduct on behalf of the firm. Among the changes from (...)
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