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  1. Who and What Really Matters to the Firm: Moving Stakeholder Salience Beyond Managerial Perceptions.Pete Tashman & Jonathan Raelin - 2013 - Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (4):591-616.
    We develop the concept of stakeholder salience to account for stakeholders who should matter to the firm, even when managers do not perceive them as important. While managers are responsible for attributing salience to stakeholders, they can overlook or ignore stakeholder importance because of market frictions that affect managerial perceptions or induce opportunism. When this happens, corporate financial and social performance can suffer. Thus, we propose that the perceptions of organizational and societal stakeholders should also codetermine the salience of the (...)
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  • Interactive Effects of External Environmental Conditions and Internal Firm Characteristics on Mnes' Choice of Strategy in the Development of a Code of Conduct.Linda M. Sama - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):137-166.
    Abstract: Effects of globalization have amplified the magnitude and frequency of corporate abuses, particularly in developing economies where weak or absent rules undermine social norms and principles. Improving multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) ethical conduct is a factor of both the ability of firms to change behaviors in the direction of the moral good, and their willingness to do so. Constraints and enablers of a firm’s ability to act ethically emanate from the external environment, including the industry environment of which the firm (...)
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  • An Employee-Centered Model of Corporate Social Performance.Harry J. van Buren Iii - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):687-709.
    Although the concept of corporate social performance (CSP) has become more clearly specified in recent years, an analysis of CSP from the perspective of one particular stakeholder group has been largely ignored in this research: employees. It is proposed that employees merit specific attention with regard to assessments of corporate social performance. In this paper, a model for evaluating and measuring CSP at the employee level is proposed, and implications for evaluating contemporary employment policies and practices are offered. An iterative (...)
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  • Stakeholder Legitimacy.Robert Phillips - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1):25-41.
    This paper is a preliminary attempt to better understand the concept of legitimacy in stakeholder theory. The normative componentof stakeholder theory plays a central role in the concept of legitimacy. Though the elaboration of legitimacy contained hereinapplies generally to all “normative cores” this paper relies on Phillips’s principle of stakeholder fairness and therefore begins with a brief description of this work. This is followed by a discussion of the importance of legitimacy to stakeholder theory as well as the general ambiguity (...)
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  • Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defense.R. Edward Freeman & Robert A. Phillips - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):331-350.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are (...)
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  • The Rationality of Biofuel Certification: A Critical Examination of EU Biofuel Policy.A. J. K. Pols - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (4):667-681.
    Certification for biofuels has been developed to ensure that biofuel production methods adhere to social and environmental sustainability standards. As such, requiring biofuel production to be certified has become part of EU policy through the 2009 renewable energy directive, that aims to promote energy security, reduce emissions and promote rural development. According to the EU RED, in 2020 10 % of our transport energy should come from renewable sources, most of which are expected to be biofuels. In this paper I (...)
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  • Ideology in HRM Scholarship: Interrogating the Ideological Performativity of ‘New Unitarism’.Michelle Greenwood & Harry J. Van Buren - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (4):663-678.
    In this paper we seek to uncover and analyse unitarist ideology within the field of HRM, with particular emphasis on the manner in which what we call ‘new unitarism’ is ideologically performative in HRM scholarship. Originally conceived of as a way of understanding employer ideology with regard to the employment relationship, unitarist frames of reference conceive a workplace that is characterised by shared interests and a single source of authority. This frame has continuously evolved and persistently formed thinking about HRM; (...)
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  • Ethical Analyses of HRM: A Review and Research Agenda. [REVIEW]Michelle Greenwood - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):355-366.
    The very idea of human resource management raises ethical considerations: What does it mean to us as humans for human beings to be managed as resources? Intriguingly, the field of ethics and HRM remains underdeveloped. Current approaches to HRM fail to place ethical considerations as their central warrant. This article, building on Greenwood (J Bus Ethics 36(3):261–279, 2002), argues for a deeper analysis of ethical issues in HRM, indeed for a differentiated ethical perspective of HRM that sets normative deliberations as (...)
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  • Shareholder Theory and Kant’s ‘Duty of Beneficence’.Samuel Mansell - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):583-599.
    This article draws on the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant to explore whether a corporate ‘duty of beneficence’ to non-shareholders is consistent with the orthodox ‘shareholder theory’ of the firm. It examines the ethical framework of Milton Friedman’s argument and asks whether it necessarily rules out the well-being of non-shareholders as a corporate objective. The article examines Kant’s distinction between ‘duties of right’ and ‘duties of virtue’ (the latter including the duty of beneficence) and investigates their consistency with the shareholder (...)
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  • The Genesis of Employment Ethics.Harry J. Van Buren & Michelle Greenwood - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (4):707-719.
    Given the growing interest in religion and spirituality in the community and workplace, we consider what light one of the oldest sources of human ethics, the Torah, can throw on the vexing issues of contemporary employment ethics and social sustainability. We specifically consider the Torah because it is the primary document of Judaism, the source of all the basic Biblical commandments, and a framework of ethics. A distinctive feature of Jewish ethics is its interpretive approach to moral philosophy: that is, (...)
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  • The Principle of Good Faith: Toward Substantive Stakeholder Engagement.Cedric E. Dawkins - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 121 (2):1-13.
    Although stakeholder theory is concerned with stakeholder engagement, substantive operational barometers of engagement are lacking in the literature. This theoretical paper attempts to strengthen the accountability aspect of normative stakeholder theory with a more robust notion of stakeholder engagement derived from the concept of good faith. Specifically, it draws from the labor relations field to argue that altered power dynamics are essential underpinnings of a viable stakeholder engagement mechanism. After describing the tenets of substantive engagement, the paper draws from the (...)
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  • The Vulnerability and Strength Duality in Ethnic Business: A Model of Stakeholder Salience and Social Capital.Alejandra Marin, Ronald K. Mitchell & Jae Hwan Lee - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (2):271-289.
    Managers in ethnic businesses are confronted with ethical dilemmas when taking action based on ethnic ties; and often as a result, they increase the already vulnerable positions of these businesses and their stakeholders. Many of these dilemmas concern the capital that is generated through variations in the use of ethnic stakeholder social ties. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a stakeholder-based model of social capital formation, mediated by various forms of ethnic ties, to explore the duality of ethnicity: (...)
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  • Different Talks with Different Folks: A Comparative Survey of Stakeholder Dialog in Germany, Italy, and the U.S. [REVIEW]André Habisch, Lorenzo Patelli, Matteo Pedrini & Christoph Schwartz - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (3):381 - 551.
    Although theoretical underpinnings of stakeholder dialog (SD) have been extensively discussed in the extant literature, there is a lack of empirical studies presenting evidence on the SD initiatives undertaken by firms. In this article, we provide information about 294 SD initiatives collected through a content analysis of the sustainability reports published by large firms in Germany, Italy, and the U. S. In addition to a country-based description of the different forms, stakeholder categories, and topics of the SD initiatives, we explore (...)
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  • Deliberative Business Ethics.Ryan Burg - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):665 - 683.
    Social norms are an important input for ethical decisions in any business context. However, the cross-cultural discovery of extant social norms presents a special challenge to international management because norms may be inscrutable to outsiders. This article considers the contribution of Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) to the analysis of social norms in business ethics. It questions the origins and dynamics of norms from a sociological perspective, and identifies a tension between prescriptive efforts to make norms obligatory and positivist accounts (...)
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  • Employee Participation in Cause-Related Marketing Strategies: A Study of Management Perceptions From British Consumer Service Industries.Gordon Liu, Catherine Liston-Heyes & Wai-Wai Ko - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):195-210.
    The purpose of cause-related marketing (CRM) is to publicise and capitalise on a firm's corporate social performance (CSP) by enhancing its legitimacy in the eyes of its stakeholders. This study focuses on the firm's internal stakeholders - i.e. its employees - and the extent of their involvement in the selection of social campaigns. Whilst the difficulties of managing a firm that has lost or damaged its legitimacy in the eyes of its employees are well known, little is understood about the (...)
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  • Ict and an Ngo: Difficulties in Attempting to Be Extremely Transparent. [REVIEW]A. Vaccaro & P. Madsen - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (3):221-231.
    This paper analyzes the opportunities offered by information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the related ethical issues, within the transparency practices of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Based upon a one-year study of a European NGO, the Italian Association of Blind People, it presents compelling empirical evidence concerning the main ethical, social and economic challenges that NGOs face in the development of more transparent relationships with the public and the related role of ICTs, in particular, the organization’s website. This study shows that, (...)
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  • Corporate Dynamic Transparency: The New Ict-Driven Ethics? [REVIEW]Antonino Vaccaro & Peter Madsen - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2):113-122.
    The term “corporate transparency” is frequently used in scholarly discussions of business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR); however, it remains a volatile and imprecise term, often defined incompletely as “information disclosure” accomplished through standardized reporting. Based on the results of empirical studies of organizational behaviors, this paper identifies a new set of managerial practices based on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and particularly Internet-based tools. These practices are resulting in what can be termed “dynamic transparency.” ICT (...)
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  • Informed Consent Out of Context.Sven Ove Hansson - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (2):149-154.
    Several attempts have been made to transfer the concept of informed consent from medical and research ethics to dealing with affected groups in other areas such as engineering, land use planning, and business management. It is argued that these attempts are unsuccessful since the concept of informed consent is inadequate for situations in which groups of affected persons are dealt with collectively (rather than individually, as in clinical medicine). There are several reasons for this. The affected groups from which informed (...)
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  • A Critical Perspective of Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Recurring Criticisms and Next Generation Research Topics.Thomas W. Dunfee - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):303-328.
    During the past ten years Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) has become part of the repertoire of specialized decision-oriented theories in the business ethics literature. The intention here is to (1)␣provide a brief overview of the structure and strengths of ISCT; (2) identify recurring themes in the extensive commentary on the theory including brief mention of how ISCT has been applied outside the business ethics literature; (3) describe where research appears to be headed; and (4) specify challenges faced by those (...)
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  • Stakeholder Engagement: Beyond the Myth of Corporate Responsibility.Michelle Greenwood - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):315-327.
    The purpose of this article is to transcend the assumption that stakeholder engagement is necessarily a responsible practice. Stakeholder engagement is traditionally seen as corporate responsibility in action. Indeed, in some literatures there exists an assumption that the more an organisation engages with its stakeholders, the more it is responsible. This simple 'more is better' view of stakeholder engagement belies the true complexity of the relationship between engagement and corporate responsibility. Stakeholder engagement may be understood in a variety of different (...)
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  • Advancing Integrative Social Contracts Theory: A Habermasian Perspective.Dirk Ulrich Gilbert & Michael Behnam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):215-234.
    We critically assess integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) and show that the concept particularly lacks of moral justification of substantive hypernorms. By drawing on Habermasian philosophy, in particular discourse ethics and its recent application in the theory of deliberative democracy , we further advance ISCT and show that social contracting in business ethics requires a well-justified procedural rather than a substantive focus for managing stakeholder relations. We also replace the monological concept of hypothetical thought experiments in ISCT by a concept (...)
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  • Agonistic Pluralism and Stakeholder Engagement.Cedric Dawkins - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (1):1-28.
    ABSTRACT:This paper argues that, although stakeholder engagement occurs within the context of power, neither market-centered CSR nor the deliberative model of political CSR adequately addresses the specter of power asymmetries and the inevitability of conflict in stakeholder relations, particularly for powerless stakeholders. Noting that the objective of stakeholder engagement should not be benevolence toward stakeholders, but mechanisms that address power asymmetries such that stakeholders are able to protect their own interests, I present a framework of stakeholder engagement based on agonistic (...)
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  • Enhancing Employee Voice: Are Voluntary Employer–Employee Partnerships Enough?Harry J. Van Buren & Michelle Greenwood - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):209-221.
    One of the essential ethical issues in the employment relationship is the loss of employee voice. Many of the ways employees have previously exercised voice in the employment relationship have been rendered less effective by (1) the changing nature of work, (2) employer preferences for flexibility that often work to the disadvantage of employees, and (3) changes in public policy and institutional systems that have failed to protect workers. We will begin with a discussion of how work has changed in (...)
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  • Stakeholder Capability Enhancement as a Path to Promote Human Dignity and Cooperative Advantage.Michelle K. Westermann-Behaylo, Harry J. Van Buren & Shawn L. Berman - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (4):529-555.
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  • Stakeholder Engagement Through Empowerment: The Case of Coffee Farmers.Chiara Civera, Simone de Colle & Cecilia Casalegno - 2019 - Business Ethics: A European Review 28 (2):156-174.
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  • To What Extent Do Gender Diverse Boards Enhance Corporate Social Performance?Claude Francoeur, Réal Labelle, Souha Balti & Saloua E. L. Bouzaidi - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (2):343-357.
    The inconclusiveness of previous research on the association between gender diverse boards and corporate social performance has led us to revisit the question in light of stakeholder management and institutional theories. Given that corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept, we test the influence of GDB on various groups of stakeholders. By considering the interaction between stakeholders’ power and directors’ personal motivations toward the prioritization of stakeholders’ claims, we find that GDB are positively related to CSR dimensions that are related (...)
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  • Trust and Stakeholder Theory: Trustworthiness in the Organisation–Stakeholder Relationship.Michelle Greenwood & Harry J. van Buren Iii - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):425 - 438.
    Trust is a fundamental aspect of the moral treatment of stakeholders within the organization-stakeholder relationship. Stakeholders trust the organization to return benefit or protections from harm commensurate with their contributions or stakes. However, in many situations, the firm holds greater power than the stakeholder and therefore cannot necessarily be trusted to return the aforementioned duty to the stakeholder. Stakeholders must therefore rely on the trustworthiness of the organization to fulfill obligations in accordance to Phillips' principle of fairness (Business Ethics Quarterly (...)
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  • Does Corporate Governance Enhance Common Interests of Shareholders and Primary Stakeholders?Ninghua Zhong, Shujing Wang & Rudai Yang - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (2):411-431.
    Employing a unique dataset of Chinese non-listed firms, this paper investigates the effects of the presence of 19 governance structures on 20 employees’ interest indicators. In general, we find that firms with the governance structures pay workers higher hourly wages, require less monthly working hours, and have a smaller chance of wage arrears. Meanwhile, the shares of total wage and welfare expenditures in total sales revenue are lower in these firms, which results in higher profitability. Moreover, firms with the governance (...)
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  • Speaking Truth to Power: Religious Institutions as Both Dissident Organizational Stakeholders and Organizational Partners.Harry J. van Buren - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (1):55-72.
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  • The Effects of Current Income Attributes on Nonprofessional Investors’ Say-on-Pay Judgments: Does Fairness Still Matter?Steven E. Kaplan & Valentina L. Zamora - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (2):407-425.
    The say-on-pay regulation in the Dodd-Frank Act requires publicly-traded U.S. firms to hold a nonbinding, advisory shareholder vote on executive compensation. Advocates claim that SOP voting gives shareholders a mechanism to hold managers and boards more accountable. Critics contend that SOP votes may simplistically reflect shareholders’ reactions to the overall value of CEO compensation or the firm’s net income. However, based on prior research, we contend that market participants’ SOP votes are likely to consider current income attributes. For example, the (...)
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  • Taking (and Sharing Power): How Boards of Directors Can Bring About Greater Fairness for Dependent Stakeholders.Iii van Buren & J. Harry - 2010 - Business and Society Review 115 (2):205-230.
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  • Managers’ Moral Obligation of Fairness to Shareholders: Does Information Asymmetry Benefit Privileged Investors at Other Shareholders’ Expense?Jocelyn D. Evans, Elise Perrault & Timothy A. Jones - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (1):81-96.
    Drawing on ethical principles of fairness and integrative social contracts theory, moral obligations of fair dealing exist between the firm and all shareholders. This study investigates empirically whether privileged investors of publicly traded firms engage in legal, but morally questionable, trading that at the expense of non-privileged institutional or atomistic investors. In this context, we define privilege as the access to material, nonpublic earnings surprise information. Our results show that the opportunity for procedural unfairness increases with the presence of privileged (...)
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  • Beyond Coercion: Moral Assessment in the Labour Market.Dan Munter & Lars Lindblom - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):59-70.
    Some libertarians argue that informed consent alone makes transactions in the labour market morally justified. In contrast, some of their critics claim that such an act of consent is no guarantee against coercion. To know whether agreements are voluntary, we need to assess the quality of the offers or the prevailing background conditions. ISCT theorists argue that it is imperative to take social norms into account when evaluating the labour market. We present a novel framework for moral assessment in the (...)
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  • The Effectiveness of Bank Governance Reforms in the Wake of the Financial Crisis: A Stakeholder Approach.Sylvia Maxfield, Liu Wang & Mariana Magaldi de Sousa - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (2):485-503.
    This study examines the impact of bank corporate governance reforms in the wake of the financial crisis. These reforms correspond to criticism of shareholder-focused agency-based corporate governance practices and a renewed focus on the stakeholder impact of corporate governance lapses in the financial sector. This study differs from previous studies of corporate governance in the financial sector in using performance indicators that proxy the interests of customers and the community. Drawing on data from 134 countries over an eight-year period from (...)
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  • Dynamics for Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Norm Evolution and Individual Mobility.Duane Windsor - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):83-95.
    This article proposes a specific logic of dynamics for integrative social contracts theory that combines two empirically oriented process extensions strengthening concreteness of Donaldson and Dunfee’s conceptualization, namely international policy regime theory and Tiebout migration. While either would help “dynamize” and “concretize” ISCT, the two combined are even more insightful. Real-world policy regime processes can develop concrete action-guiding norms instantiating hypernorms to guide business decisions. Donaldson and Dunfee placed empirical reliance on expectation of converging parallel evolution of universal principles and (...)
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  • Stakeholder Theory Classification: A Theoretical and Empirical Evaluation of Definitions.Samantha Miles - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (3):437-459.
    Stakeholder theory is widely accepted but elementary aspects remain indeterminate as the term ‘stakeholder’ is an essentially contested concept, being variously describable, internally complex and open in character. Such contestability is highly problematic for theory development and empirical testing. The extent of essential contestability, previously unknown, is demonstrated in this paper through a bounded systematic review of 593 different stakeholder theory definitions. As an essentially contested concept, the solution does not lie in a universal stakeholder definition, but in debating the (...)
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  • Ethical Thinking in Traditional Italian Economia Aziendale and the Stakeholder Management Theory: The Search for Possible Interactions.Silvana Signori & Gianfranco Rusconi - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (S3):303-318.
    Over the last few years, there has been an exaggeratedly widespread and frequently confused use of the concepts of 'stakeholder' and 'corporate social responsibility'. However, some interesting insights of both these notions can be found in traditional European business administration studies. In this article, the Italian view will be examined. In particular, this paper investigates the teachings of some of the historical masters of the Italian "Economia Aziendale", with particular attention to the concept of the azienda, its finalism and its (...)
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