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Climate Change, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds

In Stephen Humphreys (ed.), Human Rights and Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69-90. (2010)

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  1. Legitimidad intergeneracional.Inigo Gonzalez-Ricoy (ed.) - 2018 - Barcelona:
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  • Debating Climate Ethics Revisited.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2021 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 24 (2):89-111.
    ABSTRACT In Debating Climate Ethics, David Weisbach and I offer contrasting views of the importance of ethics and justice for climate policy. I argue that ethics is central. Weisbach advocates for climate policy based purely on narrow forms of self-interest. For this symposium, I summarize the major themes, and extend my basic argument. I claim that ethics gets the problem right, whereas dismissing ethics risks getting the problem dangerously wrong, and perpetuating profound injustices. One consequence is that we should reject (...)
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  • Klimaaktivismus als ziviler Ungehorsam.Benjamin Kiesewetter - 2022 - Zeitschrift für Praktische Philosophie 9 (1):77-114.
    Political actions by Fridays for Future, Extinction Rebellion, and other climate activists often involve violations of legal regulations – such as compulsory education requirements or traffic laws – and have been criticized for this in the public sphere. In this essay, I defend the view that these violations of the law constitute a form of morally justified civil disobedience against climate policies. I first show that these actions satisfy the criteria of civil disobedience even on relatively strict conceptions of civil (...)
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  • A Public Health Ethics Case for Mitigating Zoonotic Disease Risk in Food Production.Justin Bernstein & Jan Dutkiewicz - 2021 - Food Ethics 6 (2).
    This article argues that governments in countries that currently permit intensive animal agriculture - especially but not exclusively high-income countries - are, in principle, morally justified in taking steps to restrict or even eliminate intensive animal agriculture to protect public health from the risk of zoonotic pandemics. Unlike many extant arguments for restricting, curtailing, or even eliminating intensive animal agriculture which focus on environmental harms, animal welfare, or the link between animal source food consumption and noncommunicable disease, the argument in (...)
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  • Climate Change and Justice: A Non-Welfarist Treaty Negotiation Framework.Alyssa R. Bernstein - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (2):123-145.
    Obstacles to achieving a global climate treaty include disagreements about questions of justice raised by the UNFCCC's principle that countries should respond to climate change by taking cooperative action "in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions". Aiming to circumvent such disagreements, Climate Change Justice authors Eric Posner and David Weisbach argue against shaping treaty proposals according to requirements of either distributive or corrective justice. The USA's climate envoy, Todd Stern, takes (...)
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  • Our Obligations to Future Generations: The Limits of Intergenerational Justice and the Necessity of the Ethics of Metaphysics.Pranay Sanklecha - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):229-245.
    Theories of intergenerational justice are a very common and popular way to conceptualise the obligations currently living people may have to future generations. After briefly pointing out that these theories presuppose certain views about the existence, number and identity of future people, I argue that the presuppositions must themselves be ethically investigated, and that theories of intergenerational justice lack the theoretical resources to be able to do this. On that basis, I claim it is necessary to do the ‘ethics of (...)
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  • Sustainable Goals : Feasible Paths to Desirable Long-Term Futures.Patrik Baard - 2014 - Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
    The general aim of this licentiate thesis is to analyze the framework in which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved. It is often claimed that goals should be realistic, meaning that they should be adjusted to known abilities. This thesis will argue that this might be very difficult in areas related to sustainable development and climate change adaptation, and that goals that are, to an acceptable degree, unrealistic, can have important functions. Essay I discusses long-term goal setting. When there (...)
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  • The silver bullet: justice as mutual advantage and the vulnerability objection.Jeppe von Platz - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-23.
    Justice as mutual advantage appears to show inadequate concern for those that are insufficiently useful to others, implying that those that are most in need of the protections of justice fall outside the scope of justice as mutual advantage. Vanderschraaf offers a novel reply to this objection. He presents a game–the Indefinitely Repeated Provider-Recipient Game–which establishes that in some situations justice as mutual advantage can show concern for the vulnerable. This finding, however, does not match the problem raised by the (...)
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  • Responding to Global Injustice: On the Right of Resistance.Simon Caney - 2015 - Social Philosophy and Policy 32 (1):51-73.
    Imagine that you are a farmer living in Kenya. Though you work hard to sell your produce to foreign markets you find yourself unable to do so because affluent countries subsidize their own farmers and erect barriers to trade, like tariffs, thereby undercutting you in the marketplace. As a consequence of their actions you languish in poverty despite your very best efforts. Or, imagine that you are a peasant whose livelihood depends on working in the fields in Indonesia and you (...)
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  • Climate Justice and Capabilities: A Framework for Adaptation Policy.David Schlosberg - 2012 - Ethics and International Affairs 26 (4):445-461.
    This article lays out a capabilities and justice-based approach to the development of adaptation policy. While many theories of climate justice remain focused on ideal theories for global mitigation, the argument here is for a turn to just adaptation, using a capabilities framework to encompass vulnerability, social recognition, and public participation in policy responses. This article argues for a broadly defined capabilities approach to climate justice, combining a recognition of the vulnerability of basic needs with a process for public involvement. (...)
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  • Climate Engineering and Human Rights.Toby Svoboda - 2019 - Environmental Politics 28 (3):397-416.
    Climate change threatens to infringe the human rights of many. Taking an optimistic stance, climate engineering might reduce the extent to which such rights are infringed, but it might also bring about other rights infringements. This Forum, leading off the special issue on climate engineering governance, engages three scholars in a discussion of three core issues at the intersection of human rights and climate engineering. The Forum is divided into three sections, each authored by a different scholar and discussing a (...)
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  • Human Rights and the Broken World.Jesse Tomalty - 2014 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 4 (2):47-57.
    In Ethics for a Broken World (2011),Tim Mulgan invites us to partake in a series of lectures delivered in a fictional future on some of the political philosophies that dominate our current tradition. The future he asks us to imagine is one in which the world is ‘broken’. In the broken world, climate change has lead to intermittent and unpredictable periods of radical scarcity in which there are insufficient resources to guarantee the survival of all existing persons (8-12). We are (...)
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  • Moral Asymmetries and Economic Evaluations of Climate Change: The Challenge of Assessing Diverse Effects.Blake Francis - 2017 - In Duncan Purves, Säde Hormio & Adrian Walsh (eds.), The Ethical Underpinnings of Climate Economics. New York: pp. 141-162.
     
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  • The Failure of Traditional Environmental Philosophy.Joseph Heath - 2022 - Res Publica 28 (1):1-16.
    A notable feature of recent philosophical work on climate ethics is that it makes practically no reference to ‘traditional’ environmental philosophy. There is some irony in this, since environmental ethics arose as part of a broader movement within philosophy, starting in the 1960s, aimed at developing different fields of applied philosophy, in order to show how everyday practice could be enriched through philosophical reflection and analysis. The major goal of this paper is to explain why this branch of practical ethics (...)
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  • Revising Global Theories of Justice to Include Public Goods.Heather Widdows & Peter G. N. West-Oram - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):227 - 243.
    Our aim in this paper is to suggest that most current theories of global justice fail to adequately recognise the importance of global public goods. Broadly speaking, this failing can be attributed at least in part to the complexity of the global context, the individualistic focus of most theories of justice, and the localised nature of the theoretical foundations of most theories of global justice. We argue ? using examples (particularly that of protecting antibiotic efficacy) ? that any truly effective (...)
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  • Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility.Raphael J. Nawrotzki - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (1):69-87.
    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's ‘historical principle’, this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is (...)
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  • Climate Change and Individual Duties to Reduce GHG Emissions.Christian Baatz - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (1):1-19.
    Although actions of individuals do contribute to climate change, the question whether or not they, too, are morally obligated to reduce the GHG emissions in their responsibility has not yet been addressed sufficiently. First, I discuss prominent objections to such a duty. I argue that whether individuals ought to reduce their emissions depends on whether or not they exceed their fair share of emission rights. In a next step I discuss several proposals for establishing fair shares and also take practical (...)
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  • Examining the Role of Carbon Capture and Storage Through an Ethical Lens.Fabien Medvecky, Justine Lacey & Peta Ashworth - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):1-18.
    The risk posed by anthropogenic climate change is generally accepted, and the challenge we face to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a tolerable limit cannot be underestimated. Reducing GHG emissions can be achieved either by producing less GHG to begin with or by emitting less GHG into the atmosphere. One carbon mitigation technology with large potential for capturing carbon dioxide at the point source of emissions is carbon capture and storage (CCS). However, the merits of CCS have been questioned, (...)
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  • Climate Change Justice.Darrel Moellendorf - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (3):173-186.
    Anthropogenic climate change is a global process affecting the lives and well-being of millions of people now and countless number of people in the future. For humans, the consequences may include significant threats to food security globally and regionally, increased risks of from food-borne and water-borne as well as vector-borne diseases, increased displacement of people due migrations, increased risks of violent conflicts, slowed economic growth and poverty eradication, and the creation of new poverty traps. Principles of justice are statements of (...)
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  • Climate Ethics with an Ethnographic Sensibility.Derek Bell, Joanne Swaffield & Wouter Peeters - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (4):611-632.
    What responsibilities does each of us have to reduce or limit our greenhouse gas emissions? Advocates of individual emissions reductions acknowledge that there are limits to what we can reasonably demand from individuals. Climate ethics has not yet systematically explored those limits. Instead, it has become popular to suggest that such judgements should be ‘context-sensitive’ but this does not tell us what role different contextual factors should play in our moral thinking. The current approach to theory development in climate ethics (...)
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  • Human Rights, Global Justice, or Historical Responsibility? Three Potential Appeals.Steve Vanderheiden - 2017 - Journal of Value Inquiry 51 (3):397-415.
  • The Tragedy of the Few.Theresa Scavenius - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (1):53-65.
    In this article I elaborate and defend a rights-based understanding of climate politics, that is, one that takes climate politics to concern the rights to access of natural resources as opposed to people’s economic incentives. The argument contains two parts. The first is negative: to demonstrate that the tragedy of the commons as a story of climate change is inadequate. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory framework, which I call the tragedy of the few. In this view, (...)
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  • Neutrality, Nature, and Intergenerational Justice.Britta Clark - 2020 - Environmental Politics 1.
    Suppose the present generation leaves future ones with a world depleted of all the natural resources required for many valuable human pursuits. Has the present generation acted unjustly? According to contemporary theories of liberal egalitarian intragenerational and intergenerational justice, the answer, it appears, is no. The explanation for this verdict lies in the liberal commitment to remaining neutral between different ways of life: many value-laden environ- mental sites and species are not an all-purpose means to any reasonable human end and (...)
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  • The Ethics of Geoengineering: A Literature Review.Augustine Pamplany, Bert Gordijn & Patrick Brereton - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3069-3119.
    Geoengineering as a technological intervention to avert the dangerous climate change has been on the table at least since 2006. The global outreach of the technology exercised in a non-encapsulated system, the concerns with unprecedented levels and scales of impact and the overarching interdisciplinarity of the project make the geoengineering debate ethically quite relevant and complex. This paper explores the ethical desirability of geoengineering from an overall review of the existing literature on the ethics of geoengineering. It identifies the relevant (...)
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  • The Ethics of Natural Disaster Intervention.Traczykowski Lauren - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Birmingham
    Natural disasters are social disruptions triggered by physical events. Every year, hundreds of natural disasters occur and tens of thousands of people are killed as a result. I maintain that everyone would want to be provided with assistance in the aftermath a natural disaster. If a national government is not providing post disaster assistance, then we expect that some other institution has the responsibility to provide it. Unfortunately, that is not the case currently. Therefore, in this thesis I argue that (...)
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  • Postericidio como crimen intergeneracional.Santiago Truccone Borgogno - 2019 - En Letra: Derecho Penal 8 (V):55-77.
    Desde los trabajos de Catriona McKinnon se ha empezado a hablar del crimen de postericidio. Este crimen es entendido como aquella conducta intencional o imprudente capaz de provocar la casi extinción de la humanidad. En este trabajo mostraré por qué el principio de daño (intergeneracional e internacional) puede aportar buenas razones en favor de la justificación moral de la criminalización del postericidio. Argumentaré que ni el problema de la no-identidad ni el de los daños por acumulación hablan en contra de (...)
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  • Fair Climate Policy in an Unequal World: Characterising Responsibilities and Designing Institutions for Mitigation and International Finance.Jonathan Pickering - 2013 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    The urgent need to address climate change poses a range of complex moral and practical concerns, not least because rising to the challenge will require cooperation among countries that differ greatly in their wealth, the extent of their contributions to the problem, and their vulnerability to environmental and economic shocks. This thesis by publication in the field of climate ethics aims to characterise a range of national responsibilities associated with acting on climate change (Part I), and to identify proposals for (...)
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  • Innovación transformadora. Propuestas desde la innovación social colectiva para el desarrollo humano.Alejandra Boni, Sergio Belda-Miquel & Victoria Pellicer-Sifres - 2018 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 23:67-94.
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  • Climate Change, Fundamental Interests, and Global Justice.Carl Knight - 2016 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19 (5):629-644.
    Political philosophers commonly tackle the issue of climate change by focusing on fundamental interests as a basis for human rights. This approach struggles, however, in cases where one set of fundamental interests requires one course of action, and another set of fundamental interests requires another course of action. This article advances an alternative response to climate change based on an account of global justice that gives weight to utilitarian, prioritarian, and luck egalitarian considerations. A practical application of this pluralistic account (...)
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  • Do Rights-Based Moralities Cause Climate Change? Balancing the Rights of Current Persons and the Needs of Future Generations.Benjamin Barnard - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Essex
    This thesis explores the relationship between rights-based moral systems and climate change. It argues that supporters of rights-based moralities must give the realisation of rights priority over non-rights-based moral concerns. It further contends that future persons cannot possess rights that would place current persons under correlative duties towards them before their conception. The thesis then highlights that climate change will need to be combatted through programmes of adaptation and mitigation. Unfortunately, the majority of those protected by such programmes will be (...)
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  • Climate Ethics: Justifying a Positive Social Time Preference.Joseph Heath - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (4):435–462.
    Recent debates over climate change policy have made it clear that the choice of a social discount rate has enormous consequences for the amount of mitigation that will be recommended. The social discount rate determines how future costs are to be compared to present costs. Philosophers, however, have been almost unanimous in endorsing the view that the only acceptable social rate of time preference is zero, a view that, taken literally, has either absurd or extremely radical implications. The first goal (...)
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  • Climate Neutrality – Towards An Ethical Conception of Climate Neutrality.Rafael Ziegler - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):256-272.
    Over the last decade, climate neutrality has emerged as an empowering, new concept—and it has given rise to concerns that it may be conducive to greenwashing and a disregard for justice and sustainability. Are these concerns justified? This paper argues that there is a qualified case for climate neutrality as part of an integrated approach to climate ethics. There are ethical and economic arguments for climate neutrality. An ethical conception of climate neutrality puts critical emphasis on reduction as well as (...)
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  • Climate Change and Liberation in Latin America.Ernesto O. Hernández - 2020 - Dissertation, University of South Florida
    The purpose of this dissertation is to propose the liberation movements in Latin America as alternative philosophical frameworks to the crisis of climate change. These movements have provided the grounds to identify inequities and injustices and have practiced ethical methodologies to overcome them. Additionally, the movements seek to represent and reflect the value of non-traditional philosophical agents in Latin America. The work focuses on four major Latin American ecological liberation movements; theology, philosophy, pedagogy, and feminism. Eco-Theology advances the role of (...)
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  • Human Rights, Harm, and Climate Change Mitigation.Brian Berkey - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):416-435.
    A number of philosophers have resisted impersonal explanations of our obligation to mitigate climate change, and have developed accounts according to which these obligations are explained by human rights or harm-based considerations. In this paper I argue that several of these attempts to explain our mitigation obligations without appealing to impersonal factors fail, since they either cannot account for a plausibly robust obligation to mitigate, or have implausible implications in other cases. I conclude that despite the appeal of the motivations (...)
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  • Ethical Issues in Mitigation of Climate Change: The Option of Reduced Meat Production and Consumption. [REVIEW]Anders Nordgren - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):563-584.
    In this paper I discuss ethical issues related to mitigation of climate change. In particular, I focus on mitigation of climate change to the extent this change is caused by livestock production. I support the view—on which many different ethical approaches converge—that the present generation has a moral obligation to mitigate climate change for the benefit of future generations and that developed countries should take the lead in the process. Moreover, I argue that since livestock production is an important contributing (...)
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  • Redistribution and Moral Consistency: Arguments for Granting Automatic Citizenship to Refugees.Arianne Shahvisi - 2020 - Journal of Global Ethics 16 (2):182-202.
    Infants born to those resident in a particular state are generally granted automatic citizenship, which in most Global North states confers a range of privileges, and may therefore be seen as the u...
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  • The Human Cost of Anthropogenic Global Warming: Semi-Quantitative Prediction and the 1,000-Tonne Rule.Richard Parncutt - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Beyond Redistribution: Honneth, Recognition Theory and Global Justice.Renante D. Pilapil - 2020 - Critical Horizons 21 (1):34-48.
    ABSTRACTThis paper attempts to explore the ways through which the discourse on global justice can be expanded beyond the language of redistribution by utilizing the insights from the theory of recognition as proposed by Honneth. It looks into the potential contributions of recognition theory in the normative analysis of global poverty and inequality. Taking off from the argument that the focus on global redistributive justice is misleading, the paper makes three claims: firstly, any global justice discourse must take as its (...)
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  • Contractualism and Climate Change.Jussi Suikkanen - 2014 - In Marcello Di Paola & Gianfranco Pellegrino (eds.), Canned Heat: Ethics and Politics of Climate Change. Routledge. pp. 115-128.
    Climate change is ‘a complex problem raising issues across and between a large number of disciplines, including physical and life sciences, political science, economics, and psychology, to name just a few’ (Gardiner 2006: 397). It is also a moral problem. Therefore, in this chapter, I will consider what kind of a contribution an ethical theory called ‘contractualism’ can make to the climate change debates. This chapter first introduces contractualism. It then describes a simple climate change scenario. The third section explains (...)
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  • Climate Change as a Three-Part Ethical Problem: A Response to Jamieson and Gardiner.Ewan Kingston - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):1129-1148.
    Dale Jamieson has claimed that conventional human-directed ethical concepts are an inadequate means for accurately understanding our duty to respond to climate change. Furthermore, he suggests that a responsibility to respect nature can instead provide the appropriate framework with which to understand such a duty. Stephen Gardiner has responded by claiming that climate change is a clear case of ethical responsibility, but the failure of institutions to respond to it creates a (not unprecedented) political problem. In assessing the debate between (...)
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  • Addressing Poverty and Climate Change: The Varieties of Social Engagement.Simon Caney - 2012 - Ethics and International Affairs 26 (2):191-216.
    In this article I propose to explore two issues. The first concerns what kinds of contributions academics can make to reducing poverty. I argue that academics can contribute in a number of ways, and I seek to spell out the diversity of the options available. I concentrate on four ways in which these contributions might differ.My second aim is to outline some norms that should inform any academic involvement in activities that seek to reduce poverty. I set out six proposals. (...)
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  • The Relevance of Distributive Justice to International Climate Change Policy.Benjamin Sachs - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):208-224.
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  • Justice and the Distribution of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.Simon Caney - 2009 - Journal of Global Ethics 5 (2):125-146.
    The prospect of dangerous climate change requires Humanity to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. This in turn raises the question of how the permission to emit greenhouse gases should be distributed and among whom. In this article the author criticises three principles of distributive justice that have often been advanced in this context. He also argues that the predominantly statist way in which the question is framed occludes some morally relevant considerations. The latter part of the article turns from (...)
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  • On the Concept of Climate Debt: Its Moral and Political Value.Jonathan Pickering & Christian Barry - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (5):667-685.
    A range of developing countries and international advocacy organizations have argued that wealthy countries, as a result of their greater historical contribution to human-induced climate change, owe a ?climate debt? to poor countries. Critics of this argument have claimed that it is incoherent or morally objectionable. In this essay we clarify the concept of climate debt and assess its value for conceptualizing responsibilities associated with global climate change and for guiding international climate negotiations. We conclude that the idea of a (...)
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  • Does Anthropogenic Climate Change Violate Human Rights?Derek Bell - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):99-124.
    Early discussions of ?climate justice? have been dominated by economists rather than political philosophers. More recently, analytical liberal political philosophers have joined the debate. However, the philosophical discussion of climate justice remains in its early stages. This paper considers one promising approach based on human rights, which has been advocated recently by several theorists, including Simon Caney, Henry Shue and Tim Hayward. A basic argument supporting the claim that anthropogenic climate change violates human rights is presented. Four objections to this (...)
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