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The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil

Oxford University Press (2002)

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  1. Challenging the Genteel Supports of Atrocities: A Response to The Atrocity Paradigm.Linda A. Bell - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):123 - 140.
    Inspired by Card's focus on atrocities, I reflect on attitudes and behaviors that buttress and support evil. Surely, the frequent anti-Semitic sermons in German churches helped to form and later to support the views of both Nazis and those who accepted and cooperated with them. Similarly, lynching, rape, and abuse occur within societies whose structures and laws reflect dominant, generally "genteel" racism and sexism and, in turn, help create perpetrators and at least somewhat sympathetic onlookers.
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  • The Counterfactual Conception of Compensation.Rodney C. Roberts - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):414–428.
    : My aim in this essay is to remove some of the rubbish that lies in the way of an appropriate understanding of rectificatory compensation, by arguing for the rejection of the counterfactual conception of compensation. Although there is a significant extent to which contemporary theorists have relied upon this idea, the counterfactual conception of compensation is merely a popular assumption, having no positive argument in support of it. Moreover, it can make rendering compensation impossible, and absurd notions of compensation (...)
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  • Overcoming Oppressive Self-Blame: Gray Agency in Underground Railroads.David W. Concepción - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):81 - 99.
    After describing some key features of life in an underground railroad and the nature of gray agency, Concepción illustrates how survivors of relationship slavery can stop levying misplaced blame on themselves without giving up the valuable practice of blaming. Concepción concludes that by choosing a relatively non-oppressive account of self-blame, some amount of internalized oppression can be overcome and the double bind of agency-denial and self-loathing associated with being an oppressively grafted agent can be reduced.
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  • Relating After Wrongdoing: A Review of Forgiveness From a Feminist Perspective. By Kathryn Norlock and Making Amends: Atonement in Morality, Law and Politics. By Linda Radzik. [REVIEW]Alice MacLachlan - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (4):851-857.
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  • Is Evil Just Very Wrong?Todd Calder - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (1):177-196.
    Is evil a distinct moral concept? Or are evil actions just very wrong actions? Some philosophers have argued that evil is a distinct moral concept. These philosophers argue that evil is qualitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. Other philosophers have suggested that evil is only quantitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. On this view, evil is just very wrong. In this paper I argue that evil is qualitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. The first part of the paper is critical. I argue that (...)
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  • The Anxious Believer: Macaulay's Prescient Theodicy.Jill Graper Hernandez - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (3):175-187.
    Recent feminists have critiqued G.W. Leibniz’s Theodicy for its effort to justify God’s role in undeserved human suffering over natural and moral evil. These critiques suggest that theodicies which focus on evil as suffering alone obfuscate how to thematize evil, and so they conclude that theodicies should be rejected and replaced with a secularized notion of evil that is inextricably tied to the experiences of the victim. This paper argues that the political philosophy found in the writings of Catherine Macaulay (...)
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  • Acquainted with Grief: The Atonement and Early Feminist Conceptions of Theodicy.Jill Graper Hernandez - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (1):97-111.
    This paper explores the relationship between the problem of evil and a kenotic view of the Atonement evidenced not just by feminist theologians, but by analytic philosophers of religion. I will argue that, although kenosis provides an interesting story about the ability of Christ to partake in human suffering, it faces debilitating problems for understanding divine concurrence with evil in the world. Most significantly, I will argue that the potential tensions between divine justice and divine love can be loosened by (...)
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  • Inequity/Iniquity: Card on Balancing Injustice and Evil.Adam Morton - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):199-203.
    Card argues that we should not give injustice priority over evil. I agree. But I think Card sets us up for some difficult balancings, for example of small evils against middle sized injustices. I suggest some ways of staying off the tightrope.
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  • Surviving Long-Term Mass Atrocities1.Claudia Card - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):35-52.
  • The Sisyphean Torture of Housework: Simone de Beauvoir and Inequitable Divisions of Domestic Work in Marriage.Andrea Veltman - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (3):121-143.
    This paper examines Simone de Beauvoir's account of marriage in The Second Sex and argues that Beauvoir's dichotomy between transcendence and immanence can provide an illuminating critique of continuing gender inequities in marriage and divisions of domestic work. Beauvoir's existentialist ethics not only establishes a moral wrong in marriages in which wives perform the second shift of household labor but also supports the need to transform existing normative expectations surrounding wives and domestic work.
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  • Dispositional Accounts of Evil Personhood.Luke Russell - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 149 (2):231 - 250.
    It is intuitively plausible that not every evildoer is an evil person. In order to make sense of this intuition we need to construct an account of evil personhood in addition to an account of evil action. Some philosophers have offered aggregative accounts of evil personhood, but these do not fit well with common intuitions about the explanatory power of evil personhood, the possibility of moral reform, and the relationship between evil and luck. In contrast, a dispositional account of evil (...)
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  • The Question of Evil and Feminist Legal Scholarship.Thérèse Murphy & Noel Whitty - 2006 - Feminist Legal Studies 14 (1):1-26.
    In this article, we argue that feminist legal scholars should engage directly and explicitly with the question of evil. Part I summarises key facts surrounding the prosecution and life-long imprisonment of Myra Hindley, one of a tiny number of women involved in multiple killings of children in recent British history. Part II reviews a range of commentaries on Hindley, noting in particular the repeated use of two narratives: the first of these insists that Hindley is an icon of female evil; (...)
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  • Countering the Vices: On the Neglected Side of Character Education.Tal Gilead - 2011 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (3):271-284.
  • Ticking Bombs and Interrogations.Claudia Card - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
    Torture is like slavery (and unlike murder and genocide) in that it is not inconceivable that torture might be justifiable. But the circumstances that would make it tolerable are unrealistic in philosophically interesting ways. It is unrealistic to think we can predict when torture will be effective and containable; unwarranted to suppose that humane alternatives are impossible; disastrous to remove motivations to create alternatives; unacceptable to be satisfied with available evidence regarding suspects’ identity, knowledge of critical detail, ability to recall (...)
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  • Raising Responsibility: Motherhood and Moral Luck.Sheryl Tuttle Ross - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):56-69.
    This paper extends Claudia Card's account of agency in the face of moral luck in order to theoretically ground the activities of feminist mothers who endeavor to raise responsible human beings. The paper addresses those who mother in gray areas—areas where mothers are victims of the evils of the institution of motherhood while having authority and influence over their children. -/- .
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  • Rape and Enforced Pregnancy as Femicide: Comments on Claudia Card's “The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy”.Ann E. Cudd - 2008 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):190-199.
  • Gay Divorce: Thoughts on the Legal Regulation of Marriage.Claudia Card - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):24-38.
    : Although the exclusion of LGBTs from the rites and rights of marriage is arbitrary and unjust, the legal institution of marriage is itself so riddled with injustice that it would be better to create alternative forms of durable intimate partnership that do not invoke the power of the state. Card's essay develops a case for this position, taking up an injustice sufficiently serious to constitute an evil: the sheltering of domestic violence.
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  • On the Harmony of Feminist Ethics and Business Ethics.Janet Borgerson - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):477-509.
    If business requires ethical solutions that are viable in the liminal landscape between concepts and corporate office, then business ethics and corporate social responsibility should offer tools that can survive the trek, that flourish in this well-traveled, but often unarticulated, environment. Indeed, feminist ethics produces, accesses, and engages such tools. However, work in BE and CSR consistently conflates feminist ethics and feminine ethics and care ethics. I offer clarification and invoke the analytic power of three feminist ethicists 'in action' whose (...)
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  • Evil and Incomprehensibility.Luke Russell - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):62-73.
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  • Understanding Evil Acts.Paul Formosa - 2007 - Human Studies 30 (2):57-77.
    Evil acts strike us, by their very nature, as not only horrifying and reprehensible, but also as deeply puzzling. No doubt for reasons like this, evil has often been seen as mysterious, demonic and beyond our human powers of understanding. The question I examine in this paper is whether or not we can (or would want to) overcome this puzzlement in the face of evil acts. I shall argue that we ought want to (in all cases) and can (in at (...)
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  • Evil, Monsters and Dualism.Luke Russell - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (1):45-58.
    In his book The Myth of Evil , Phillip Cole claims that the concept of evil divides normal people from inhuman, demonic and monstrous wrongdoers. Such monsters are found in fiction, Cole maintains, but not in reality. Thus, even if the concept of evil has the requisite form to be explanatorily useful, it will be of no explanatory use in the real world. My aims in this paper are to assess Cole’s arguments for the claim that there are no actual (...)
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  • Questions Regarding a War on Terrorism.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):164 - 169.
    : The concept of a war on terrorism creates havoc with attempts to apply rules of war. For "terrorism" is not an agent. Nor is it clear what relationship to terrorism agents must have in order to be legitimate targets. Nor is it clear what kinds of terrorism count. Would a war on terrorism in the home be a justifiable response to domestic battering? If not, do similar objections apply to a war on public terrorism?
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  • The Limits of Forgiveness.Kathryn J. Norlock & Jean Rumsey - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):100 - 122.
    In this paper, we contextualize Claudia Card's work on forgiveness within wider literatures on forgiveness. With Card, we emphasize the costs of forgiveness and the sufferings of victims, and suggest alternatives to forgiving evils. Women who live in particularly unsafe contexts require recognition more than reconciliation. We conclude that those who forgive evil also require recognition that respects the choices of forgiving agents, seeing their decisions as relevant to conceptual analysis about forgiveness.
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  • Evil, Wrongdoing, and Concept Distinctness.Hallie Liberto & Fred Harrington - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (6):1591-1602.
    Philosophers theorizing about ‘evil’ usually distinguish evil actions from acts of ordinary wrongdoing. They either attempt to isolate some quality or set of qualities shared by all evil actions that is not found in other wrongful actions, or they concede that their account of evil is only distinguished by capturing the very worst acts on the scale of moral wrongness. The idea that evil is qualitatively distinct from wrongdoing has recently been under contention. We explore the grounds for this contention, (...)
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  • Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    : Social death, central to the evil of genocide (whether the genocide is homicidal or primarily cultural), distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  • Challenging the Genteel Supports of Atrocities: A Response to The Atrocity Paradigm.Linda A. Bell - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):123-140.
  • The Atrocity Paradigm and the Concept of Forgiveness.Robin May Schott - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):204 - 211.
    In this article I discuss Claudia Card's treatment of war rape in relation to her discussion of the victim's moral power of forgiveness. I argue that her analysis of the victim's power to withhold forgiveness overlooks the paradoxical structure of witnessing, which implies that there is an ungraspable dimension of atrocity. In relation to this ungraspable element, the proposal that victims of atrocity have the power to either offer or withhold forgiveness may have little relevance.
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  • Evil Collectives.Geoffrey Scarre - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):74-92.
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  • Health Care in the United States: Evil Intentions and Collective Responsibility.Victoria Davion - 2006 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 30 (1):325–337.
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  • Feminist Ethics and Everyday Inequalities.Samantha Brennan - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):159.
    How should feminist philosophers regard the inequalities that structure the lives of women? Some of these inequalities are trivial and others are not; together they form a framework of unequal treatment that shapes women’s lives. This paper asks what priority we should give inequalities that affect women; it critically analyzes Claudia Card’s view that feminists ought to give evils priority. Sometimes ending gender-based inequalities is the best route to eliminating gender-based evil.
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  • Is Forgetting Reprehensible? Holocaust Remembrance and the Task of Oblivion.Björn Krondorfer - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (2):233-267.
    "Forgetting" plays an important role in the lives of individuals and communities. Although a few Holocaust scholars have begun to take forgetting more seriously in relation to the task of remembering—in popular parlance as well as in academic discourse on the Holocaust—forgetting is usually perceived as a negative force. In the decades following 1945, the terms remembering and forgetting have often been used antithetically, with the communities of victims insisting on the duty to remember and a society of perpetrators desiring (...)
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  • Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil.Victoria Davion - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  • Gay Divorce: Thoughts on the Legal Regulation of Marriage.Claudia Card - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):24-38.
    Although the exclusion of LGBTs from the rites and rights of marriage is arbitrary and unjust, the legal institution of marriage is itself so riddled with injustice that it would be better to create alternative forms of durable intimate partnership that do not invoke the power of the state. Card's essay develops a case for this position, taking up an injustice sufficiently serious to constitute an evil: the sheltering of domestic violence.
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  • Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    Social death, central to the evil of genocide, distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  • Introduction: Special Issue on “Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil”.Robin May Schott - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):1-9.
  • What the Utilitarian Cannot Think.Mark T. Nelson - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):717-729.
    I argue that utilitarianism cannot accommodate a basic sort of moral judgment that many people want to make. I raise a real-life example of shockingly bad behavior and ask what can the utilitarian say about it. I concede that the utilitarian can say that this behavior caused pain to the victim; that pain is bad; that the agent’s behavior was impermissible; even that the agent’s treatment of the victim was vicious. However, there is still one thing the utilitarian cannot say, (...)
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  • Politics and Prioritization of Evil.On Bat-Ami Bar - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):192-196.
    In this essay I question an assumption of Card's, which seems to place the (Kantianstyle) ethical in a directive relationship with respect to the political. I call attention to the rupture between the two as a marker of modernity and suggest that the political is not only a sphere of power but also a value-sedimented field, with the values in question developing historically as in the case of liberal democracy.
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  • The Sisyphean Torture of Housework: Simone de Beauvoir and Inequitable Divisions of Domestic Work in Marriage.Andrea Veltman - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (3):121-143.
    : This paper examines Simone de Beauvoir's account of marriage in The Second Sex and argues that Beauvoir's dichotomy between transcendence and immanence can provide an illuminating critique of continuing gender inequities in marriage and divisions of domestic work. Beauvoir's existentialist ethics not only establishes a moral wrong in marriages in which wives perform the second shift of household labor but also supports the need to transform existing normative expectations surrounding wives and domestic work.
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  • The Atrocity Paradigm Revisited.Claudia Card - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):212 - 222.
    This essay reflects on issues raised by commentators regarding my book, The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil (Oxford 2002). They are (1) Robin Schott's observation of the tension between my discussion of forgiveness and of castration fantasies; (2) Bat-Ami Bar On's questions regarding whether evil is ethical, political, or both; (3) Adam Morton's queries regarding the relative seriousness of evils and injustices; and (4) María Pía Lara's concerns regarding what is valuable in Kant's ethics.
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  • Introduction.Kathryn J. Norlock & Andrea Veltman - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):3-8.
    Summary: An introduction to this special issue of Hypatia, in which feminist philosophers analyze, critically engage, and extend several predominant ideas in the work of Claudia Card. Authors in this collection include Lisa Tessman, Marilyn Friedman, Hilde Lindemann, Sheryl Tuttle Ross, Joan Callahan, David Concepción, Kathryn Norlock and Jean Rumsey (co-authors), Linda Bell, Samantha Brennan, and Victoria Davion.
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  • Introduction: Special Issue on "Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil".Robin May Schott - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):1-9.
  • Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide, by Claudia Card. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, Xix + 329 Pp. ISBN 9780521899611 Hb £60; ISBN 9780521728362 Pb £19.99. [REVIEW]Jeffrey Reiman - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):512-517.
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