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  1. The Flexibility of Conceptual Pacts: Referring Expressions Dynamically Shift to Accommodate New Conceptualizations.Alyssa Ibarra & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Reductionism About Understanding Why.Insa Lawler - 2016 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 116 (2):229-236.
    Paulina Sliwa (2015) argues that knowing why p is necessary and sufficient for understanding why p. She tries to rebut recent attacks against the necessity and sufficiency claims, and explains the gradability of understanding why in terms of knowledge. I argue that her attempts do not succeed, but I indicate more promising ways to defend reductionism about understanding why throughout the discussion.
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  • Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  • The structure of communicative acts.Sarah E. Murray & William B. Starr - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (2):425-474.
    Utterances of natural language sentences can be used to communicate not just contents, but also forces. This paper examines this topic from a cross-linguistic perspective on sentential mood. Recent work in this area focuses on conversational dynamics: the three sentence types can be associated with distinctive kinds of conversational effects called sentential forces, modeled as three kinds of updates to the discourse context. This paper has two main goals. First, it provides two arguments, on empirical and methodological grounds, for treating (...)
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  • Partner‐Specific Adaptation in Dialog.Susan E. Brennan & Joy E. Hanna - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):274-291.
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  • Co-Ordination of Spatial Perspectives in Response to Addressee Feedback: Effects of Perceived Addressee Understanding.Kavita E. Thomas & Elena Andonova - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (3):505-545.
    In this paper we investigate the effect of level of understanding revealed by feedback in the form of clarification requests from a route follower on a route giver’s spatial perspective choice in their response in route instruction dialogues. In an experiment varying the level of understanding displayed by route follower clarification requests (the independent variable), route giver perspective switching in response to this feedback is investigated. Three levels of understanding displayed by feedback are investigated: (1) low-level clarification requests indicating that (...)
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  • Baptizing Meanings for Concepts.Iris Oved - 2009 - Dissertation, Rutgers University
    Most people find it obvious that concepts like APPLE, DOG, WATER, CACTUS, SWIM, CHIRP, FURRY, and SMOOTH are acquired from perceptual experiences along with some kind of inferential procedure. Models of how these concepts are inferentially acquired, however, force the acquired concepts to be representationally complex, built from, and composed by, the more primitive representations. Since at least the time of Plato, philosophers and psychologists have struggled to find complex sets of representations that have the same meanings, definitionally or probabilistically, (...)
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  • Cued by What We See and Hear: Spatial Reference Frame Use in Language.Kenny R. Coventry, Elena Andonova, Thora Tenbrink, Harmen B. Gudde & Paul E. Engelhardt - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Jazz Improvisers' Shared Understanding: A Case Study.Michael F. Schober & Neta Spiro - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Pooling the Ground: Understanding and Coordination in Collective Sense Making.Joanna Rä…Czaszek-Leonardi, Agnieszka Dä™Bska & Adam Sochanowicz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Comprehension and Engagement in Survey Interviews with Virtual Agents.Frederick G. Conrad, Michael F. Schober, Matt Jans, Rachel A. Orlowski, Daniel Nielsen & Rachel Levenstein - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground.Roman Kutlak, Kees van Deemter & Chris Mellish - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Reference as an Interactive Achievement: Sequential and Longitudinal Analyses of Labeling Interactions in Shared Book Reading and Free Play.Vivien Heller & Katharina J. Rohlfing - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Compensating for an Inattentive Audience.Nicole N. Craycraft & Sarah Brown‐Schmidt - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1504-1528.
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  • The Functions of Imitative Behaviour in Humans.Harry Farmer, Anna Ciaunica & Antonia F. De C. Hamilton - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (4):378-396.
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  • Category Essence or Essentially Pragmatic? Creator’s Intention in Naming and What’s Really What.Barbara C. Malt & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - Cognition 105 (3):615-648.
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  • How to Create Shared Symbols.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):241-269.
    Human cognition and behavior are dominated by symbol use. This paper examines the social learning strategies that give rise to symbolic communication. Experiment 1 contrasts an individual-level account, based on observational learning and cognitive bias, with an inter-individual account, based on social coordinative learning. Participants played a referential communication game in which they tried to communicate a range of recurring meanings to a partner by drawing, but without using their conventional language. Individual-level learning, via observation and cognitive bias, was sufficient (...)
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  • Conversation and Behavior Games in the Pragmatics of Dialogue.Gabriella Airenti, Bruno G. Bara & Marco Colombetti - 1993 - Cognitive Science 17 (2):197-256.
    In this article we present the bases for a computational theory of the cognitive processes underlying human communication. The core of the article is devoted to the analysis of the phases in which the process of comprehension of a communicative act can be logically divided: (1) literal meaning, where the reconstruction of the mental states literally expressed by the actor takes place: (2) speaker's meaning, where the partner reconstructs the communicative intentions of the actor; (3) communicative effect, where the partner (...)
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  • Predicting Conversational Reports of a Personal Event.Yvette J. Tenney - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (2):213-233.
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  • Navigating Joint Projects with Dialogue.Adrian Bangerter & Herbert H. Clark - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (2):195-225.
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  • The Effects of Feature-Label-Order and Their Implications for Symbolic Learning.Michael Ramscar, Daniel Yarlett, Melody Dye, Katie Denny & Kirsten Thorpe - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):909-957.
    Symbols enable people to organize and communicate about the world. However, the ways in which symbolic knowledge is learned and then represented in the mind are poorly understood. We present a formal analysis of symbolic learning—in particular, word learning—in terms of prediction and cue competition, and we consider two possible ways in which symbols might be learned: by learning to predict a label from the features of objects and events in the world, and by learning to predict features from a (...)
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  • An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems.Bruno Galantucci - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (5):737-767.
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  • Designing Meaningful Agents.Matthew Stone - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
     
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  • Communicative Intentions and Conversational Processes in Human-Human and Human-Computer Dialogue.Matthew Stone - unknown
    This chapter investigates the computational consequences of a broadly Gricean view of language use as intentional activity. In this view, dialogue rests on coordinated reasoning about communicative intentions. The speaker produces each utterance by formulating a suitable communicative intention. The hearer understands it by recognizing the communicative intention behind it. When this coordination is successful, interlocutors succeed in considering the same intentions— that is, the same representations of utterance meaning—as the dialogue proceeds. In this paper, I emphasize that these intentions (...)
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  • Normativity in Language and Law.Alex Silk - forthcoming - In David Plunkett, Kevin Toh & Scott Shapiro (eds.), Dimensions of Normativity: New Essays on Metaethics and Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter develops an account of the meaning and use of various types of legal claims, and uses this account to inform debates about the nature and normativity of law. The account draws on a general framework for implementing a contextualist theory, called 'Discourse Contextualism' (Silk 2016). The aim of Discourse Contextualism is to derive the apparent normativity of claims of law from a particular contextualist interpretation of a standard semantics for modals, along with general principles of interpretation and conversation. (...)
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  • Minds and Language: Social Cognition, Social Interaction and the Acquisition of Language.Kevin Durkin - 1987 - Mind and Language 2 (2):105-140.
  • The Interplay Between Gesture and Speech in the Production of Referring Expressions: Investigating the Tradeoff Hypothesis.Jan P. de Ruiter, Adrian Bangerter & Paula Dings - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):232-248.
    The tradeoff hypothesis in the speech–gesture relationship claims that (a) when gesturing gets harder, speakers will rely relatively more on speech, and (b) when speaking gets harder, speakers will rely relatively more on gestures. We tested the second part of this hypothesis in an experimental collaborative referring paradigm where pairs of participants (directors and matchers) identified targets to each other from an array visible to both of them. We manipulated two factors known to affect the difficulty of speaking to assess (...)
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  • Contributing to Discourse.Herbert H. Clark & Edward F. Schaefer - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (2):259-294.
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  • Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.Kumiko Fukumura - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1419-1433.
    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only (...)
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  • Universal Principles of Human Communication: Preliminary Evidence From a Cross‐Cultural Communication Game.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda, Ichiro Umata, Takugo Fukaya, Yasuhiro Katagiri & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2397-2413.
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  • When Do Speakers Take Into Account Common Ground?William S. Horton & Boaz Keysar - 1996 - Cognition 59 (1):91-117.
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  • The Dialogically Extended Mind: Language as Skilful Intersubjective Engagement.Riccardo Fusaroli, Nivedita Gangopadhyay & Kristian Tylén - 2013 - Cognitive Systems Research.
    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties (Clark, 2006a). Extending upon this model, we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: the skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically (...)
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  • Running Repairs: Coordinating Meaning in Dialogue.Patrick G. T. Healey, Gregory J. Mills, Arash Eshghi & Christine Howes - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (2):367-388.
  • Real‐Time Investigation of Referential Domains in Unscripted Conversation: A Targeted Language Game Approach.Sarah Brown-Schmidt & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):643-684.
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  • Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ‘‘one-shot’’ referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that (...)
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  • Utility-Based Generation of Referring Expressions.Markus Guhe - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):306-329.
    This paper presents two cognitive models that simulate the production of referring expressions in the iMAP task—a task-oriented dialog. One general model is based on Dale and Reiter’s (1995)incremental algorithm, and the other is a simple template model that has a higher correlation with the data but is specifically geared toward the properties of the iMAP task. The property of the iMAP task environment that is modeled here is that the color feature is unreliable for identifying referents while other features (...)
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  • Anchoring Utterances.Herbert H. Clark - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (2):329-350.
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  • Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
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  • The Emergence of the Physical World From Information Processing.Brian Whitworth - 2010 - Quantum Biosystems 2 (1):221-249.
    This paper links the conjecture that the physical world is a virtual reality to the findings of modern physics. What is usually the subject of science fiction is here proposed as a scientific theory open to empirical evaluation. We know from physics how the world behaves, and from computing how information behaves, so whether the physical world arises from ongoing information processing is a question science can evaluate. A prima facie case for the virtual reality conjecture is presented. If a (...)
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  • A World Unto Itself: Human Communication as Active Inference.Jared Vasil, Paul B. Badcock, Axel Constant, Karl Friston & Maxwell J. D. Ramstead - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use.Sarah Brown‐Schmidt & Melissa C. Duff - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):722-736.
    During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners—their common ground—serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in common ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and common ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of common ground in (...)
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  • The Effect of Information Overlap on Communication Effectiveness.Shali Wu & Boaz Keysar - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (1):169-181.
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  • Intersubjectivity: Towards a Dialogical Analysis.Alex Gillespie & Flora Cornish - 2010 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 40 (1):19-46.
    Intersubjectivity refers to the variety of possible relations between perspectives. It is indispensable for understanding human social behaviour. While theoretical work on intersubjectivity is relatively sophisticated, methodological approaches to studying intersubjectivity lag behind. Most methodologies assume that individuals are the unit of analysis. In order to research intersubjectivity, however, methodologies are needed that take relationships as the unit of analysis. The first aim of this article is to review existing methodologies for studying intersubjectivity. Four methodological approaches are reviewed: comparative self-report, (...)
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  • Collective Contexts in Conversation: Grounding by Proxy.Arash Eshghi & Patrick G. T. Healey - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):299-324.
    Anecdotal evidence suggests that participants in conversation can sometimes act as a coalition. This implies a level of conversational organization in which groups of individuals form a coherent unit. This paper investigates the implications of this phenomenon for psycholinguistic and semantic models of shared context in dialog. We present a corpus study of multiparty dialog which shows that, in certain circumstances, people with different levels of overt involvement in a conversation, that is, one responding and one not, can nonetheless access (...)
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  • Generating References in Naturalistic Face‐to‐Face and Phone‐Mediated Dialog Settings.Dominique Knutsen, Christine Ros & Ludovic Le Bigot - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):796-818.
    During dialog, references are presented, accepted, and potentially reused. Two experiments were conducted to examine reuse in a naturalistic setting. In Experiment 1, where the participants interacted face to face, self-presented references and references accepted through verbatim repetition were reused more. Such biases persisted after the end of the interaction. In Experiment 2, where the participants interacted over the phone, reference reuse mainly depended on whether the participant could see the landmarks being referred to, although this bias seemed to be (...)
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  • Imposing Cognitive Constraints on Reference Production: The Interplay Between Speech and Gesture During Grounding.Ingrid Masson‐Carro, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):819-836.
    Past research has sought to elucidate how speakers and addressees establish common ground in conversation, yet few studies have focused on how visual cues such as co-speech gestures contribute to this process. Likewise, the effect of cognitive constraints on multimodal grounding remains to be established. This study addresses the relationship between the verbal and gestural modalities during grounding in referential communication. We report data from a collaborative task where repeated references were elicited, and a time constraint was imposed to increase (...)
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  • Language Acquisition Meets Language Evolution.Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (7):1131-1157.
    Recent research suggests that language evolution is a process of cultural change, in which linguistic structures are shaped through repeated cycles of learning and use by domain-general mechanisms. This paper draws out the implications of this viewpoint for understanding the problem of language acquisition, which is cast in a new, and much more tractable, form. In essence, the child faces a problem of induction, where the objective is to coordinate with others (C-induction), rather than to model the structure of the (...)
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  • Two- and Four-Year-Olds Learn to Adapt Referring Expressions to Context: Effects of Distracters and Feedback on Referential Communication.Danielle Matthews, Jessica Butcher, Elena Lieven & Michael Tomasello - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):184-210.
    Children often refer to things ambiguously but learn not to from responding to clarification requests. We review and explore this learning process here. In Study 1, eighty-four 2- and 4-year-olds were tested for their ability to request stickers from either (a) a small array with one dissimilar distracter or (b) a large array containing similar distracters. When children made ambiguous requests, they received either general feedback or specific questions about which of two options they wanted. With training, children learned to (...)
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  • Effects of Ambiguous Gestures and Language on the Time Course of Reference Resolution.Max M. Louwerse & Adrian Bangerter - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1517-1529.
    Two eye-tracking experiments investigated how and when pointing gestures and location descriptions affect target identification. The experiments investigated the effect of gestures and referring expressions on the time course of fixations to the target, using videos of human gestures and human voice, and animated gestures and synthesized speech. Ambiguous, yet informative pointing gestures elicited attention and facilitated target identification, akin to verbal location descriptions. Moreover, target identification was superior when both pointing gestures and verbal location descriptions were used. These findings (...)
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  • Convention and Common Ground.Bart Geurts - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (2):115-129.
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