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Aristotle's metaphysics

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2016)

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  1. What Makes Us Essentially Different? 2007.David L. Thompson - manuscript
    The sameness and difference of entities depend on context or horizon and these horizons may be either synchronous or diachronic. Money and qualia are examples of identity within synchronic contexts. Music, biological functions, and cultural roles are defined by their diachronic horizons. The diachronic cultural and narrative contexts of selves are what makes them distinctively different.
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  • Aristotle's Theory of Abstraction.Allan Bäck - 2014 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    This book investigates Aristotle’s views on abstraction and explores how he uses it. In this work, the author follows Aristotle in focusing on the scientific detail first and then approaches the metaphysical claims, and so creates a reconstructed theory that explains many puzzles of Aristotle’s thought. Understanding the details of his theory of relations and abstraction further illuminates his theory of universals. Some of the features of Aristotle’s theory of abstraction developed in this book include: abstraction is a relation; perception (...)
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  • Four Different Views of Scientific Knowledge and the Birth of Modern Relativism: The Very Important Challenge Facing Reformed Churches in a Western World.Nicolaas J. Gronum - 2018 - HTS Theological Studies 74 (4):1-9.
    Theologians are used to pointing the finger at European continental postmodernism when dealing with modern relativism. This article addresses a problem that is seldom highlighted within theology: modern relativism is the result of a series of epistemological discussions that took place during the early Enlightenment between scholars such as Rene Descartes, John Locke and Immanuel Kant. They were reacting, in part, to Aristotle’s metaphysics and logic. When the whole picture unravels, one immediately sees that modern relativism is deeply ingrained in (...)
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  • Das Eigentliche des Todes. Ein Beitrag Zur Be-Lebung der Debatte Über Hirntod Und TransplantationThe Heart of Death. Re-Animating the Debate on Brain Death and Transplantation.Christian Erk - 2014 - Ethik in der Medizin 26 (2):121-135.
    Der vorliegende Artikel plädiert dafür, die meist auf die Aspekte Todesdefinition, -kriterium und -feststellung fokussierte Diskussion über die moralische (Un-)Zulässigkeit der Spende und Transplantation vitaler Organe aufzubrechen und beim Nachdenken darüber das zum Ausgangspunkt der Überlegungen zu machen, was mit dem Tod eigentlich verloren geht, nämlich das Leben. Nach einer Antwort auf die Frage „Was ist Leben?“ suchend wird hierbei aufgezeigt, dass Leben nicht auf das Vorhandensein gewisser beobachtbarer physiologischer Größen reduzierbar ist, sondern in seinem wesentlichen Kern nur mit den (...)
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  • The Case for the Green Kant: A Defense and Application of a Kantian Approach to Environmental Ethics.Zachary T. Vereb - 2019 - Dissertation, University of South Florida
    Environmental philosophers have argued that Kant’s philosophy offers little for environmental issues. Furthermore, Kant scholars typically focus on humanity, ignoring the question of duties to the environment. In my dissertation, I turn to a number of underexploited texts in Kant’s work to show how both sides are misguided in neglecting the ecological potential of Kant, making the case for the green Kant at the intersection of Kant scholarship and environmental ethics. I build upon previous literature to argue that the green (...)
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  • Hylomorphism: What’s Not to Like?John Heil - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 11):2657-2670.
    The paper comprises an attempt on the part of the author to understand what hylomorphism is, both in its original Aristotelian guise, and in recent work by philosophers who defend what they call hylomorphism. Two species or strands of hylomorphism are identified and discussed. Universals, essences, and substantial and accidental forms make cameo appearances, and the implications of an Aristotelian ontology of stuffs are explored.
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  • On the Role of Counterfactuals in Inferring Causal Effects.Jochen Kluve - 2004 - Foundations of Science 9 (1):65-101.
    Causal inference in the empiricalsciences is based on counterfactuals. The mostcommon approach utilizes a statistical model ofpotential outcomes to estimate causal effectsof treatments. On the other hand, one leadingapproach to the study of causation inphilosophical logic has been the analysis ofcausation in terms of counterfactualconditionals. This paper discusses and connectsboth approaches to counterfactual causationfrom philosophy and statistics. Specifically, Ipresent the counterfactual account of causationin terms of Lewis's possible-world semantics,and reformulate the statistical potentialoutcome framework using counterfactualconditionals. This procedure highlights variousproperties and (...)
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  • Metaphysical Necessity: A Skeptical Perspective.Graham Priest - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 8):1873-1885.
    Many people hold that there is a distinctive notion of metaphysical necessity. In this paper I explain why I am skeptical about the view. I examine the sorts of considerations that are adduced for it, and argue that they meet equal and opposite considerations.
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  • Skepticism, Invulnerability, and Epistemological Dissatisfaction.Chris Ranalli - 2013 - In C. Illies & C. Schaefer (eds.), Metaphysics or Modernity? Bamberg University Press. pp. 113-148.
    How should we understand the relationship between the contents of our color, causal, modal, and evaluative beliefs, on the one hand, and color, causal, modal, and evaluative properties, on the other? According to Barry Stroud (2011), because of the nature of the contents of those types of beliefs, we should also think that what he calls a “negative metaphysical verdict” on the latter is not one that we could consistently maintain. The metaphysical project aims to arrive at an improved conception (...)
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  • On What Grounds What.Jonathan Schaffer - 2009 - In David Manley, David J. Chalmers & Ryan Wasserman (eds.), Metametaphysics: New Essays on the Foundations of Ontology. Oxford University Press. pp. 347-383.
    On the now dominant Quinean view, metaphysics is about what there is. Metaphysics so conceived is concerned with such questions as whether properties exist, whether meanings exist, and whether numbers exist. I will argue for the revival of a more traditional Aristotelian view, on which metaphysics is about what grounds what. Metaphysics so revived does not bother asking whether properties, meanings, and numbers exist (of course they do!) The question is whether or not they are fundamental.
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  • Abstractions and Implementations.Russ Abbott - manuscript
    Fundamental to Computer Science is the distinction between abstractions and implementations. When that distinction is applied to various philosophical questions it yields the following conclusions. -/- • EMERGENCE. It isn’t as mysterious as it’s made out to be; the possibility of strong emergence is not a threat to science. -/- • INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HIGHER-LEVEL ENTITIES. Physical interaction among higher-level entities is illusory. Abstract interactions are the source of emergence, new domains of knowledge, and complex systems. -/- • PHYSICS and the (...)
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  • Dewey and the Subject-Matter of Science.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2010 - In John Shook & Paul Kurtz (eds.), Dewey's Enduring Impact: Essays on America's Philosopher. Prometheus Books. pp. 73--86.
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  • Environmental Ethics.Roberta L. Millstein - 2013 - In K. Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer.
    A number of areas of biology raise questions about what is of value in the natural environment and how we ought to behave towards it: conservation biology, environmental science, and ecology, to name a few. Based on my experience teaching students from these and similar majors, I argue that the field of environmental ethics has much to teach these students. They come to me with pent-up questions and a feeling that more is needed to fully engage in their subjects, and (...)
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  • John Locke's Contemporaries' Reaction Against the Theory of Substratum in Metaphysics or Modernity? Simon Baumgartner, Thimo Heisenberg and Sebastian Krebs (Eds.).Mihretu P. Guta - 2013 - In Thimo Heisenberg and Sebastian Krebs Simon Baumgartner (ed.), Anthology. Bamberg University Press.. pp. 9-28.
    The goal of this paper is to critically examine the objections of John Locke’s contemporaries against the theory of substance or substratum. Locke argues in Essay that substratum is the bearer of the properties of a particular substance. Locke also claims that we have no knowledge of substratum. But Locke’s claim about our ignorance as to what substratum is, is contentious. That is, if we don’t know what substratum is, then what is the point of proposing it as a bearer (...)
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  • Politics of Flight : A Philosophical Refuge.T. Rahimy - 2017 - Dissertation, Erasmus University Rotterdam
    In this research, the political relationality in-between life and expression is viewed on through Deleuze and Guattari’s rhizomatic anti-methodology. In the first part, the methodological context is elaborated and brought into relation with Arendt and Agamben's work. After Part I Dispositioning a Milieu in which I dispose the conceptual and paradigmatic frameworks of thinking within politics of flight; in Part II Exposition of Milieus the diversity of practices within the politics of flight are mapped out. This provides a politico-philosophical diagnosis (...)
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  • Skill Transmittance in Science Education.Brandon Boesch - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (1-2):45-61.
    It is widely argued that the skills of scientific expertise are tacit, meaning that they are difficult to study. In this essay, I draw on work from the philosophy of action about the nature of skills to show that there is another access point for the study of skills—namely, skill transmission in science education. I will begin by outlining Small’s Aristotelian account of skills, including a brief exposition of its advantages over alternative accounts of skills. He argues that skills exist (...)
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  • Michelangelo, the Duck and the Rabbit: Towards a Robust Account of Modes of Existence.Juan Felipe Miranda Medina & Marisol Cristel Galarza Flores - 2020 - Public Journal of Semiotics 9 (2):1-29.
    The concept of modes of existence of semiotic entities underlies (post)Greimasian semiotics, yet it seems to have received little attention. Modes of existence can be used in different senses. For Greimas, from the perspective of narrative semiotics, when Michelangelo first receives a block of marble and decides to sculpt the David, his intention is in a virtual mode; as Michelangelo progresses he ends up bringing the David into existence, and his intention comes to the realized mode. In Fontanille’s tensive semiotics, (...)
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