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  1. Talking the Talk: Enhancing Clinical Ethics with Health Literacy Best Practices.Jamie Carlin Watson - 2019 - HEC Forum 31 (3):177-199.
    A significant proportion of the U.S. population exhibits low health literacy. Evidence suggests that low health literacy is correlated with higher medical costs and poorer health outcomes. Even more concerning, evidence suggests that low health literacy threatens patients’ and families’ autonomy and exacerbates injustices in patients who are already vulnerable to difficulties navigating the health care system. There is also, however, increasing evidence that health literacy interventions—including initiatives such as plain language practices and teach-back—improve comprehension and usefulness of health care (...)
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  • From Libertarian Paternalism to Nudging—and Beyond.Adrien Barton & Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (3):341-359.
  • Ethical Issues Surrounding the Provider Initiated Opt – Out Prenatal HIV Screening Practice in Sub – Saharan Africa: A Literature Review.Luchuo Engelbert Bain, Kris Dierickx & Kristien Hens - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-12.
    BackgroundPrevention of mother to child transmission of HIV remains a key public health priority in most developing countries. The provider Initiated Opt – Out Prenatal HIV Screening Approach, recommended by the World Health Organization lately has been adopted and translated into policy in most Sub – Saharan African countries. To better ascertain the ethical reasons for or against the use of this approach, we carried out a literature review of the ethics literature.MethodsPapers published in English and French Languages between 1990 (...)
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  • How to Respond to Resistiveness Towards Assistive Technologies Among Persons with Dementia.Anders Nordgren - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (3):411-421.
    It is a common experience among care professionals that persons with dementia often say ‘no’ to conventional caring measures such as taking medication, eating or having a shower. This tendency to say ‘no’ may also concern the use of assistive technologies such as fall detectors, mobile safety alarms, Internet for social contact and robots. This paper provides practical recommendations for care professionals in home health care and social care about how to respond to such resistiveness towards assistive technologies. Apart from (...)
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  • Nudging in Nursing.Anne Helene Mortensen, Marita Nordhaug & Vibeke Lohne - 2019 - Nursing Ethics 26 (6):1601-1610.
    Nudging is a concept in behavioural science, political theory and economics that proposes indirect suggestions to try to achieve non-forced compliance and to influence the decision making and behaviour of groups and individuals. Researchers in medical ethics are currently discussing whether nudging is ethically permissible in healthcare. In this article, we examine current knowledge about how different decisions are made and how this decision-making process pertains to patients. We view this knowledge in light of the nursing project and the ongoing (...)
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  • Bringing Prosocial Values to Translational, Disease-Specific Stem Cell Research.Reuben G. Sass - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):16.
    Disease-specific stem cell therapies, created from induced pluripotent stem cell lines containing the genetic defects responsible for a particular disease, have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of refractory chronic diseases. Given their capacity to differentiate into any human cell type, these cell lines might be reprogrammed to correct a disease-causing genetic defect in any tissue or organ, in addition to offering a more clinically realistic model for testing new drugs and studying disease mechanisms. Clinical translation of these therapies provides (...)
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  • Blameworthy Bumping? Investigating Nudge’s Neglected Cousin.Ainar Miyata-Sturm - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):257-264.
    The realm of non-rational influence, which includes nudging, is home to many other morally interesting phenomena. In this paper, I introduce the term bumping, to discuss the category of unintentional non-rational influence. Bumping happens constantly, wherever people make choices in environments where they are affected by other people. For instance, doctors will often bump their patients as patients make choices about what treatments to pursue. In some cases, these bumps will systematically tend to make patients’ decisions worse. Put another way: (...)
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  • Medicine, Market and Communication: Ethical Considerations in Regard to Persuasive Communication in Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Services.Manuel Schaper & Silke Schicktanz - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):56.
    Commercial genetic testing offered over the internet, known as direct-to-consumer genetic testing, currently is under ethical attack. A common critique aims at the limited validation of the tests as well as the risk of psycho-social stress or adaption of incorrect behavior by users triggered by misleading health information. Here, we examine in detail the specific role of advertising communication of DTC GT companies from a medical ethical perspective. Our argumentative analysis departs from the starting point that DTC GT operates at (...)
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  • The Limits of Empowerment: How to Reframe the Role of mHealth Tools in the Healthcare Ecosystem.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-25.
    This article highlights the limitations of the tendency to frame health- and wellbeing-related digital tools as empowering devices, especially as they play an increasingly important role in the National Health Service in the UK. It argues that mHealth technologies should instead be framed as digital companions. This shift from empowerment to companionship is advocated by showing the conceptual, ethical, and methodological issues challenging the narrative of empowerment, and by arguing that such challenges, as well as the risk of medical paternalism, (...)
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  • When Respecting Autonomy Is Harmful: A Clinically Useful Approach to the Nocebo Effect.Daniel Londyn Menkes, Jason Adam Wasserman & John T. Fortunato - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):36-42.
    Nocebo effects occur when an adverse effect on the patient arises from the patient's own negative expectations. In accordance with informed consent, providers often disclose information that results in unintended adverse outcomes for the patient. While this may adhere to the principle of autonomy, it violates the doctrine of “primum non nocere,” given that side-effect disclosure may cause those side effects. In this article we build off previous work, particularly by Wells and Kaptchuk and by Cohen :3–11.[Taylor & Francis Online], (...)
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  • Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.Donald Brunnquell & Christopher M. Michaelson - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (7):29-38.
    “Moral hazard” is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general (...)
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  • When Aid Is a Good Thing: Trusting Relationships as Autonomy Support in Health Care Settings.Saskia K. Nagel - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):49-51.
  • The Ethical Merits of Nudges in the Clinical Setting.Ester Moher & Khaled El Emam - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):54-55.
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  • Good Arguments, Wrong Target: Equivalence and the Compatibilist View.Zak Kopeikin - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):51-53.
  • Doctors, Patients, and Nudging in the Clinical Context—Four Views on Nudging and Informed Consent.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):28-38.
    In an analysis of recent work on nudging we distinguish three positions on the relationship between nudging founded in libertarian paternalism and the protection of personal autonomy through informed consent. We argue that all three positions fail to provide adequate protection of personal autonomy in the clinical context. Acknowledging that nudging may be beneficial, we suggest a fourth position according to which nudging and informed consent are valuable in different domains of interaction.
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  • On Nudging and Informed Consent.Eric Chwang - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):41-42.
  • What's in a Name? Conceptual Confusion About Death and Consent in Donation After Cardiac Determination of Death.Mark D. Fox, Rachel Budavich, Scott Gelfand, Michael R. Gomez, Ric T. Munoz & Jan Slater - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):12-14.
  • Nudging in Context: Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Nudging and Informed Consent”.Shlomo Cohen - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (11):W1 - W6.
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  • Autonomy Support to Foster Individuals' Flourishing.Saskia K. Nagel & Peter B. Reiner - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):36 - 37.
  • “Nudging” and Informed Consent Revisited: Why “Nudging” Fails in the Clinical Context.Søren Holm & Thomas Ploug - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):29 - 31.
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  • On Nudging and Informed Consent—Four Key Undefended Premises.J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):31 - 33.
  • Habits, Nudges, and Consent.Ezio Di Nucci - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):27 - 29.
    I distinguish between 'hard nudges' and 'soft nudges', arguing that it is possible to show that the latter can be compatible with informed consent - as Cohen has recently suggested; but that the real challenge is the compatibility of the former. Hard nudges are the more effective nudges because they work on less than conscious mechanisms such as those underlying our habits: whether those influences - which are often beyond the subject's awareness - can be reconciled with informed consent in (...)
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  • Nudging the Older Person Into Care: An End to the Dilemma?Julian C. Hughes, Marie Poole & Stephen J. Louw - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):34 - 36.
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  • Should We Nudge Informed Consent?Thom Brooks - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):22-23.
    Exploring the use of nudges and informed consent in medical ethics.
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  • Nudging in Interpersonal Contexts.Yashar Saghai - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):33-34.
    In “Nudging and Informed Consent,” ShlomoCohen (2013) attempts to address the common objection against nudges that they are autonomy-thwarting because they foster irrationality. He explicitly focuses on informed consent, which he contrasts with the policy context in which health nudges are usually discussed. I think Cohen’s rich article is a significant contribution to the nudge literature. However, I have some concerns with the way he frames and motivates his inquiry...
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  • Recent Insights Into Decision-Making and Their Implications for Informed Consent.Irene M. L. Vos, Maartje H. N. Schermer & Ineke L. L. E. Bolt - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (11):734-738.
    Research from behavioural sciences shows that people reach decisions in a much less rational and well-considered way than was often assumed. The doctrine of informed consent, which is an important ethical principle and legal requirement in medical practice, is being challenged by these insights into decision-making and real-world choice behaviour. This article discusses the implications of recent insights of research on decision-making behaviour for the informed consent doctrine. It concludes that there is a significant tension between the often non-rational choice (...)
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  • Nudging, Informed Consent and Bullshit.William Simkulet - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):536-542.
    Some philosophers have argued that during the process of obtaining informed consent, physicians should try to nudge their patients towards consenting to the option the physician believes best, where a nudge is any influence that is expected to predictably alter a person’s behaviour without restricting her options. Some proponents of nudging even argue that it is a necessary and unavoidable part of securing informed consent. Here I argue that nudging is incompatible with obtaining informed consent. I assume informed consent requires (...)
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  • Nudging in the Clinic: The Ethical Implications of Differences in Doctors’ and Patients’ Point of View.David Avitzour & Ittay Nissan-Rozen - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):183-189.
    There is an extensive ethical debate regarding the justifiability of doctors nudging towards healthy behaviour and better health-related choices. One line of argument in favour of nudging is based on empirical findings, according to which a healthy majority among the public support nudges. In this paper, we show, based on an experiment we conducted, that, in health-related choices, people’s ethical attitudes to nudging are strongly affected by the point of view from which the nudge is considered. Significant differences have been (...)
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  • Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment.Noah Linder, Therese Lindahl & Sara Borgström - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Experimental Evidence Showing That Physician Guidance Promotes Perceptions of Physician Empathy.Daniel Russell Hans, Priyanka Dubé & Jason Adam Wasserman - 2016 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 7 (3):135-139.
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  • The Beneficent Nudge Program and Epistemic Injustice.Evan Riley - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (3):597-616.
    Is implementing the beneficent nudge program morally permissible in worlds like ours? I argue that there is reason for serious doubt. I acknowledge that beneficent nudging is highly various, that nudges are in some circumstances morally permissible and even called for, and that nudges may exhibit respect for genuine autonomy. Nonetheless, given the risk of epistemic injustice that nudges typically pose, neither the moral permissibility of beneficent nudging in the abstract, nor its case-by-case vindication, appears sufficient to justify implementing a (...)
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  • Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-Ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration.Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6):1669-1688.
    Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistent with the adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuable mechanism to improve individuals’ well-being. In this paper, I refer to this tension as the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent A would like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B’s choices but, at the same time, A is (...)
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  • Presumed Consent Models and Health Information Exchanges: Hard Nudges and Ambiguous Benefits.Ricky T. Munoz, Mark D. Fox & Michael R. Gomez - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):14 - 15.
  • Consent for Data on Consent.Mollie Gerver - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):799-816.
    There are instances where the provider of an intervention, such as surgery, has failed to obtain necessary informed consent from the recipient of the intervention. Perhaps the surgeon has failed to warn the patient that she may go into a coma, or even be killed, from the surgery. Sometimes, as a result of this intervention, the recipient cannot give informed consent to researchers for the release of their personal data precisely because of the intervention. If they are in a coma, (...)
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  • Evidence-Based Nudging: Best Practices in Informed Consent.Ricky Munoz, Mark Fox, Michael Gomez & Scott Gelfand - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):43-45.
  • A Philosophical Misunderstanding at the Basis of Opposition to Nudging.Shlomo Cohen - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):39-41.
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  • Nudging and the Complicated Real Life of “Informed Consent”.Charles Douglas & Emily Proudfoot - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):16-17.
  • An Analysis of the Impact of Brain-Computer Interfaces on Autonomy.Orsolya Friedrich, Eric Racine, Steffen Steinert, Johannes Pömsl & Ralf J. Jox - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-13.
    Research conducted on Brain-Computer Interfaces has grown considerably during the last decades. With the help of BCIs, users can gain a wide range of functions. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the impact of BCIs on autonomy. To this end, we introduce three abilities that most accounts of autonomy take to be essential: the ability to use information and knowledge to produce reasons; the ability to ensure that intended actions are effectively realized ; and the ability to enact (...)
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  • At Odds with the Truth.William Simkulet - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):548-550.
    > The bullshitter may not deceive us, or even intend to do so, either about the facts or about what he takes the facts to be. What he does necessarily attempt to deceive us about is his enterprise. His only indispensably distinctive characteristic is that in a certain way he misrepresents what he is up to. 1 - Harry Frankfurt In both lying and truth-telling, the speaker intends the audience to believe what she says is true; that her enterprise is (...)
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  • A Republican Argument Against Nudging and Informed Consent.Paul Hamilton - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (3):267-282.
    I argue that it is impermissible to use nudges as a tool to influence patients in the context of informed consent. The motivation for such nudges is that their use can help reconcile potential conflicts between a physician’s duty of beneficence and duty to respect patient autonomy. I argue that their use places physicians in a position of domination over patients. That is, it violates the republican freedom of patients because it grants physicians the power to arbitrarily interfere. I also (...)
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  • Nudge or Grudge? Choice Architecture and Parental Decision‐Making.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby & Douglas J. Opel - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (2):33-39.
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  • Nudging Without Ethical Fudging: Clarifying Physician Obligations to Avoid Ethical Compromise.Emily Bell, Veljko Dubljevic & Eric Racine - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):18-19.
    In the article “Nudging and Informed Consent”, Cohen argues that the use of “nudging” by physicians in the clinical encounter may be ethically warranted because it results in an informed consent where obligations for beneficence and respect for autonomy are both met. However, the author's overenthusiastic support for nudging and his quick dismissal of shared decision-making leads him to assume that “soft” manipulation is un-problematic and that “wisdom” on the side of medical professionals will suffice to guard against abuse. Opposing (...)
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  • Context Is All Important in Investigating Attitudes: Acceptability Depends on the Nature of the Nudge, Who Nudges, and Who Is Nudged.Jayne Lucke - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):24-25.
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  • Trust Versus Paternalism.Mark Sagoff - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):20-21.
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  • And as for the Nudgees?Giles R. Scofield - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):25-27.
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  • Nudging, Autonomy, and Valid Consent: Context Matters.Franklin G. Miller & Luke Gelinas - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):12-13.
  • The Oy s of Yiddish.Paul Root Wolpe - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):1-2.
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