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  1. Towards an Objective Theory of Rationality.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Drawing on insights from Imre Lakatos' seminal work on theories of rationality, Leslie Allan develops seven criteria for rational theory choice that avoid presuming the rationality of the scientific enterprise. He shows how his axioms of rationality follow from the general demands of an objectivist epistemology. Allan concludes by considering two weighty objections to his framework.
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  • On a Straw Man in the Philosophy of Science - A Defense of the Received View.Sebastian Lutz - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (1):77–120.
    I defend the Received View on scientific theories as developed by Carnap, Hempel, and Feigl against a number of criticisms based on misconceptions. First, I dispute the claim that the Received View demands axiomatizations in first order logic, and the further claim that these axiomatizations must include axioms for the mathematics used in the scientific theories. Next, I contend that models are important according to the Received View. Finally, I argue against the claim that the Received View is intended to (...)
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  • Decidability by Filtrations for Graded Normal Logics (Graded Modalities V).Claudio Cerrato - 1994 - Studia Logica 53 (1):61 - 73.
  • My Route to Arithmetization.Solomon Feferman - 1997 - Theoria 63 (3):168-181.
    I had the pleasure of renewing my acquaintance with Per Lindström at the meeting of the Seventh Scandinavian Logic Symposium, held in Uppsala in August 1996. There at lunch one day, Per said he had long been curious about the development of some of the ideas in my paper [1960] on the arithmetization of metamathematics. In particular, I had used the construction of a non-standard definition !* of the set of axioms of P (Peano Arithmetic) to show that P + (...)
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  • Le réalisme des hypothèses et la Partial Interpretation View.Philippe Mongin - 1988 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 18 (3):281-325.
    The article discusses Friedman's classic claim that economics can be based on irrealistic assumptions. It exploits Samuelson's distinction between two "F-twists" (that is, "it is an advantage for an economic theory to use irrealistic assumptions" vs "the more irrealistic the assumptions, the better the economic theory"), as well as Nagel's distinction between three philosophy-of-science construals of the basic claim. On examination, only one of Nagel's construals seems promising enough. It involves the neo-positivistic distinction between theoretical and non-theoretical ("observable") terms; so (...)
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  • Vaught's Theorem on Axiomatizability by a Scheme.Albert Visser - 2012 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (3):382-402.
    In his 1967 paper Vaught used an ingenious argument to show that every recursively enumerable first order theory that directly interprets the weak system VS of set theory is axiomatizable by a scheme. In this paper we establish a strengthening of Vaught's theorem by weakening the hypothesis of direct interpretability of VS to direct interpretability of the finitely axiomatized fragment VS2 of VS. This improvement significantly increases the scope of the original result, since VS is essentially undecidable, but VS2 has (...)
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  • Craig’s Trick and a Non-Sequential System for the Lambek Calculus and its Fragments.Stepan Kuznetsov, Valentina Lugovaya & Anastasiia Ryzhova - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
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  • The Realism/Antirealism Debate in the Philosophy of Science.Radu Dudau - unknown
    This is a defense of the doctrine of scientific realism. SR is defined through the following two claims: Most essential unobservables posited by the well-established current scientific theories exist independently of our minds. We know our well-established scientific theories to be approximately true. I first offer positive argumentation for SR. I begin with the so-called 'success arguments' for SR: 1) scientific theories most of the times entail successful predictions; 2) science is methodologically successful in generating empirically successful theories. SR explains (...)
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  • Independent Axiomatizability of Sets of Sentences.Piotr Wojtylak - 1989 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 44 (3):259-299.
    This is an expository paper on the problem of independent axiomatization of any set of sentences. This subject was investigated in 50's and 60's, and was abandoned later on, though not all fundamental questions were settled then. Besides, some papers written at that time are hardly available today and there are mistakes and misunderstandings there. We would like to get back to that unfinished business to clarify the subject matter, correct mistakes and answer questions left open by others. We shall (...)
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  • Interpretation and Equivalence; or, Equivalence and Interpretation.Neil Dewar - unknown
    Philosophers of science spend a lot of time “interpreting” scientific theories. In this paper, I try to get a handle on what it is they might be up to. My main contention is that a certain picture of interpretation is widespread in contemporary philosophy of science: a picture according to which interpretation of theories is relevantly analogous to the interpretation of foreign literature. On this picture, which we might call the external account of theory-interpretation, meaning is to be imported into (...)
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  • Criteria of Empirical Significance: Foundations, Relations, Applications.Sebastian Lutz - 2012 - Dissertation, Utrecht University
    This dissertation consists of three parts. Part I is a defense of an artificial language methodology in philosophy and a historical and systematic defense of the logical empiricists' application of an artificial language methodology to scientific theories. These defenses provide a justification for the presumptions of a host of criteria of empirical significance, which I analyze, compare, and develop in part II. On the basis of this analysis, in part III I use a variety of criteria to evaluate the scientific (...)
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  • On Field's Nominalization of Physical Theories.Mate Szabo - unknown
    Quine and Putnam's Indispensability Argument claims that we must be ontologically committed to mathematical objects, because of the indispensability of mathematics in our best scientific theories. Indispensability means that physical theories refer to and quantify over mathematical entities such as sets, numbers and functions. In his famous book 'Science Without Numbers' Hartry Field argues that this is not the case. We can "nominalize" our physical theories, that is we can reformulate them in such a way that 1) the new version (...)
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  • The Coherence of Theories-Dependencies and Weights.Jason Jingshi Li, Rex Bing Hung Kwok & Norman Foo - unknown
    One way to evaluate and compare rival but potentially incompatible theories that account for the same set of observations is coherence. In this paper we take the quantitative notion of theory coherence as proposed by [Kwok, et.al. 98] and broaden its foundations. The generalisation will give a measure of the efficacy of a sub–theory as against single theory components. This also gives rise to notions of dependencies and couplings to account for how theory components interact with each other. Secondly we (...)
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  • Enumeration Reducibility and Partial Degrees.John Case - 1971 - Annals of Mathematical Logic 2 (4):419-439.
  • An Empiricist Criterion of Meaning.Yann Benétreau-Dupin - 2011 - South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):95-108.
    The meaning of scientific propositions is not always expressible in terms of observable phenomena. Such propositions involve generalizations, and also terms that are theoretical constructs. I study here how to assess the meaning of scientific propositions, that is, the specific import of theoretical terms. Empiricists have expressed a concern that scientific propositions, and theoretical terms, should always be, to some degree, related to observable consequences. We can see that the former empiricist criterion of meaning only implies for theoretical terms not (...)
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  • Truth, Ramsification, and the Pluralist's Revenge.Cory D. Wright - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):265–283.
    Functionalists about truth employ Ramsification to produce an implicit definition of the theoretical term _true_, but doing so requires determining that the theory introducing that term is itself true. A variety of putative dissolutions to this problem of epistemic circularity are shown to be unsatisfactory. One solution is offered on functionalists' behalf, though it has the upshot that they must tread on their anti-pluralist commitments.
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  • Theoretical Contingencies.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):541.
  • Behavioral and Statistical Theorists and Their Disciples.Leroy Wolins - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):540.
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  • Psychology: Toward the Mathematical Inner Man.James T. Townsend - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):539.
  • Behavior, Theories, and the Inner.Ernest Sosa - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):537.
  • The Question: Not Shall It Be, but Which Shall It Be?Charles P. Shimp - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):536.
  • Theories and Human Behavior.Morton L. Schagrin - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):536.
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  • The Dark Side of Skinnerian Epistemology.William W. Rozeboom - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):533.
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  • What Then Should We Do?Seth Roberts - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):532.
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  • Lessons From the History of Science?John M. Nicholas - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):530.
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  • Skinner's Philosophy of Method.R. J. Nelson - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):529.
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  • Should We Return to the Laboratory to Find Out About Learning?J. M. E. Moravcsik - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):529.
  • Cognitive Science: A Different Approach to Scientific Psychology.Richard Millward - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):527.
  • The Role of the Statistician in Psychology.F. H. C. Marriott - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):527.
  • The Challenge to Skinner's Theory of Behavior.Brian Mackenzie - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):526.
  • Behavior Theory: A Contradiction in Terms?R. Duncan Luce - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):525.
  • Real People, Ordinary Language, and Natural Measurement.Samuel M. Deitz - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):524.
  • Methods and Theories in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):511.
  • Too Naturalist and Not Naturalist Enough: Reply to Horsten.Luca Incurvati - 2008 - Erkenntnis 69 (2):261 - 274.
    Leon Horsten has recently claimed that the class of mathematical truths coincides with the class of theorems of ZFC. I argue that the naturalistic character of Horsten’s proposal undermines his contention that this claim constitutes an analogue of a thesis that Daniel Isaacson has advanced for PA. I argue, moreover, that Horsten’s defence of his claim against an obvious objection makes use of a distinction which is not available to him given his naturalistic approach. I suggest a way out of (...)
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  • Carnap's Ramseyfications Defended.Thomas Uebel - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (1):71-87.
    This paper seeks to evaluate the potential of the Newman objection to function as an immanent critique of Carnap's use of the Ramsey method of regimenting scientific theories. Stress is laid on the distinctive way in which ramseyfications are used by Carnap to formulate the analytic/synthetic distinction for the theoretical language and on the difference between the ontological and the epistemic readings of the Newman objection. While the former reading of the Newman objection is rejected as trading on an assumption (...)
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  • Pragmatics and Intensional Logic.Richard Montague - 1970 - Dialectica 24 (4):277-302.
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  • Five Arguments Against Craigian Transcriptionism.C. A. Hooker - 1968 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):265 – 276.
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  • Craig's Theorem, Ramsey-Sentences, and Scientific Instrumentalism.James W. Cornman - 1972 - Synthese 25 (1-2):82 - 128.
  • Pragmatics and Intensional Logic.Richard Montague - 1970 - Synthese 22 (1-2):68--94.
  • Are Skinner's Warnings Still Relevant to Current Psychology?Marc N. Richelle - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):531-532.
  • The Road to Two Theorems of Logic.William Craig - 2008 - Synthese 164 (3):333 - 339.
    Work on how to axiomatize the subtheories of a first-order theory in which only a proper subset of their extra-logical vocabulary is being used led to a theorem on recursive axiomatizability and to an interpolation theorem for first-order logic. There were some fortuitous events and several logicians played a helpful role.
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  • On Some Properties of Humanly Known and Humanly Knowable Mathematics.Jason L. Megill, Tim Melvin & Alex Beal - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):81-88.
    We argue that the set of humanly known mathematical truths (at any given moment in human history) is finite and so recursive. But if so, then given various fundamental results in mathematical logic and the theory of computation (such as Craig’s in J Symb Log 18(1): 30–32(1953) theorem), the set of humanly known mathematical truths is axiomatizable. Furthermore, given Godel’s (Monash Math Phys 38: 173–198, 1931) First Incompleteness Theorem, then (at any given moment in human history) humanly known mathematics must (...)
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  • Inductive Systematization: Definition and a Critical Survey.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1972 - Synthese 25 (1-2):25 - 81.
    In 1958, to refute the argument known as the theoretician's dilemma, Hempel suggested that theoretical terms might be logically indispensable for inductive systematization of observational statements. This thesis, in some form or another, has later been supported by Scheffler, Lehrer, and Tuomela, and opposed by Bohnert, Hooker, Stegmüller, and Cornman. In this paper, a critical survey of this discussion is given. Several different putative definitions of the crucial notion inductive systematization achieved by a theory are discussed by reference to the (...)
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  • Theories with Effectively Inseparable Nuclei.Raymond M. Smullyan - 1960 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 6 (15-22):219-224.
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  • Moral Epistemology: The Mathematics Analogy.Justin Clarke-Doane - 2014 - Noûs 48 (2):238-255.
    There is a long tradition comparing moral knowledge to mathematical knowledge. In this paper, I discuss apparent similarities and differences between knowledge in the two areas, realistically conceived. I argue that many of these are only apparent, while others are less philosophically significant than might be thought. The picture that emerges is surprising. There are definitely differences between epistemological arguments in the two areas. However, these differences, if anything, increase the plausibility of moral realism as compared to mathematical realism. It (...)
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  • Gödel’s Incompleteness Phenomenon—Computationally.Saeed Salehi - 2014 - Philosophia Scientae 18:23-37.
  • Wissenschaftslogik: The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science.Michael Friedman - 2008 - Synthese 164 (3):385-400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  • Reflection Principles and Their Use for Establishing the Complexity of Axiomatic Systems.G. Kreisel & A. Lévy - 1968 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 14 (7-12):97-142.
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  • . . .And Away From a Theory of Explanation Itself.Christopher Hitchcock - 2005 - Synthese 143 (1-2):109-124.
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  • Tolerance and Voluntarism.Paul Dicken - 2013 - Philosophical Papers 42 (1):25 - 48.
    Carnap's mature philosophy of science is an attempt to dissolve the scientific realism debate altogether as a philosophical pseudo-question. His argument depends upon a logico-semantic thesis regarding the structure of a scientific theory, and more importantly, a meta-ontological thesis regarding the explication of existence claims. The latter commits Carnap to a distinction between the analytic and the synthetic, which was allegedly refuted by Quine. The contemporary philosophy of science has therefore sought to distance itself from logico-semantic considerations, and has pursued (...)
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